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distribution and seasonal prevalence of bovine lungworms in selected areas in western montana.in a survey (oct, 1967, through aug, 1969) of the distribution and seasonal prevalence of bovine lungworms in beef herds in 3 western montana counties (park, gallatin, and ravalli), infected cattle were detected in 27 of 35 herds. results of 2,125 fecal examinations indicated that 7.8% of all cattle were infected with dictyocaulus viviparus. lungworms were found in 6.6% of 1,038 calves (less than 12 months old), 11.5% of 755 yearlings (1 to 2 years old), and 3.3% of 332 cows (more than 2 years o ...1975123141
observations on epizootiology and distribution of elaeophora schneideri in montana ruminants.seventy-four moose, 111 elk, 20 mule deer, 8 white-tailed deer, 26 prong-horn antelope, 42 domestic sheep and 3 bighorn sheep from montana or northwestern wyoming were examined post-mortem for evidence of elaeophora schneideri infection in 1973-74. fifteen percent of the mule deer and four percent of the moose were positive for adult arterial worms. this constitutes the first report of e. schneideri in mule deer in montana. no gross signs of blindness or other neurologic disorder were evident in ...1975127848
dermacentor albipictus on moose (alces alces) in ontario.fifty-five moose (alces alces) collected from 1963 to 1965 in the chapleau crown game preserve of northern ontario were examined for ectoparasites. dermacentor albipictus was the only parasite recovered. d. albipictus was absent from 15 moose examined during june, july and august; first observed on 1 or 2 moose examined in september; and present on all 38 moose collected from october to may. ticks were not evenly distributed on the body. infestations varied from 32 to 13,490 ticks/moose for 14 i ...1979480519
aquatic indicator bacteria in the high alpine zone.selected waters from the high alpine zone within grand teton national park, wyoming, were analyzed for populations of indicator bacteria during the past three summers to determine the influence of various factors on the quality of these waters. in general the water quality was not significantly influenced by the presence or absence of human visitors but rather by the nature of the biological community through which the streams flowed. a minority of the coliforms that were recovered from all of t ...1976826218
further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in wyoming.blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (cervus canadensis), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana), moose (alces alces), and bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of trypanosoma sp. infection. eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. par ...1976933315
chymotrypsins from the deer (cervidae) family. isolation, partial characterization and primary-structure studies of chymotrypsins a and b from both moose (alces alces) and elk (cervus elaphus) pancreas.1. an anionic and a cationic chymotrypsin (ec 3.4.21.1) were isolated from the pancreas glands of the moose (alces alces) and elk (cervus elaphus). the a and b chymotrypsins from each species were purified to homogeneity by (nh4)2so4 fractionation, affinity chromatography on 4-phenylbutylamine-sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on deae- and cm-cellulose. 2. the molecular weight and ph optimum of each chymotrypsin were similar to those of the corresponding ox a and b chymotrypsins. 3. the ...1976949318
the amino acid sequences of reindeer, moose and fallow deer pancreatic ribonucleases. 19751157925
the use of isoelectric focusing to identify rhinoceros keratins.keratins represent the principal structural proteins of hair. they are also found in horn, nail, claw, hoof, and feather. hair and nail samples from human and canine sources and hair samples from mule deer, white tail deer, cat, moose, elk, antelope, caribou, raccoon, and goat were studied. parrot and goose feathers were also analyzed. keratins are polymorphic, and species differences are known to exist. proteinaceous extracts of deer and antelope antlers and bovine and rhinoceros horn were prep ...19901691773
a bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease-like syndrome in moose (alces alces): investigations on the central nervous system.a disease of unknown aetiology has been observed in moose. the animals showed signs of a bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease-like syndrome, and central nervous disturbances. brains from adult female moose were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, virology, and bacteriology. the results indicate that the nervous signs were not associated with a spongiform encephalopathy. the lesions suggest a viral aetiology, although all the virological investigations ...19911801405
elaeophora schneideri in moose (alces alces) from colorado.two adult moose (alces alces) from colorado (usa) were naturally infected with elaeophora schneideri. both animals had patent infections indicating that moose may serve as definitive hosts. gross and histological lesions were characterized by fibromuscular intimal proliferation within the carotid arteries and rete mirabile cerebri. this is the first report of elaeophora schneideri in moose from colorado.19911829767
experimental brucella suis biovar 4 infection in a moose.a moose (alces alces gigas) was inoculated with brucella suis biovar 4 to better understand the effects of brucellosis in this species. serum antibody titers increased rapidly and peaked within 21 to 56 days. fever, leukocytosis, recumbency, anorexia and depression were observed starting 42 days post inoculation. brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from blood, lymph nodes, liver and spleen.19911920668
effects of r51163 on intake and metabolism in moose.r51163, a newly synthesized purine alkyl piperidine that produces reliable sedation in cattle, was tested in five adult bull moose (alces alces). compared with controls, all animals dosed with 0.4 mg/kg bw ate significantly (p less than 0.05) less dry matter for at least 1 wk after treatment. median estimates of resting metabolism, measured the day of injection, did not differ between treatment and control groups, although the coefficient of variation was almost two times larger for drugged (15% ...19912023310
attempts to transfer elaphostrongylus alces from moose (alces alces) to sheep and goats.six 1 year old female and 6 four months old male goats were inoculated different numbers of e. alces third-stage larvae. protostrongylid larvae were not detected in the faeces of these animals during the experiment. at the end of the experimental period the animals were euthanized and autopsied. neither parasites nor pathological lesions related to larval or adult stages of e. alces could be demonstrated.19902099618
survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in alberta, canada.during the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from alberta (canada) were collected for parasitological examination. most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 9 ...19902250321
prevalence of antibody to toxoplasma gondii in the moose (alces alces americana clinton) of nova scotia, canada.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated in the sera of 125 moose taken by hunters in 5 countries of nova scotia. nineteen of these sera (15%) were positive by the indirect passive hemagglutination test, with titers above 1:64. this study adds further evidence to the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii in the wildlife, extending this evidence to eastern canada. the possibility that humans may acquire toxoplasmosis by ingesting undercooked infected meat from game anima ...19902299521
comparative studies on megatrypanum trypanosomes from cervids.trypanosomes were isolated by culture from 2 out of 50 blood samples collected from reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.) in northern sweden and from a blood sample from a moose (alces alces) from southern sweden. the parasites were indistinguishable morphologically from other trypanosomes reported from cervids, both as epimastigotes in axenic culture at 27 degrees c and as bloodstream-like trypomastigotes cultured on mammalian fibroblasts at 37 degrees c. surface carbohydrate and isoenzyme comparison ...19902382100
bioenergetic consequences of alopecia induced by dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae) on moose.fasting metabolic rates, respiration rates, respiratory minute volumes, and fasted weights were measured on three yearling moose (alces alces (l.)) (artiodactyla: cervidae) infested with 50,000 winter ticks. dermacentor albipictus (packard) (acari: ixodidae), and on two uninfested controls. infestations produced no detectable effects on fasting metabolic rates or weight changes. the influence of tick-induced alopecia on lower critical temperatures could not be assessed because of warm temperatur ...19902388241
[harboring of helminth parasites by the european bison (bison bonasus l.) and deer (cervidae) in the białowieza forest].parasitological autopsy of 31 european bison , 9 red-deer and 3 roe-deer was made in białowieza forest in the period 1983-1988. together 20 species of nematodes were found, from them as much as 18 in bison , 6 in red-deer and 8 in roe-deer . the highest intensity and 100% of extensity was shown by nematodes from subfamily ostertagiinae. four species of this subfamily (o. leptospicularis, o. kolchida, s. boehmi i s. mathevossiani) have been permanently adapted by bison from cervids, however two s ...19892633504
instar development and disengagement rate of engorged female winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (acari:ixodidae), following single- and trickle-exposure of moose (alces alces).seven hand-reared moose (alces alces) calves and one yearling were infested with 30,000 larvae each of the winter tick. dermacentor albipictus, either by single- or trickle-exposure (1000/day). they were examined weekly for instar changes from september/october until late may. by 2 and 3 weeks post-exposure, most larvae on single- and trickle-infested moose, respectively, had fed and molted to nymphs. thereafter, tick development was similar between both infestation techniques. nymphs dominated ...19892714120
effect of dermacentor albipictus (acari:ixodidae) on blood composition, weight gain and hair coat of moose, alces alces.the physiological effects of the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, on moose, alces alces, were investigated. blood composition, weight gain, food intake and change in the hair coat of moose calves, four infested with d. albipictus larvae, and eight uninfested, were monitored. infested moose groomed extensively, apparently in response to feeding nymphal and adult ticks, and developed alopecia. other clinical signs included: chronic weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and tr ...19892714121
species of the genus elaphostrongylus parasite of swedish cervidae. a description of e. alces n. sp.a description of elaphostrongylus alces n. sp., a parasite of moose (alces alces l.), is given. the main features differing e. alces n. sp. from the other two investigated species are the bottle shaped oesophagus and the oval bursa, which is about 150 microns x 200 microns. e. rangiferi mitskevith, 1960, a parasite of reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus l.) and e. cervi cameron, 1931, a parasite of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) have both a club shaped or cylindrical oesophagus and a circular bur ...19892735702
locations of moose in northwestern canada with hair loss probably caused by the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae).five hundred two trappers representing 389 registered traplines in northern alberta, northern british columbia, northwest territories and yukon territory (canada) responded to a questionnaire on the occurrence of hair loss and the winter tick (dermacentor albipictus) on moose (alces alces). results suggested that winter ticks may occur as far as 62 degrees n. several sightings of moose with presumed tick-induced hair loss near kluane lake, yukon territory, suggest the possibility of introduction ...19892761020
evaluation of random sampling for estimating density of winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) on moose (alces alces) hides.densities of winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) were determined on each of 20 moose (alces alces) half-hides by dissolving 100 cm2 quadrats in potassium hydroxide solution. data were then used to determine the optimum sampling fraction for estimating tick densities. random sampling was applied to 20 additional half-hides of known tick density to assess the accuracy of the estimates. we conclude that random sampling of 15% of the quadrats produces a good estimate of tick density. total numbers ...19892807724
[ethmoid tumors in moose and roe deer].ethmoid tumors are expansively-infiltratively growing tumors of carcinomatous or sarcomatous nature, deriving from the mucous membrane of the ethmoid bone. in sweden, such tumors were found in 35 elks (alces a. alces) and 4 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) during the years 1947-1982, that means a frequency of about 1 and 0.1 per cent, respectively of the investigation material. however, in the free living elk and roe deer population, the frequency might be much lower. the tumors were malign, exten ...19852993995
[sarcocystis alceslatrans (apicomplexa) from a palaearctic elk (ruminantia)].sarcocysts from a palaearctic moose have been studied for the first time by light and electron microscopy. because of coincidences in morphology of the cysts, especially of the cyst wall structure and the cystozoides, with the north american species sarcocystis alceslatrans dubey, 1980, they are assigned to this species.19863096168
the chernobyl accident. transport of radionuclides to man living in northern sweden.the pathways of 131i, 134cs and 137cs from the chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of västerbotten, sweden. reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137cs was 3-40 kbq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kbq/m2. multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131i ground deposition. the effective dose equivalent from 131i became low, less than 0.1 msv, as the cows were stabled. the 137cs activity concen ...19883233171
growth and development of winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, on moose, alces alces.moose, alces alces, were infested with 21,000 or 42,000 larval dermacentor albipictus at the end of september. larvae grew rapidly and molted to the nymphal stage 10-22 days after infestation. the nymphal stage lasted approximately 3 mo until mid-january and was characterized by a diapause. the diapause is likely an adaptation to survival in cold climates. nymphs started engorging in january and adults were seen with increasing abundance from mid-january to march and april. the minimum parasitic ...19883397828
elaphostrongylus cervi infection in moose (alces alces). prevalence and pathological changes in relation to age and season. 19873447471
experimental elaphostrongylus cervi infection in moose (alces alces). 19873447472
prevalence of neutralizing antibody to jamestown canyon virus (california group) in populations of elk and moose in northern michigan and ontario, canada.blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) harvested in michigan's northern lower peninsula, from moose (alces alces) relocated from ontario's algonquin provincial park to michigan's upper peninsula, and from moose from michigan's isle royale national park. sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to california serogroup viruses, in particular jamestown canyon (jc), la crosse/snowshoe hare (lac/ssh), and trivi ...19863503129
tick (dermacentor albipictus)-induced winter hair-loss in captive moose (alces alces).five captive moose calves each infested with 42,000 larval dermacentor albipictus, six calves each infested with 19,000-21,000, and five control moose were observed for changes in hair-loss, body condition and number, stages, and distribution of the tick. winter hair-loss was observed only in moose infested with ticks and was correlated positively with the total number of adult ticks. hair-loss associated with ticks was minimal from october to january, but rapidly increased from february to apri ...19863503137
the "placebo" effect of psychotherapy: a moose in the rabbit stew.the placebo concept, essential for pharmacology, is inappropriate for psychotherapy. "common," "nonspecific," or "relationship" factors have not been satisfactorily differentiated from "specific," "intended," or "characteristic" factors in psychotherapy. this paper analyzes the placebo from historic, heuristic, semantic, and theoretical standpoints with reference to its misuse regarding psychotherapy.19873578608
echinococcus granulosus (cestoda: taeniidae) infections in moose (alces alces) from southwestern quebec.investigation of the distribution of larval echinococcus granulosus in a moose population from southwestern quebec revealed a distinct and stable pattern of infection with a prevalence of 44% (n = 580). positive correlations between moose age and the intensity, mean cyst weight and biomass of the hydatid cysts suggested a process of continued parasite acquisition and cyst growth. the distribution of cyst sizes within individual moose provided circumstantial evidence of interaction between cysts, ...19873625899
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick: the parasite in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and moose (alces alces).research was initiated in 1983 to investigate the ecology of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick. the objectives were to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection in white-tailed deer, and to determine whether or not moose feces contained first stage larvae, signifying the completion of the life cycle of p. tenuis in this host. forty-nine percent of deer pellet samples were positive and 60% of deer heads contained adults of p. tenuis. none of the moose pellet samples contained ...19873682097
pattern of cadmium contamination in the liver and kidneys of moose and white-tailed deer in québec.samples of moose (n = 431) and white-tailed deer (n = 225) liver and kidneys were collected during the 1985 hunting season from 14 zones south of the 50 degree latitude in québec. regional differences in cadmium level in the liver were detected and three homogeneous areas were delineated for each species. uptake was greater for moose than for deer: in the liver, mean concentrations were 2.9-15.9 mg kg-1 (dry weight) for moose and 0.8-2.6 for deer, depending on the area and sex; in kidneys, means ...19873685957
antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in moose (alces alces l.) from alaska. 19863735595
belovsky's model of optimal moose size.belovsky's (1978) model for optimal size in moose is applied to red deer. criticisms are levelled at belovsky's model. in particular, the equation he derives relating net energy intake to body weight is shown to be fundamentally invalid. modifications are suggested using existing published information and an analysis of previously unpublished data on red deer stomach size as a function of body weight. i conclude that quantitative predictions of optimal body size are likely to be very difficult a ...19863796013
[a new onchocercal parasite, onchocerca alcis n. sp., parasite of the moose alces alces in sweden].among the onchocercids of cervids, onchocerca alcis n. sp., a parasite of the moose, alces alces, belongs to that small palearctic group of evolved onchocercids consisting of o. jakutensis, o. garmsi and o. tarsicola. it is distinguished from its most closely related species, o. jakutensis, primarily on the characters of the lateral chord and cuticle, its greater spicule ratio, and the characteristic shapes of the anterior and posterior extremities of female worms.19863813426
the role of wild north american ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.published reports of brucella abortus infections in wild north american ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. bison (bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. most elk (cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. deer (odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (antilocapra americana), moo ...19853908724
ultrastructure of the cysts of sarcocystis grueneri from cardiac muscle of reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus).cysts of sarcocystis grueneri from cardiac muscle of reindeer (rangifer tarandus) in norway were examined by transmission electron microscopy. the limiting unit membrane of the cyst proper formed regularly spaced invaginations into the cyst at numerous sites coinciding with interruptions in the underlying osmiophilic layer. the primary cyst wall formed numerous strip-like, sinuous protrusions, which were 30-40 nm thick, 150-300 nm wide and up to 4.5 microns long, and were running in parallel wit ...19853922150
factors affecting transmission of larval winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (packard), to moose, alces alces l., in alberta, canada.the larval stage of the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, was studied under field conditions in central alberta, canada. larvae ascended vegetation in autumn, possibly in response to photoperiod. numbers found by flagging increased from early september to early october and decreased gradually to zero by december. larvae clumped on the tips of vegetation approximately 1-1.5 m off the ground, and did not exhibit a diurnal, vertical migration. activity was temperature dependent and no obvious pr ...19854032625
purification and some properties or erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase from the european moose. 19734205073
rumen ciliate fauna of alaskan moose (alces americana), musk-ox (ovibos moschatus) and dall moutain sheep (ovis dalli). 19744206407
serologic evidence of arbovirus activity in a moose population in alberta. 19714361127
survey for antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr), bovine virus diarrhea (bvd) and parainfluenza 3 (pi3) in moose sera. 19714361129
parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda) and fascioloides magna (trematoda) in moose of southeastern manitoba. 19744817542
composition of adipose tissue triglycerides of the elk (cervus canadensis), caribou (rangifer tarandus groenlandicus), moose (alces alces), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). 19715113546
serum protein electrophoresis of coreamnos americanus (mountain goat) and comparison of sera from canadian and alaskan alces alces (moose) and ovis dalli (sheep). 19685758870
activation analysis of ungulate hair.hair samples from the horse, elk, deer, moose, and antelope; subcutaneous tissue from the moose and antelope; and cast and living skin of the rattlesnake were activated by exposure to a neutron flux. the resulting products were studied by pulse-height analysis. differences in type and proportion of trace elements appear to be consistent within the species studied.19665909779
serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in alaskan wildlife.antibodies to brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (ursus arctos). antibodies to leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (ursus americanus). antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) dall sheep (ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou ...19836139490
morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to north america.the duodenal glands of the species examined (alces alces, ovis canadensis, cervus canadensis, oreamnos americanus, bison bison, antilocapra americana, odocoileus virginianas, odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. in one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. the ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. t ...19816171158
the prevalence of elaphostrongylus cervi infection in moose (alces alces) in southern norway. 19863565201
parasites of moose (alces alces) from an agricultural area of eastern ontario.viscera of 16 moose and hide samples of 24 moose (alces alces) shot in eastern ontario in 1985 were examined for parasites. two species of trematodes, one species of cestode, five species of nematodes and one species of tick were recovered. one nematode species, trichuris discolor, is reported for the first time from moose. our results suggest that the parasite fauna of the moose may have been influenced by the absence or scarcity of other species of wild cervids or carnivores and by the presenc ...19883373648
failure to transmit sarcocystis species from ox, sheep, goats, moose, elk, and mule deer to raccoons. 19836408956
development of sarcocystis alceslatrans dubey, 1980, in the small intestine of dogs.laboratory-reared dogs were fed moose musculature infected with sarcocystis alceslatrans. these dogs shed sporocysts [15.6 x 11.4 microns (14.4 to 15.8 x 10.8 to 11.5)] 11 to 15 days after inoculation. the prepatent period was 10 to 14 days. two cats and 1 coyote that also ate infected moose musculature did not pass sporocysts. histologic examination of intestinal tissue from experimentally infected dogs revealed microgamonts, macrogametes, and oocysts. all stages were present in the lamina prop ...19836416114
a review of wildlife diseases from scandinavia.the epidemiological and historical aspects of some important and representative wildlife diseases from scandinavia are discussed. in noninfectious diseases, examples include cataract in moose (alces alces), atherosclerosis in hybrid hares (lepus timidus x l. europaeus), and ethmoid tumors in moose. the epizootiological and historical aspects of the recent epizootics of myxomatosis in european rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) and rabies and sarcoptic mange in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) are reviewed ...19873316719
stercorarian trypanosomes from deer (cervidae) in germany.twenty of 35 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), eight of 12 red deer (cervus elaphus), and nine of 21 fallow deer (cervus dama) but none of four moose (alces alces) examined from april to november 1983 were infected with trypanosomes. morphometric data of the bloodstream trypomastigotes from the three deer species differed significantly. this appears to be the first report of stercorarian trypanosomes from cervidae in the old world and the first description of representatives of the subgenus megatr ...19846512728
levels of trace elements in liver from norwegian moose, reindeer and red deer in relation to atmospheric deposition. 19846524572
malignant catarrhal fever in a shira's moose (alces alces shirasi nelson). 19846541712
serologic and experimental investigations of contagious ecthyma in alaska.serologic evidence of contagious ecthyma (ce) was found in domestic sheep (ovis aries), domestic goats (capra hircus), dall sheep (ovis dalli), and musk-ox (ovibos moschatus) in alaska. a moose (alces alces) calf and a caribou (rangifer tarandus) fawn were susceptible to experimental infection and both developed antibody titers as a result. ce virus was isolated from lesions of dall sheep which were involved in a natural outbreak of the disease.19836644914
serologic evidence of arbovirus infections in humans and wild animals in alaska.blood samples were collected from humans and several species of free-ranging wild animals in alaska. sera were tested for antibody to jamestown canyon (jc), snowshoe hare (ssh), northway (nor), klamath (kla), sakhalin (sak), great island (gi), and silverwater (sil) virus. jc antibody was found in 54% of 121 human, 89% of 97 bison (bison bison), 51% of 84 dall sheep (ovis dalli), 43% of 68 snowshoe hare (lepus americanus), and 3% of 33 arctic fox (alopex lagopus) sera. ssh antibody was found in 4 ...19836644915
coyote as a final host for sarcocystis species of goats, sheep, cattle, elk, bison, and moose in montana.tissues (1 kg) from sheep, goats, cattle, moose, bison, or elk naturally infected with sarcocystis species were fed to one to four sarcocystis-free coyotes and the number of sporocysts in feces and intestines were counted. all 12 coyotes fed naturally infected tissues shed sarcocystis in feces, with a prepatent period of 9 to 15 days. the four coyotes fed infected beef had 15, 25, 113, and 201 million sporocysts in their feces and intestines. the coyotes fed elk, moose, or bison had 2.5, 15, and ...19806778270
copper and cadmium binding proteins from liver and kidney of moose and reindeer. 19883272601
sarcocystis species in moose (alces alces), bison (bison, bison), and pronghorn (antilocapra americana) in montana.the transmission of sarcocystis spp from naturally infected moose, bison, and pronghorn was attempted in laboratory-raised coyotes and dogs. infected musculature from a moose was feed to a dog and a coyote, and 12 days later, both animals shed sporocysts. sporocysts were 14 to 17 x 8.5 to 10.5 micron (av 14.5 x 8.8). a coyote was fed muscle from a bison, and 11 days later, it shed sporocysts. the sporocysts were 14 to 16 x 9 to 11 micron (14.0 x 9.0). infected tissues from a pronghorn were fed t ...19806782919
infectivity of sarcocystis spp. from bison, elk, moose, and cattle for cattle via sporocysts from coyotes.bison bison (bison), cervus canadensis (elk), alces alces (moose), and bos taurus (cattle) musculature containing sarcocystis spp. cysts was fed to laboratory raised canis latrans (coyotes), sporocysts collected from the feces of coyotes fed musculature of each of the ruminant species were fed to four groups of three laboratory-raised domestic calves, respectively, to determine if sarcocystis spp. was transmissible from wild to domestic ruminants and if so, to compare clinical signs of infection ...19826811717
cephenemyia ulrichii brauer 1862, in swedish moose. 19883223477
cysticerci of taenia ovis krabbei moniez, 1879, in the brain of moose, alces alces (l.) in maine. 19836887439
intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular, ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa of a roedeer (capreolus capreolus l.) and a moose (alces alces l.). 19872833849
fatalities caused by nonvenomous animals: a ten-year summary from sweden.all 58 deaths caused by nonvenomous animals in sweden 1975-1984 were scrutinized. in 38 cases horses were involved, in 16 cattle and in one case each a moose, a lion, a dog and a ram. in the horse-related fatalities, the most common cause of accident was that the horse bolted or reared, causing the rider to fall off the horse or the cart or sulky. falls were thus associated with 22 horse-related deaths. in cattle-related accidents, all fatalities where the cause of accident was known occurred du ...19892765081
evaluation of xylazine hydrochloride as the sole immobilizing agent in moose and caribou--and its subsequent reversal with idazoxan.xylazine hydrochloride was used as the sole immobilizing agent in moose and caribou. the animals were free-ranging and immobilization was accomplished from a helicopter using powered darts. following a period of immobilization during which radiotelemetry collars were fitted, the animals were revived using idazoxan (rx 781094) or its methoxy analogue rx 821002. xylazine was administered at dose rates of approximately 3.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg to the moose and caribou, respectively. moose received 4 ...19892563404
isolation of encysted toxoplasma gondii from musculature of moose and pronghorn in montana.pieces of skeletal muscle from 43 mule deer, 34 elk, 4 white-tailed deer, 21 pronghorn, 7 moose, and 2 bison were examined for toxoplasma infection, by the acid-pepsin digestion technique. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 1 moose and 1 pronghorn. the isolated strains of t gondii were of low virulence to mice.19817224306
our medical man in moose lake. interview by richard l. reece. 19902300038
further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in wyoming ii.further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in wyoming by blood culture. two free-ranging moose from utah were negative. one of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 american bison (bison bison) being brought into wyoming from nebraska. nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. identification of ...19817338978
brucellosis in moose (alces alces). a serological survey in an open range cattle area of north central british columbia recently infected with bovine brucellosis.a serological survey for brucella abortus antibodies in mature cow moose (alces alces) was made in an area of northcentral british columbia which recently had been heavily infected with bovine brucellosis and in which there was considerable intermixing of moose and range cattle. no evidence of brucella infection was found in the moose tested and it was concluded that they were probably not of great significance in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the study area and were therefore unlike ...19807363258
injuries caused by animals.injuries caused by animals and treated at the university hospital of umeå were analysed. dogs caused nearly one-half of the injuries, while horses caused one-third of the injuries and the highest number of fractures. the 'cost' of treatment and sickness benefit was fairly evenly distributed between horse-, cattle-, and dog-related injuries. the average 'cost' per injured person was, however, highest in those injured in cattle accidents and moose-car collisions. the impact of animal-related injur ...19911937726
experimental infection of mule deer with parelaphostrongylus tenuis.six adult and three fawn mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were experimentally infected with a range of 75-100 infective larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis. five of the six adult deer developed clinical signs of neurologic disease that terminated in paralysis between 35 and 80 days. the sixth deer developed slight signs of neurologic disease for 10 days, but recovered. all three mule deer fawns developed neurologic disease. adult meningeal worms were recovered from the subdural space of the spin ...19807463606
public health response to an identified environmental toxin: managing risks to the james bay cree related to cadmium in caribou and moose.at the request of cree political and health authorities and using indirect measures of exposure, we estimated the risk to the james bay cree of renal impairment related to the long-term consumption of the liver and kidney of moose and caribou contaminated by environmental cadmium. the low risk of disease was weighed against the possible detriment from activities to convince the crees to avoid a traditional albeit occasional component of their subsistence diet. our approach to the assessment and ...19911672617
evolution of protamine p1 genes in mammals.protamine p1 genes have been sequenced following pcr amplification from 11 mammals representing five major mammalian orders: rodentia (rat and guinea pig), carnivora (cat and bear), proboscidea (elephant), perissodactyla (horse), and artiodactyla (camel, deer, elk, moose, and gazelle). the predicted amino acid sequence for these genes together with previously reported sequences results in a data set of 25 different p1 genes and 30 different p1 amino acid sequences. the alignment of all these seq ...19957643410
determination of aluminium in liver from reindeer, moose and sheep by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.aluminium in liver from reindeer, moose and sheep from the northeast part of norway was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry following digestion of the samples with nitric acid. the concentration of aluminium in the liver was markedly higher for reindeer than for moose and sheep; the median values obtained were 0.56 microgram g-1 al (wet wt.) for 101 reindeer, 0.06 microgram g-1 al for 72 moose and 0.09 microgram g-1 al for 40 sheep. the detection limit of the method was ...19957644911
low major histocompatibility complex class ii diversity in european and north american moose.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes encode cell surface proteins whose function is to bind and present intracellularly processed peptides to t lymphocytes of the immune system. extensive mhc diversity has been documented in many species and is maintained by some form of balancing selection. we report here that both european and north american populations of moose (alces alces) exhibit very low levels of genetic diversity at an expressed mhc class ii drb locus. the observed polymorphism ...19957753793
radiocaesium transfer to man from moose and roe deer in sweden.studies of radiocaesium in the forest ecosystems in sweden resulted in aggregated transfer factors quantified for the transfer of 137cs from soil to moose and roe deer. these aggregated transfer factors were 0.02 m2 kg-1 for moose and 0.05 m2 kg-1 for roe deer. there seems to be no decrease in the 137cs activity concentrations in moose harvested in our research area and therefore we suggest the use of the physical half-life of 137cs (30 years) as the effective ecological half-life. the time-inte ...19947839118
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, serotype 17, septicemia in moose (alces alces) from algonquin park, ontario.erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae septicemia was diagnosed in three of four moose found dead in algonquin provincial park, ontario, canada, in the spring of 1989. type 17 e. rhusiopathiae was isolated from liver, lung, kidney, and lymph nodes of affected animals, which were in poor body condition, and suffering hair loss associated with tick (dermacentor albipictus) infestations. microscopic lesions consisted of mild, multifocal, necrotizing myocarditis, sarcocystosis, and lymph node atrophy. the bac ...19947933291
carbohydrate in pancreatic ribonucleases.a survey of the presence and compositions of carbohydrate chains attached to pancreatic ribonucleases is given. carbohydrate chains may occur at asparagine residues in asn-x-ser/thr sequences at four exposed sites of the molecule (positions 21, 34, 62 and 76). these sites form part of highly variant sequences in pancreatic ribonucleases with the consequence that the enzymes from very closely related species may differ in the presence or absence of carbohydrate. in a number of ribonucleases asn-x ...19761261555
mosquito-borne viruses in finland.inkoo virus, the finnish representative of the california group, was isolated from a pool of aedes communis/punctor. it is distinguishable from tahyna, california encephalitis, trivittatus and melao viruses, but seems to be antigenically related to the jamestown canyon virus. the prevalence of inkoo antibodies increases towards the north in both human beings (16% to 69%) and cows (37% to 88%). inkoo antibodies are common also in other mammals of large size (reindeer, moose, foxes), less frequent ...19751207184
characterization of trypsin and elastase from the moose (alces alces). i. amino acid composition and specificity towards polypeptides.trypsin and elastase isolated from the pancreas of the moose (alces alces), a member of the cervidae (deer) family, were characterized with respect to their amino acid composition and specificity towards polypeptides. moose trypsin possessed 234 residues, based on alanine recoveries equal to 16.0 residues, with a molecular weight calculated at 24 476. moose trypsin readily hydrolysed peptide bonds in which the carbonyl group was contributed by arginine, lysine and s-2-aminoethylcysteine as indic ...19751125277
moose milk and hair element levels and relationships.milk was collected from 21 alaskan moose (alces alces gigas) at the kenai moose research center (mrc), soldotna, alaska nad analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy for al, as, ca, cd, co, cr, cu, fe, hg, k, mg, mn, mo, na, ni, pb, se and zn. hair samples were collected from 100 moose at the mrc to correspond with the lactation period and serve as a metabolic indicator of mineral elements stored in tissue. published analyses of bovine milk were compared to moose milk; al, fe, se and zn were hi ...1976933310
naturally occurring brucella suis biovar 4 infection in a moose (alces alces).a debilitated adult female moose (alces alces) shot east of the mackenzie river, northwest territories, canada, had large fluctuant masses over both carpi. only the forelimbs were available for examination. carpal pathology included bilateral bursitis and osteomyelitis of subjacent bone. in addition severe osteomyelitis with fractures was observed in the left lateral and right medial digits. brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from the right medial first phalanx. this is believed to be the first ...19938258861
annual maturation of paramphistomum cervi (trematoda: paramphistomatidae) in moose, alces alces l. 1979540274
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in maine moose and the possible influence of faulty baermann procedures.efficacy of cleaning baermann apparati was evaluated to determine if larvae are retained on glassware after evaluating white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fecal samples containing parelaphostrongylus tenuis. residual p. tenuis larvae were recovered from 7 (11.7%) of 60 baermann apparati cleaned with soap and tap water. of 295 moose (alces alces) fecal samples collected in central and northern maine, only one contained protostrongylid larvae. our data do not support the hypothesis that rec ...19938445780
forensic identification of ungulate species using restriction digests of pcr-amplified mitochondrial dna.a survey of mitochondrial d-loop variation in 15 species of ungulates was conducted via amplification by the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. this survey included moose (alces alces), caribou (rangifer tarandus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (o. h. columbianus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), waipiti (cervus elaphus), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), stone's she ...19958522926
investigation, control and epizootiology of anthrax in a geographically isolated, free-roaming bison population in northern canada.in july 1993 anthrax caused significant mortality in an isolated, free-ranging population of bison (bos bison athabascae) west of great slave lake in the northwest territories. there was no previous record of anthrax in this area. an emergency response was undertaken to reduce the scale of environmental contamination and dissemination of anthrax spores and hence to reduce the likelihood of future outbreaks. one-hundred-and-seventy-two bison, 3 moose (alces alces), and 3 black bear (ursus america ...19958548686
investigation of antibodies against fasciola hepatica in moose alces americana.a serological investigation was carried out to check the presence of antibodies against fasciola hepatica in a collection of 125 sera moose alces americana killed in the province of quebec. as revealed by hemagglutination tests, two moose had titers suggesting contact with this parasite.1979476552
application of a competitive elisa for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), was applied to detect anti-btv antibodies in serum samples from two llamas (llama glama) experimentally infected with btv serotype 10. antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 wk or 2 wk post-infection. antibodies to btv increased exponentially during the first 4 wk in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-wk-period of the expe ...19958592352
an outbreak of skin infections caused by group a beta-hemolytic streptococci probably originating from wild moose.an outbreak of about 20 recorded cases of impetiginous skin infections occurred during the moose (alces alces) hunting season in october and november 1976 in persons having been in contact with moose from hailuoto island, northern finland. samples for bacteriological studies werre obtained from 4 patients, and beta-hemolytic streptococci group a were isolated from all. the strains were biochemically identical. epidemiological data strongly support a moose origin of the streptococci, even though ...1979379987
experimental studies on brucella abortus in moose (alces alces).four moose (alces alces) were inoculated conjunctivally with b. abortus biovar 1 to determine their susceptibility to brucellosis, and to describe the serology, bacteriology, hematology, clinical chemistry, and pathology associated with infection. all moose became infected. two moose were killed at day 70 post-exposure, one (83f) died acutely at day 85, and one was killed at day 166. none of the moose had clinical signs, except for 83f immediately before death. infected moose were readily detect ...19968627944
[the use of bone morphogenetic proteins in delayed fracture healing, pseudoarthrosis and in ulna osteotomy carried out because of elbow joint diseases].this study deals with the application of bone morphogenetic protein (bmp) as an osteoinductive factor in the treatment of fractures and elbow disease in the dog. partially purified canine bone morphogenetic protein (cbmp) was used in the repair of a delayed union fracture and a pseudoarthrosis. the cbmp was applied in biocoral and tricalciumphosphate carriers using a subcortical grafting method. two dogs suffering from incongruence and subluxation of the elbow joint were treated with a partially ...19968650686
polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis: a simple method for species identification in food.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was applied to meat species identification in marinated and heat-treated or fermented products and to the differentiation of closely related species. dna was isolated from meat samples by using a dna-binding resin and was subjected to pcr analysis. primers used were complementary to conserved areas of the vertebrate mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene and yielded a 359 base-pair (bp) fragment, including a variable 307 bp region. restriction endonu ...19958664595
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. i. residue levels.mandibular fluorine concentrations were determined in 1,425 red deer (cervus elaphus), 240 moose (alces alces), and 424 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) collected in norway from 1990 to 1993 in seven municipalities in which aluminum smelters are located, in eight neighboring municipalities, and in eight reference areas representing background levels. background fluorine concentration was significantly correlated with age in all three species. roe deer had the highest mean background fluorine level ...19968722253
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. ii. fluorosis.mandibles from 1104 red deer (cervus elaphus), 147 moose (alces alces), and 453 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), collected between 1990 and 1993 in the vicinity of seven norwegian aluminum smelters, were examined for dental fluorotic and osteofluorotic lesions. the metacarpal or metatarsal bones from 214 of these cervids also were evaluated. dental fluorotic lesions occurred in all three cervid species. prevalence of dental fluorosis was generally low at the various locations, with the exception ...19968722254
serologic survey for selected microbial agents in mammals from alberta, 1976.blood samples were taken from humans and several species of free-ranging wild mammals from five different geographic areas of alberta, canada. sera were tested for antibody to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus, western equine encephalitis (wee) virus, st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus, powassan (pow) virus, the snowshoe hare (ssh) strain of the california group (cal) of viruses, northway (nor) virus, klamath (kla) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, and two bacteria, bru ...19816273600
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