bacterial and fungal numbers in ruminal and cecal contents of the blue duiker (cephalophus monticola).[this corrects the article on p. 469 in vol. 57.].199116348500
bacterial and fungal numbers in ruminal and cecal contents of the blue duiker (cephalophus monticola).total and cellulolytic bacterial and fungal numbers were determined in ruminal and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (cephalophus monticola). the animals were equally divided by sex and fed two diets, either high roughage or high concentrate. the mean concentration for total bacterial numbers in the rumen was 26.0 x 10/g of contents, with values ranging from 2 x 10/g to 93 x 10/g. cellulolytic numbers averaged 6.0 x 10/g with a range of 1.5 x 10/g to 24.0 x 10/g. no differences related to sex or ...199116348413
uv-b effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-b (uv-b) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. because the effects of enhanced uv-b radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. we also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of pacific willow (salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) by b ...200818274780
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
first report of prey capture from human laid snare-traps by wild chimpanzees.chimpanzees regularly hunt for meat in the wild, including both solo and group hunting; however, theft of prey from non-chimpanzee hunters, or scavenging of carcasses is extremely rare. here we report the first observations of a novel prey capture technique by the chimpanzees in two adjacent communities in the budongo conservation field station, uganda. in both cases blue duikers were found caught in human laid snare traps, and then retrieved by the chimpanzees. in one case the duiker was still ...201424682899
parasites of south african wildlife. vi. helminths of blue duikers, cephalophus monticola, in natal.the helminths of 3 blue duikers, cephalophus monticola, from 3 nature reserves in natal were collected, counted and identified. taenia hydatigena larvae, a race of cooperia rotundispiculum, gongylonema angistris, trichostrongylus falculatus and trichostrongylus rugatus appear to be new parasite records for blue duikers in south africa.19912052315
mammalian pheromone studies, vii. identification of thiazole derivatives in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, cephalophus natalensis.2-isobutyl-1,3-thiazole and its 4,5-dihydro derivative were identified in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, cephalophus natalensis, but are absent from the preorbital secretion of the blue duiker, c. monticola. these two compounds which are present in high, but varying concentrations in the secretions of male grey duikers, are present in low concentrations in the secretions of females. this seems to be the only consistent significant diff ...19883245266
contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on bioko island, equatorial guinea.across west and central africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. we investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in bioko island, equatorial guinea. one village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. we tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and grea ...201323692021
dysplastic tracheae in eight blue duikers (cephalophus monticola) from bioko, equatorial guinea.nine blue duikers (cephalophus monticola), purchased in the malabo bushmeat market, were necropsied. eight of the nine animals were found to have dysplastic tracheas, characterized by lateral apposition of tracheal rings, entrapment of the trachealis muscle and annular ligaments, and bunching of the tracheal epithelium. communications with zoologic pathologists and a thorough search of the veterinary literature have not uncovered a single case of this pathologic finding. as such, this finding ma ...201020597221
besnoitiosis of the reproductive tract of a blue duiker (cephalophus monticola).a mature male blue duiker that had been born in the united states was submitted for necropsy examination following a brief illness. on histologic examination of the reproductive tract several besnoitia cysts were found in the epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral gland. the lack of an inflammatory response or any negative effect on fertility, based on histologic evaluation and breeding history, is in contrast with the severe orchitis, epididymitis and infertility of besnoitiosis in cattle. this ...19902382384
fusobacterium necrophorum and actinomyces pyogenes associated facial and mandibular abscesses in blue duiker.anaerobic and aerobic cultures of facial and mandibular abscesses were made from 12 blue duiker (cephalophus monticola fusicolor) housed at the deer and duiker research facility of the pennsylvania state university (usa). increases in concentrations of total protein and serum globulin occurred in all cases. actinomyces pyogenes was isolated from nine animals. fusobacterium necrophorum was present in eight and bacteroides sp. was found in seven animals; other genera of isolated bacteria included: ...19892761010
diversity and spatial distribution of vectors and hosts of t. brucei gambiense in forest zones of, southern cameroon: epidemiological and vector distribution of trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in bipindi were reservoir hosts. cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation zones, while cephalophus monticola, cephalophus dorsalis, cricetomys gambianus, atherurus africanus and nandinia binotata occurred in all the habitat types. as for vectors of human african trypanosom ...201020067756
were snares and traps used in the middle stone age and does it matter? a review and a case study from sibudu, south africa.the concept of remote capture involved in the creation and use of snares and traps is one of several indicators that can be used for the recognition of enhanced working memory and complex cognition. it can be argued that this humble technology is a more reliable indicator of complex cognition than encounter hunting, for example with spears. it is difficult to recognize snares and traps archaeologically because they are generally made from materials that do not preserve well. to infer their prese ...201020031191
rumen ciliate protozoa of the blue duiker (cephalophus monticola), with observations on morphological variation lines within the species entodinium dubardi.protozoal concentrations were determined in rumen and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (cephalophus monticola). ten animals of each sex were fed either a high concentrate or high roughage diet. rumen protozoa were present in 19 of the 20 animals and concentrations ranged from 4.5 to 33.7 x 10(6) per g of rumen contents. at the higher concentrations, protozoal cells equaled between 30-40% of the total rumen contents volume. no protozoa were found in cecal contents. weight of rumen contents was h ...19948167616
assessing sustainability at multiple scales in a rotational bushmeat hunting system.results of many studies show unsustainable levels of bushmeat hunting across west/central africa. nevertheless, these results are usually derived from snapshot sustainability indices in which critical parameters are often taken from the literature. simple, more informative tools for assessing sustainability are needed. we evaluated the impact of bushmeat hunting across a range of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic scales in a comparison of different measures of sustainability. over 15 months in 20 ...201020455910
harvesting, rumination, digestion, and passage of fruit and leaf diets by a small ruminant, the blue duiker.because small ruminants (<15 kg) have a high ratio of metabolic rate to fermentation capacity, they are expected to select and require low-fiber, nutrient-dense concentrate diets. however, recent studies suggest that small ruminants may not be as limited in their digestive capacity as previously thought. in this study, we examined harvesting, rumination, digestion, and passage of three diets (domestic figs ficus carica, fresh alfalfa medicago sativa, and pacific willow leaves salix lasiandra) ra ...200028308754
ventricular septal defect in a blue duiker (cephalophus monticola).a 9-mo-old female blue duiker (cephalophus monticola) weighing 3.9 kg was diagnosed with a cardiac murmur during quarantine examination. evaluation of the heart by auscultation, electrocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and doppler color-flow echocardiography revealed a restrictive outlet ventricular septal defect with left atrial and left ventricular dilation. trivial mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation was also noted. though the duiker was clinically asymptomatic at the ti ...200011237152
influence of habitat and seasonal variation on wild mammal diversity and distribution with special reference to the trypanosoma brucei gambiense host-reservoir in bipindi (cameroon).to evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human african trypanosomiasis (hat), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in bipindi (southwestern cameroon). to achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. a total of 31 mammal species were recorde ...200919732737
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