acute toxicity of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) to tadpoles of five tropical amphibian species.despite the higher diversity of amphibians and the increasing use of agrochemicals in tropical countries, knowledge on the ecotoxicity of such compounds to tropical amphibians remains very limited. the aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the acute lethal toxicity of three nitrogen salts (ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite) to tadpoles of five tropical frog species: rhinella ornata, boana faber, b. pardalis, physalaemus cuvieri, and p. olfersii. the order of sensitivity ...202032638180
first record of ornithodoros faccinii (acari: argasidae) on toads of genus rhinella (anura: bufonidae) in brazil.although a group of soft ticks (argasidae) associated with amphibians was recently discovered in brazilian rainforests, parasitism by these ticks on cold-blooded animals remains less common than on mammal and bird species. in this study, we identified ticks that were collected from toads that had been caught in december 2016 and january 2017, at itinguçú waterfall (22°54'05" s; 43°53'30" w) in the municipality of itaguaí, state of rio de janeiro. tick specimens were identified using a morphologi ...201929846455
acute stress, steroid plasma levels, and innate immunity in brazilian toads.stress from habitat fragmentation has been shown to impact amphibian declines. studies from a variety of vertebrates indicate that stressed animals exhibit an acute increase in circulating plasma glucocorticoid (gc) levels and consequent immunomodulation. to further explore the relationship between gcs and immunity, we subjected three species of newly captured brazilian toads, rhinella ornata, r. icterica and r. schneideri to restraint with or without movement restriction (maintenance in a moist ...201929750968
microscopical methods promote the understanding of the integument biology of rhinella rhinella ornata, the integument of different body regions was investigated using low-vacuum scanning electron and light microscopy through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, and revealed the basic structure found in other anurans. keratinocytes formed the keratinized squamous stratified epithelium, and flask cells occurred among the epidermal superficial layer. just below the epidermis, the dermis was subdivided into a spongious dermis and a compact dermis. mixed and granular glan ...200918996703
diet and microhabitat use by juveniles rhinella ornata (anura, bufonidae) in an insular brazilian atlantic rainforest area. 202033111933
the paraguayan rhinella toad venom: implications in the traditional medicine and proliferation of breast cancer cells.toads belonging to genus rhinella are used in paraguayan traditional medicine to treat cancer and skin infections.201728131913
atlantic amphibians: a data set of amphibian communities from the atlantic forests of south america.amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrates in the world and this is also true for those inhabiting the atlantic forest hotspot, living in ecosystems that are highly degraded and threatened by anthropogenic activities. we present a data set containing information about amphibian communities sampled throughout the atlantic forest biome in south america. the data were extracted from 389 bibliographic references (articles, books, theses, and dissertations) representing inventories of amphi ...201829953585
time-related immunomodulation by stressors and corticosterone transdermal application in toads.immune responses have been mostly studied at a specific time in anuran species. however, time-changes related to immunomodulation associated with glucocorticoid (gc) alterations following stressors and gc treatment are complex. the present study describes time-related changes in immune response and corticosterone (cort) plasma levels following restraint challenge, short, mid and long-term captivity, and cort exogenous administration by transdermal application (ta) in rhinella ornata toads. we ob ...201931539413
dehydration as a stressor in toads (rhinella ornata).availability of a humid environment is essential for amphibians to carry out their activities and most species are characterized by low resistance to evaporative water loss. moreover, dehydration severely compromises amphibian locomotor and foraging performance, representing a relevant selective factor modulating the evolution of its integrative phenotype. in this way, we hypothesized that dehydration is a stressor for toads, inducing a stress response comparable to that elicited by another comm ...201930569667
parameters from the community of leaf-litter frogs from estação ecológica estadual paraíso, guapimirim, rio de janeiro state, southeastern brazil.we studied the leaf-litter frog community of estação ecológica estadual paraíso, in guapimirim, rio de janeiro state, southeastern brazil. herein we combined three sampling methods (large plots, visual encounter surveys and pit-fall traps) to present data on species composition, richness, relative abundance and densities. the local assemblage of frogs associated to the leaf-litter was composed by 14 species, belonging to nine families. haddadus binotatus, a direct-developing frog, was the most a ...201121971595
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