cryptosporidium ubiquitum n. sp. in animals and humans.a new species, cryptosporidium ubiquitum, previously identified as the cryptosporidium cervine genotype and infrequently as the cervid, w4 or genotype 3 genotype, is described. in published studies this genotype was reported in wild and domesticated ruminants, rodents, carnivores and primates including humans. in the present study oocysts were found in feces from a captive prehensile-tailed porcupine and her infant. oocysts from the porcupine were transmitted to 4 boer goats. oocysts from the go ...201020537798
identification of cryptosporidium species and genotypes in scottish raw and drinking waters during a one-year monitoring period.we analyzed 1,042 cryptosporidium oocyst-positive slides (456 from raw waters and 586 from drinking waters) of which 55.7% contained 1 or 2 oocysts, to determine species/genotypes present in scottish waters. two nested pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) assays targeting different loci (1 and 2) of the hypervariable region of the 18s rrna gene were used for species identification, and 62.4% of samples were amplified with at least one of the pcr assays. more samples (577 slides; 4 ...201020639357
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in brazilian sheep.feces were collected from 125 sheep between january and december 2007, on ten farms in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil, and examined for the presence of cryptosporidium. ninety samples were collected from lambs 2 to 6 months of age, and 35 were from sheep over 12 months of age. all samples were subjected to molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction (nested pcr) in two steps of the ssu rrna. two samples (1.6%) from the lambs were positive, and after sequencing were identified as cryptos ...201021075526
molecular identification and distribution of cryptosporidium and giardia duodenalis in raw urban wastewater in harbin, china.contamination of the water supply by protozoa often causes outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. the goals of the present study was to investigate the level of cryptosporidium and giardia duodenalis in wastewater from wastewater treatment plants in harbin, china, and to understand the endemic transmission characteristics of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. forty-eight domestic wastewater specimens from the two wastewater treatment plants in harbin city were collected from april 2009 to ...201121461728
a whole water catchment approach to investigating the origin and distribution of cryptosporidium species.aims:  investigating the distribution and origin of cryptosporidium species in a water catchment affected by destocking and restocking of livestock due to a foot and mouth disease epidemic. methods and results:  surface water, livestock and wildlife samples were screened for cryptosporidium and oocysts characterised by sequencing ssu rrna and cowp loci, and fragment analysis of ml1, ml2 and gp60 microsatellite loci. oocyst concentrations in water samples (0 to 20.29 per 10l) were related to rain ...201121649804
the identification of the cryptosporidium ubiquitum in pre-weaned ovines from aba tibetan and qiang autonomous prefecture in china.cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent globally and sheep are an important zoonotic reservoir. little data regarding the rates of cryptosporidium infections in ovines in china are available. this study assessed the prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned ovines from aba tibetan and qiang autonomous prefecture in the sichuan province of china.201121784319
comparison of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of seven cryptosporidium assays used in the united compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of seven cryptosporidium diagnostic assays used in the uk, results from 259 stool samples from patients with acute gastrointestinal symptoms were compared against a nominated gold standard (real-time pcr and oocyst detection). of the 152 'true positives', 80 were c. hominis, 68 c. parvum, two c. felis, one c. ubiquitum and one c. meleagridis. cryptosporidium spp. diagnostic sensitivities of three cryptosporidium and giardia combination copro- ...201121757501
longitudinal investigation of protozoan parasites in meat lamb farms in southern western this study, 96 faecal samples were collected from pregnant merino ewes, at two broad-acre, commercial sheep farms in southern western australia, on two separate occasions (16 and 2 weeks prior to lambing). following lambing, 111 (farm a) and 124 (farm b) female crossbred lambs (2-6 weeks old), were individually identified using ear tags (a numbered tag and a radio-frequency tag). a total of 1155 faecal samples were collected only from these individually identified lambs on five separate sampl ...201121733584
impacts of naturally acquired protozoa and strongylid nematode infections on growth and faecal attributes in lambs.on two separate sampling occasions, faecal samples were collected from lambs (2-5 months of age) grazing pasture on two separate sheep farms in southern western australia. live weight, body condition score (bcs), faecal consistency score (fcs) and faecal dry matter percentage (dm%) were measured. faecal samples were screened by pcr for cryptosporidium (18s rrna, actin and 60kda glycoprotein [gp60] loci), giardia duodenalis (glutamate dehydrogenase [gdh] and β-giardin) and patent strongylid nemat ...201121889852
common occurrence of a unique cryptosporidium ryanae variant in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in the buffer zone of the chitwan national park, nepal.there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of cryptosporidium species in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in developing countries. in this study, pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism and dna sequence analyses of the small-subunit (ssu) rrna gene were used to genotype cryptosporidium specimens from 12 zebu cattle calves, 16 water buffalo calves, and four swamp deer (cervus duvaucelii) collected from the buffer zone of the chitwan national park, nepal. all cr ...201121996006
cryptosporidium infection in a veal calf cohort in france: molecular characterization of species in a longitudinal study.abstract: feces from 142 animals were collected on 15 farms in the region of brittany, france. each sample was directly collected from the rectum of the animal and identified with the ear tag number. animals were sampled three times, at 5, 15 and 22 weeks of age. after dna extraction from stool samples, nested pcr was performed to amplify partial 18s-rdna and 60 kda glycoprotein genes of cryptosporidium. the parasite was detected on all farms. one hundred out of 142 calves (70.4%) were found to ...201122136667
molecular-based investigation of cryptosporidium and giardia from animals in water catchments in southeastern australia.there has been no large-scale systematic molecular epidemiological investigation of the waterborne protozoans, cryptosporidium or giardia, in southeastern australia. here, we explored, for the first time, the genetic composition of these genera in faecal samples from animals in nine melbourne water reservoir areas, collected over a period of two-years. we employed pcr-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) and phylogenetic analyses of loci (pssu and pgp60) in the small subunit (ssu ...201223357792
distribution of cryptosporidium species in tibetan sheep and yaks in qinghai, china.few data are available on the distribution of cryptosporidium species in tibetan sheep and yaks, which are free-range animals living in a cold, low oxygen, and high ultraviolet radiation habitat. in this study, 904 fecal specimens were collected from 350 tibetan sheep and 554 yaks in six counties. cryptosporidium spp. were detected and differentiated by pcr and sequence analyses. altogether, 43 (12.3%) tibetan sheep and 158 (28.5%) yaks were positive for cryptosporidium spp. in tibetan sheep, cr ...201626790738
prevalence, molecular characterization and zoonotic potential of cryptosporidium spp. in goats in henan and chongqing, estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in goats in china, 1265 fecal samples from seven farms in henan province and chongqing city were examined for cryptosporidium oocysts. the overall infection rate of cryptosporidium spp. was 3.48% (44/1256). significant difference was observed among age groups, with the post weaned kids having the highest infection rate (4.58%; ρ<0.01). cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorp ...201424721256
molecular and phylogenetic approaches for assessing sources of cryptosporidium contamination in water.the high sequence diversity and heterogeneity observed within species or genotypes of cryptosporidium requires phylogenetic approaches for the identification of novel sequences obtained from the environment. a long-term study on cryptosporidium in the agriculturally-intensive south nation river watershed in ontario, canada was undertaken, in which 60 sequence types were detected. of these sequence types 33 were considered novel with no identical matches in genbank. detailed phylogenetic analysis ...201222841595
cryptosporidium infections in suckler herd beef calves.a study was carried out to investigate how common cryptosporidium infections are in beef calves in swedish suckler herds and to explore which species and subtypes that occur. we further aimed at identifying factors associated with shedding of cryptosporidium oocysts in this type of calf management. the study was conducted in two regions in sweden and included 30 herds. faecal samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months. a brief clinical examination was done and a questionnaire was u ...201525899555
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium species and giardia duodenalis from symptomatic cambodian a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the angkor hospital for children, northwest cambodia, were examined for cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.201627387755
two cases of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in spain by the unusual species cryptosporidium ubiquitum and cryptosporidium felis.two cases of infection by zoonotic transmission of unusual species of cryptosporidium were detected in 2010-2011 in spain (león and zaragoza).201222728073
detection and genotyping of cryptosporidium spp. in large japanese field mice, apodemus speciosus.the genus cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. wild rodents are naturally infected with zoonotic cryptosporidium; thus, they are potential reservoirs of the parasites. mice are common rodents frequently found in agricultural areas and have many opportunities to contact other wild animals, livestock, and humans. irrespective of the potential risk, there are few epidemiologic studies of ...201323601844
infection rate of giardia duodenalis, cryptosporidium spp. and enterocytozoon bieneusi in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in china.cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. however, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. the present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 da ...201627017915
cryptosporidium species and subtype analysis in diarrhoeic pre-weaned lambs and goat kids from north-western spain.faecal specimens from diarrhoeic pre-weaned lambs (n = 171) and goat kids (n = 118) were collected in 37 sheep and 23 goat flocks, respectively, from nw spain and microscopically examined for the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts. positive specimens were selected for molecular characterization. presence of cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly higher in specimens from goat kids (62.7%) than from lambs (31.6%). pcr products of the ssu rrna locus were obtained for 108 isolates, and three cr ...201526212102
zoonotic cryptosporidium spp. and enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet chinchillas (chinchilla lanigera) in china.cryptosporidium and enterocytozoon bieneusi are the most prevalent protist pathogens responsible for inducing human and animal diseases worldwide. the aim of the present work was to determine the occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. and e. bieneusi in pet chinchillas in china. one hundred forty fecal samples were collected from four cities: beijing, zhengzhou, anyang and guiyang. they were then examined with pcr amplification of the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) of cryptosporidium spp. an ...201525988830
presence and molecular characterisation of giardia and cryptosporidium in alpacas (vicugna pacos) from peru.the presence of giardia and cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and pcr amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rrna and β-giardin genes from giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rrna gene from cryptosporidium spp. a total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for cryptosporidium spp. in ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found ...201222341616
development of a multilocus sequence typing tool for high-resolution subtyping and genetic structure characterization of cryptosporidium ubiquitum.cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen in humans. recently, a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kda glycoprotein (gp60) gene was developed for c. ubiquitum, and identified six subtype families (xiia-xiif). in this study, we selected five genetic loci known to be polymorphic in c. hominis and c. parvum for the development of a multilocus subtyping tool for c. ubiquitum, including cp47 (cgd6_1590), msc6-5 (cgd6_4290), cgd6_60, cgd2_3690, and cgd4_370. pcr primers for these target ...201627633152
is cryptosporidium from the common wombat (vombatus ursinus) a new species and distinct from cryptosporidium ubiquitum?the emerging zoonotic pathogen cryptosporidium ubiquitum has been found in a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans, throughout the world. advances in the molecular characterization of this parasite using the sequence of the 60kda glycoprotein (gp60) gene have allowed the classification of "subtypes". sequences derived from faecal samples from the common wombat (vombatus ursinus) have identified a novel gp60 subtype designated here as c. ubiquitum xiig. phylogenetic analysis suggests that ...201627320794
cryptosporidium ubiquitum, c. muris and cryptosporidium deer genotype in wild cervids and caprines in the czech republic. 201626857135
north american tree squirrels and ground squirrels with overlapping ranges host different cryptosporidium species and genotypes.wildlife-associated cryptosporidium are an emerging cause of cryptosporidiosis in humans. the present study was undertaken to determine the extent to which north american tree squirrels and ground squirrels host zoonotic cryptosporidium species and genotypes. fragments of the cryptosporidium 18s rrna and actin genes were amplified and sequenced from fecal samples obtained from three tree squirrel and three ground squirrel species. in tree squirrels, cryptosporidium was identified in 40.5% (17/42 ...201526437239
cryptosporidium ubiquitum in venezuela: first report in a paediatric patient with acute diarrhoea. 201626130311
high excretion of cryptosporidium ubiquitum by peri-parturient goats in one flock in western france.cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. a longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. cryptosporidium oo ...201424746237
high occurrence of cryptosporidium ubiquitum and giardia duodenalis genotype e in sheep from this paper we report the occurrence of zoonotic species of cryptosporidium (c. ubiquitum and c. parvum subtype iiaa15g2r1) and the host-specific giardia duodenalis genotype e in a sheep farm from brazil. fecal specimens were collected from 100 animals and screened for the presence of g. duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. by enzyme immunoassay (eia) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and sequence analysis of selected samples was used to confir ...201424570068
subtyping cryptosporidium ubiquitum,a zoonotic pathogen emerging in humans.cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. in the past, it was not possible to identify an association between cases of human and animal infection. we conducted a genomic survey of the species, developed a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kda glycoprotein (gp60) gene, and identified 6 subtype families (xiia-xiif) of c. ubiquitum. host adaptation was apparent at the gp60 locus; subtype xiia was found in ruminants worldwide, subtype families xiib-xiid were found in rodents in the u ...201424447504
periparturient transmission of cryptosporidium xiaoi from ewes to lambs.the mechanism for the maintenance of cryptosporidium infection in sheep between yearly lambing periods is not clear. previously, periparturient shedding of oocysts as the result of stress from lambing was suspected to be a mechanism for the initiation of cryptosporidium infection in lambs, but this has never been verified by genotyping studies. in this study, fecal specimens from four age groups of sheep in inner mongolia, china were examined for cryptosporidium spp. by pcr-restricted fragment l ...201323953146
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium species at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park, south africa.molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. was done on isolates from african elephant (loxodonta africana), african buffalo (syncerus caffer), impala (aepyceros melampus) and native domestic calves collected during may and june 2008 at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park (knp), south africa. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the 18s rrna gene was used in feces from 51 calves (3-12 months of age), 71 buff ...201322975725
detection and prevalence of protozoan parasites in ready-to-eat packaged salads on sale in investigate the prevalence of protozoan contamination by giardia duodenalis, cryptosporidium spp., toxoplasma gondii and cyclospora cayetanensis, in 'ready to eat' (rte) salads on sale in italy, 648 packages were purchased from industrial and local brands. nine individual packages from each brand were collected per month, pooled and subjected to microscopy and molecular analyses. microscopic examination of 864 slides detected cryptosporidium spp. but also blastocystis hominis and dientamoeba ...201728648295
environmental transport of emerging human-pathogenic cryptosporidium species and subtypes through combined sewer overflow and wastewater.the environmental transport of cryptosporidium spp. through combined sewer overflow (cso) and the occurrence of several emerging human-pathogenic cryptosporidium species in developing countries remain unclear. in this study, we collected 40 cso samples and 40 raw wastewater samples from shanghai, china, and examined them by pcr and dna sequencing for cryptosporidium species (targeting the small subunit rrna gene) and giardia duodenalis (targeting the triosephosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glu ...201728600310
first description of cryptosporidium ubiquitum xiia subtype family in farmed fur animals.this study investigated the prevalence of cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the czech republic and poland. a total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 american mink (mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. samples were examined for the presence of cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis ...201728482327
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