molecular divergence defines two distinct lineages of crithidia bombi (trypanosomatidae), parasites of bumblebees.this study provides, for the first time, sequence data for the protozoan flagellates crithidia bombi and crithidia mellificae (kinetoplastea: trypanosomatidae). we amplified the partial sequences of the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna), glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (ggapdh), cytochrome b (cyt b), and the complete internal transcribed spacer region 1 (its1) of the ribosomal rna gene region for 66 clones of c. bombi from switzerland and alaska. furthermore, we sequenced ...201020497286
temporal analysis of the honey bee microbiome reveals four novel viruses and seasonal prevalence of known viruses, nosema, and crithidia.honey bees (apis mellifera) play a critical role in global food production as pollinators of numerous crops. recently, honey bee populations in the united states, canada, and europe have suffered an unexplained increase in annual losses due to a phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder (ccd). epidemiological analysis of ccd is confounded by a relative dearth of bee pathogen field studies. to identify what constitutes an abnormal pathophysiological condition in a honey bee colony, it is criti ...201121687739
molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in china.china has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in chinese apiaries. we thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee rna viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative apis mellifera ligustica and native apis cerana cerana colonies in china. we found the presence of ...201323467539
large pathogen screening reveals first report of megaselia scalaris (diptera: phoridae) parasitizing apis mellifera intermissa (hymenoptera: apidae).as it is most likely that global warming will also lead to a shift in pollinator-habitats northwards, the study of southern species becomes more and more important. pathogen screenings in subspecies of apis mellifera capable of withstanding higher temperatures, provide an insight into future pathogen host interactions. screenings in different climate regions also provide a global perspective on the prevalence of certain pathogens. in this project, we performed a pathogen screening in apis mellif ...201627130035
a draft genome of the honey bee trypanosomatid parasite crithidia mellificae.since 2006, honey bee colonies in north america and europe have experienced increased annual mortality. these losses correlate with increased pathogen incidence and abundance, though no single etiologic agent has been identified. crithidia mellificae is a unicellular eukaryotic honey bee parasite that has been associated with colony losses in the usa and belgium. c. mellificae is a member of the family trypanosomatidae, which primarily includes other insect-infecting species (e.g., the bumble be ...201424743507
differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids crithidia mellificae and lotmaria passim.trypanosomatids infecting honey bees have been poorly studied with molecular methods until recently. after the description of crithidia mellificae (langridge and mcghee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee trypanosomatids became available and were used to identify and describe a new trypanosomatid species from honey bees, lotmaria passim (evans and schwarz, 2014). however, an easy method to distinguish them without sequencing is not yet available. research on the r ...201526146231
species-specific diagnostics of apis mellifera trypanosomatids: a nine-year survey (2007-2015) for trypanosomatids and microsporidians in serbian honey this study, honey bees collected in serbia over 9 consecutive years (2007-2015) were retrospectively surveyed to determine the prevalence of eukaryotic gut parasites by molecular screening of archival dna samples. we developed species-specific primers for pcr to detect the two known honey bee trypanosomatid species, crithidia mellificae and the recently described lotmaria passim. these primers were validated for target specificity under single and mixed-species conditions as well as against t ...201627392956
holistic screening of collapsing honey bee colonies in spain: a case we present a holistic screening of collapsing colonies from three professional apiaries in spain. colonies with typical honey bee depopulation symptoms were selected for multiple possible factors to reveal the causes of collapse.201425223634
comprehensive bee pathogen screening in belgium reveals crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality.since the last decade, unusually high honey bee colony losses have been reported mainly in north-america and europe. here, we report on a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian par ...201323991113
crithidia mellificae n. sp. an acidophilic trypanosomatid of the honey bee apis mellifera. 19676050656
single and mixed-species trypanosome and microsporidia infections elicit distinct, ephemeral cellular and humoral immune responses in honey bees.frequently encountered parasite species impart strong selective pressures on host immune system evolution and are more apt to concurrently infect the same host, yet molecular impacts in light of this are often overlooked. we have contrasted immune responses in honey bees to two common eukaryotic endoparasites by establishing single and mixed-species infections using the long-associated parasite crithidia mellificae and the emergent parasite nosema ceranae. quantitative polymerase chain reaction ...201323529010
widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as apis mellifera filamentous virus and varroa destructor macula-like virus were also discovered in solitary bees. a microsporidium found in andrena vaga showed most resemblance to nosema thomsoni. our results ...201425196470
characterization of two species of trypanosomatidae from the honey bee apis mellifera: crithidia mellificae langridge and mcghee, and lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp.trypanosomatids are increasingly recognized as prevalent in european honey bees (apis mellifera) and by default are attributed to one recognized species, crithidia mellificae langridge and mcghee, 1967. we provide reference genetic and ultrastructural data for type isolates of c. mellificae (atcc 30254 and 30862) in comparison with two recent isolates from a. mellifera (brl and sf). phylogenetics unambiguously identify strains brl/sf as a novel taxonomic unit distinct from c. mellificae strains ...201525712037
molecular detection of protozoan parasites infecting apis mellifera colonies in japan.the role of protozoan parasites in honey bee health and distribution in the world is not well understood. therefore, we carried out a molecular survey for the presence of crithidia mellificae and apicystis bombi in the colonies of both non-native apis mellifera and native apis cerana japonica in japan. we found that a. mellifera, but not a. c. japonica, colonies are parasitized with c. mellificae and a. bombi. their absence in a. c. japonica colonies indicates that a. mellifera is their native h ...201223757133
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