bunyavirus isolations from mosquitoes in the western canadian arctic.strains of california encephalitis virus (snowshoe hare subtype) were isolated from 8 of 475 pools comprising 23 747 unengorged female mosquitoes of five species collected at three of six locations throughout the mackenzie valley of the northwest territories, canada, from latitudes 60 to 69 degrees n between 10 and 24 july 1976. minimum field infection rates included 1:2734 for aedes communis, 1:256 to 1:3662 for a. hexodontus and 1:911 to 1:1611 for a. punctor. northway virus was also isolated ...197718541
failure to propagate equine infectious anemia virus in mosquitoes and culicoides variipennis.laboratory-colonized mosquitoes, culex tarsalis, aedes aegypti, culiseta inornata, and anopheles free-borni, and the biting gnat, culicoides variipennis, were exposed to equine infectious anemia virus. exposure to the virus was by intrathoracic inoculation for mosquitoes and by oral ingestion of an infective blood meal through a membrane for c variipennis. after various intervals, groups of 15 to 20 insects were homogenized and inoculated into susceptible ponies. positive immunodiffusion test r ...197831831
cache valley virus: isolations from mosquitoes in saskatchewan, 1972-1974.eighteen isolations of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae) were obtained from a total of 113,694 mosquitoes collected in saskatchewan during the summers of 1972 to 1974. most of the isolations were from mosquitoes collected during august. culiseta inornata, the most abundant mosquito (38% of total collected), had the highest minimum vector-infection rate (0.83 isolations per 1000 mosquitoes). the virus was also isolated from culex tarsalis and aedes vexans. it is indicated in the isolations that t ...197938897
bunyavirus development in arctic and aedes aegypti mosquitoes as revealed by glucose oxidase staining and immunofluorescence.northway virus replication has been detected in salivary glands of wild-caught culiseta inornata and aedes communis mosquitoes from the western canadian arctic after incubation at 4 degrees c for 9 to 11 months, and after incubation at 13 degrees c for 3 to 4 months after they received virus by oral ingestion or intrathoracic injection. aedes hexodontus supported northway virus replication after incubation at 13 degrees c for one month after intrathoracic injection. aedes aegypti supported north ...197944464
california encephalitis virus development in mosquitoes as revealed by transmission studies, immunoperoxidase staining, and electron microscopy.isolates of the snowshoe hare subtype of california encephalitis (ce) virus from yukon mosquitoes during 1972 and 1973 were transmitted by bites of aedes aegypti mosquitoes after 4 to 5 weeks of extrinsic incubation at 55 degrees f after intrathoracic injection, and the 1973 strain was transmitted after mosquitoes were fed virus and held for 3 to 4 weeks at 75 degrees f. antigen of a 1971 isolate of ce virus (marsh lake 23) was detected in salivary glands of infected mosquitoes by the immunopero ...1975235355
california encephalitis virus prevalence throughout the yukon territory, 1971-1974.california encephalitis (ce) virus (snowshoe hare subtype) was isolated from 1 of 38 pools comprising 970 unengorged female aedes canadensis mosquitoes and from 3 of 152 pools containing 5,676 a. communis mosquitoes which were collected in the yukon territory, canada between latitudes 61 and 66 degrees n during june and july 1974. during four summers 1971 through 1974, this virus was recovered from 26 of 648 pools derived from 30,686 mosquitoes of 4 species. isolation of ce virus from 1 of 109 p ...1975239604
toxicity and residual action of the photoactivated compound, cyano-alpha-terthienyl, and its efficacy for reducing pre-imaginal populations of mosquitoes.the photoactivated compound, cyano-alpha-terthienyl (cyano-alpha-t), was highly toxic to pre-imagines of the mosquitoes culex restuans, cx. tarsalis and culiseta inornata when synergized with piperonyl butoxide (pbo). lethal concentrations for 50% mortality, determined during an outdoor trial using caged fourth-instar culex spp. larvae, were 19.4, 15.4 and 12.9 g/ha at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. no residual activity of cyano-alpha-t was observed beyond 24 h following treatmen ...19921359007
vector competence of california mosquitoes for california encephalitis and california encephalitis-like viruses.mosquitoes collected from coastal, inland valley, and alpine locations in california were evaluated for their experimental vector competence for two viruses in the california serogroup (bunyaviridae:bunyavirus). aedes squamiger, a coastal salt marsh mosquito, was an efficient vector of a california encephalitis (ce)-like virus isolated from its habitat (89% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 61% transmitted virus). aedes dorsalis, a coastal mosquito, and ae. melanimon, an inland vall ...19921360192
isolation of northway serotype and other bunyamwera serogroup bunyaviruses from california and oregon mosquitoes, 1969-1985.eight previously untyped bunyamwera serogroup bunyaviruses that had been isolated from mosquitoes collected in california and oregon between 1969 and 1985, were identified by cross-neutralization tests. four viruses from anopheles freeborni and a virus from aedes sierrensis collected in butte county in the central valley of california in 1970-71 were shown to belong to the northway serotype. the existence of a northway serotype virus in california had been inferred from previous serologic survey ...19911677543
comparative susceptibility of culex tarsalis, anopheles franciscanus, and culiseta inornata (diptera: culicidae) to plasmodium relictum (haemosporidia: plasmodiiae).repeated laboratory attempts failed to infect culiseta inornata (williston) and anopheles franciscanus mccracken with plasmodium relictum as efficiently as culex tarsalis coquillett controls. of 210 an. franciscanus that imbibed a replete meal from a parasitemic canary, two were found with oocysts and none with sporozoites. of 112 cs. inornata similarly fed, seven contained oocysts and one contained sporozoites. in contrast, of 94 cx. tarsalis tested, 80 (85%) were found with oocysts, thus confi ...19901967655
development time, oviposition activity and onset of diapause in culex tarsalis, culex restuans and culiseta inornata in southern manitoba.development times and survival of immatures and reproductive diapause of adult females of culex tarsalis, cx. restuans and culiseta inornata were investigated from hatching to adult emergence at 15, 20 and 25 degrees c in the laboratory and at natural temperatures and photoperiods in southern manitoba. based on patterns of oviposition in artificial pools operated from mid-april to the end of september and development time of the immature stages, 3 generations of cx. tarsalis, cx. restuans and cs ...19901969927
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of california.plaque reduction-serum dilution neutralization was used to evaluate the status of bunyavirus activity in deer in mountainous areas of california. antibodies against 9 bunyaviruses were measured in 337 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus, o. hemionus californicus, and o. hemionus inyoensis) and black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus). more deer from high mountainous areas had neutralizing antibodies against jamestown canyon virus than did deer from low mountainous areas (23% vs. 9%; p les ...19892496610
effects of release rates on the range of attraction of carbon dioxide to some southwestern ontario mosquito species.the effects of release rates of 0, 250, 500, 1,000 and 4,000 ml/min on the range of attraction of carbon dioxide to some southwestern ontario mosquito species was determined using ramp traps placed at 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 m from a central pressurized cylinder. for female aedes vexans, spring aedes spp. and anopheles walkeri, an increase in the release rate of co2 from 1,000 to 4,000 ml/min resulted in extension of the range of attractiveness from between 3-7 m to between 7-11 m; rates of 500 and ...19892565369
studies on the seasonality of culiseta inornata in kern county, california.the seasonal abundance of adult culiseta inornata was markedly bimodal in the san joaquin valley of kern county, california, with minima observed during both summer and midwinter. larvae were abundant in most surface water habitats during winter, but could not be found during summer. the occasional collection of females during summer indicated the persistence of an adult population. the midwinter decrease in adult abundance was attributed to the progressive mortality of the autumnal cohort and d ...19892568394
distribution of bunyamwera serogroup viruses in north america, 1956-1984.we attempted to tabulate all bunyamwera serogroup (family bunyaviridae, genus bunyavirus) isolates from north america. by summarizing information from the laboratories of the centers for disease control, data generously shared by other laboratories, and the published literature, we were able to accumulate data regarding 1,372 bunyamwera serogroup viruses. these were: tensaw (664, including 8 from vertebrates), cache valley (396, including 6 from vertebrates), main drain (160, including 14 from v ...19862869708
the host preferences of culiseta inornata in southwestern manitoba.the capillary tube precipitin test was used to determine the host utilization patterns of culiseta inornata in southwestern manitoba. ruminant blood was identified in 83.3% and equine blood in 15.8% of 1,036 positively reacting blood-meals. human, swine and avian blood accounted for 0.9% of these blood-meals and mixed blood-meals accounted for 1.5% of the total. culiseta inornata preferentially fed on large mammals, and selection between cattle and horses reflected the relative abundance of thes ...19872904945
california encephalitis virus endemicity in the yukon territory, 1972.sera from 218 of 1574 (14%) small mammals collected in the yukon territory between 14 may and 13 august 1972 neutralized a yukon strain of california encephalitis virus (snowshoe-hare subtype). these included 133 of 319 (42%) snowshoe hares (lepus americanus), 84 of 1243 (7%) ground squirrels (citellus undulatus) and 1 of 12 (8%) tree squirrels (tamiasciurus hudsonicus). california encephalitis virus (snow-shoe hare subtype) was isolated from four pools of unengorged aedes communis mosquitoes co ...19734146347
virus of the california encephalitis complex: isolation from culiseta inornata.a virus of the california encephalitis complex was isolated from two pools of the mosquito culiseta inornata, collected in mammalian burrows of alberta during the summer of 1965. this is the first recorded isolation of california encephalitis virus from mosquitoes in canada.19674381895
characterization of cell lines derived from culiseta inornata and aedes vexans mosquitoes. 19704393461
ii. morphological and cultural characteristics of culiseta inornata and aedes vexans mosquito cell lines. 19714401113
cache valley virus: experimental infection in culiseta inornata.experiments were conducted to examine the dynamics of cache valley virus in culiseta inornata, the probable chief vector of the virus. of about 1500 laboratory reared c. inornata exposed to viraemic suckling mice, 72 took a blood meal. a relatively high precentage (93%) of the latter mosquitoes became infected. the virus increased more than 100-fold in the experimentally infected mosquitoes. the increasing viral titres were noticed after 7 days and after 15 days. peak titres averaged 105.0 (mean ...19806105910
yukon isolates of snowshoe hare virus, 1972-1982.bunyaviruses including 53 strains of snowshoe hare (ssh) and 4 of northway (nor) were isolated from 132,428 unengorged adult female mosquitoes of 7 species collected throughout the boreal forest of the yukon territory and open woodland terrain in the mackenzie valley, northwest territories, canada during 8 of 11 arctic summers from 1972 through 1982. isolations of ssh virus were also achieved from mosquito larvae during 1974 and 1975. percentage virus infection rates of important vectors were ae ...19836135219
vector competence of selected mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) for california strains of northway virus (bunyaviridae: bunyavirus).selected mosquito species from central valley, coastal, and alpine habitats of california were evaluated for their vector competence for northway (nor) virus. culiseta incidens thomson, culiseta inornata (williston), and anopheles freeborni aitken were the only competent vectors when fed virus. aedes sierrensis (ludlow), as well as alpine snow pool aedes (i.e., ae. cataphylla dyar, ae. hexodontus dyar, ae. increpitus dyar and ae. tahoensis dyar), ae. melanimon dyar, ae. washinoi lanzaro & eldrid ...19938099625
vector competence of alpine, central valley, and coastal mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from california for jamestown canyon virus.mosquitoes collected from alpine, central valley, and coastal habitats in california were evaluated for their vector competence for four strains of jamestown canyon (jc) virus. three of the viral strains examined were isolated from alpine aedes species collected in california, and one, the prototype jc virus, was isolated from culiseta inornata (williston) collected in colorado. alpine aedes tahoensis dyar, ae. cataphylla dyar, ae. hexodontus dyar, ae. increpitus dyar, ae. clivis lanzaro and eld ...19938459417
susceptibility of various mosquitoes of california to subperiodic brugia malayi.laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the susceptibility of six species of mosquitoes, representing three genera, to subperiodic brugia malayi. the black-eye, liverpool strain of aedes aegypti was the susceptible control. mosquitoes were fed on microfilaremic jirds (meriones unguiculatus). all mosquitoes, except wild caught culex erythrothorax, were laboratory-reared and allowed to feed when 8 to 10 days old. anopheles freeborni, anopheles hermsi, and culiseta inornata proved refrac ...19958533667
host preference of mosquitoes in bernalillo county, new preference of mosquitoes was determined using animal-baited traps. hosts used in the study were cattle, chickens, dogs, and horses. ten mosquito species representing 4 genera were collected from the animal-baited traps. aedes vexans, aedes dorsalis, culex quinquefasciatus. culex tarsalis, and culiseta inornata were used as indicator species for data analysis. greater numbers of ae. vexans, ae. dorsalis, and cs. inornata were collected from cattle and horses than from chickens or dogs. in ad ...19979152878
use of base excision sequence scanning for detection of genetic variations in st. louis encephalitis virus isolates.twenty-two isolates of st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus of various geographical origins (brazil, argentina, panama, texas, missouri, maryland, california, and florida) were examined for genetic variation by the base excision sequence scanning (bess t-scan) method. a fragment was amplified in the envelope gene with the forward primer labeled in the pcr. the bess t-scan method determined different clusters according to the profiles generated for the isolates and successfully grouped the isolates ...199910325350
the abundance and seasonal distribution of culex mosquitoes in iowa during 1995-97.the abundance and seasonal distribution of culex mosquitoes were monitored by measuring oviposition activity during the summers of 1995, 1996, and 1997. five species of culicine mosquitoes laid egg rafts in ovitraps. egg rafts of 4 culex species-cx. restuans (54.98%), cx. pipiens (25.41%), cx. salinarius (12.18%), and cx. tarsalis (0.14%)-constituted more than 92% of the total egg rafts collected. culiseta inornata (0.1%) was the only other species to lay viable egg rafts in the ovitraps. a smal ...200011198913
vector competence of california mosquitoes for west nile identify the mosquito species competent for west nile virus (wnv) transmission, we evaluated 10 california species that are known vectors of other arboviruses or major pests: culex tarsalis, cx. pipiens pipiens, cx. p. quinquefasciatus, cx. stigmatosoma, cx. erythrothorax, ochlerotatus dorsalis, oc. melanimon, oc. sierrensis, aedes vexans, and culiseta inornata. all 10 became infected and were able to transmit wnv at some level. ochlerotatus, culiseta, and aedes were low to moderately efficie ...200212498652
cache valley virus, a previously undescribed mosquito-borne agent.cache valley virus was isolated from culiseta inornata mosquitoes collected in utah. the newly isolated agent causes signs of encephalitis in mice inoculated intracerebrally. it has been classified with the bunyamwera group of anthropod-borne (arbor) viruses.195914402567
a highly conserved candidate chemoreceptor expressed in both olfactory and gustatory tissues in the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.anopheles gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito responsible for the majority of malaria transmission in africa. the biting and host preference behavior of this disease vector is largely influenced by its sense of smell, which is presumably facilitated by g protein-coupled receptor signaling [takken, w. & knols, b. (1999) annu. rev. entomol. 44, 131-157]. because of the importance of host preference to the mosquitoes' ability to transmit disease, we have initiated studies intended to elucid ...200415037749
west nile virus and high death rate in american crows.we document effects of west nile virus (wnv) on american crows. more than two thirds of our crows died of wnv infection, peaking when the proportion of infected mosquitoes at roosts was greatest. wnv antibody prevalence in crows was low. local ecologic effects can be dramatic as wnv inhabits new areas.200415200865
west nile virus in california.west nile virus (wnv) was first isolated in california during july 2003 from a pool of culex tarsalis collected near el centro, imperial county. wnv transmission then increased and spread in imperial and coachella valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. wnv then dispersed to the city of riverside, riverside county, and to the whittier dam area of los angeles county, where it was detecte ...200415496236
entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including dipterans. fungal pathogens such as lagenidium, coelomomyces and culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. there are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. the discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pa ...200415861235
mosquito surveillance for west nile virus in southeastern 2001, west nile virus (wnv) was identified among dead american crows and bluejays in five counties in southeastern wisconsin. in response to the introduction of wnv, a pilot mosquito surveillance program was initiated in these five southeastern wisconsin counties during the summer of 2002. forty sites were selected for surveillance one night each week during a 17-week period. mosquitoes were collected in carbon dioxide-baited light traps and gravid traps. during the study period 31,419 mosqui ...200315931283
second human case of cache valley virus disease.we document the second known case of cache valley virus disease in a human. cache valley virus disease is rarely diagnosed in north america, in part because laboratories rarely test for it. its true incidence, effect on public health, and full clinical spectrum remain to be determined.200616704854
comparison of mosquito trapping method efficacy for west nile virus surveillance in new part of the west nile virus surveillance program for the state of new mexico, 13 sites along the rio grande river were sampled for mosquitoes during spring and summer 2003. we evaluated 3 different trapping procedures for their effectiveness at capturing selected species of mosquitoes. the 3 methods used were a dry ice-baited centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light trap set 1.5 m above the ground (standard method), a cdc light trap suspended within the forest canopy, and a grav ...200617019770
urban habitat evaluation for west nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in albuquerque, new part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan albuquerque area (bernalillo county, new mexico) were trapped from may through september 2004. each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard co2-baited centers for disease control and prevention light trap and a gravid trap. captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for west nile virus (wnv) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain react ...200717847847
risk factors associated with human infection during the 2006 west nile virus outbreak in davis, a residential community in northern california.we collected a total of 15,329 mosquitoes during weekly sampling in davis, ca, from april through mid-october 2006 at 21 trap sites uniformly spaced 1.5 km apart over an area of approximately 26 km(2). of these mosquitoes, 1,355 pools of culex spp. were tested by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of which 16 pools (1.2%) were positive for west nile virus (wnv). a degree-day model with a developmental threshold of 14.3 degrees c accurately predicted episodic wnv transmiss ...200818187785
hematophagous diptera collected from a horse and paired carbon dioxide-baited suction trap in southern california: relevance to west nile virus epizootiology.hematophagous diptera landing on a horse were removed by vacuum, and their numbers were related to a paired carbon dioxide-baited suction trap at three locations in southern california where west nile virus activity was high during the preceding year. insects collected from the horse included mosquitoes (nine species), biting midges (culicoides sonorensis wirth & jones), and black flies (simulium bivittatum malloch). mosquitoes were predominantly collected from the head, crest, withers, neck, ch ...200818283951
locating suitable habitats for west nile virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in shelby county, tennessee.since its first detection in 2001, west nile virus (wnv) poses a significant health risk for residents of shelby county in tennessee. this situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for wnv-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. using the mahalanobis distance statistic, we identified areas of shelby county that are e ...200818373868
persistent west nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement st. louis encephalitis virus in southeastern california, 2003-2006.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) invaded the colorado desert biome of southern california during summer 2003 and seemed to displace previously endemic st. louis encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, slev, an antigenically similar flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex). western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, weev), an antigenically distinct alphavirus, was detected during 2005 and 2006, ind ...200818533445
tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in southern manitoba, 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern manitoba, canada. over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. culiseta inornata and culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in july and august, respectively, though they were never abundant. ochlerotatus ...200818697324
mosquito species richness, composition, and abundance along habitat-climate-elevation gradients in the northern colorado front range.we exploited elevation gradients (1,500-2,400 m) ranging from plains to montane areas along the poudre river and big thompson river in the northern colorado front range to determine how mosquito species richness, composition, and abundance change along natural habitat-climate-elevation gradients. mosquito collections in 26 sites in 2006 by using co2-baited cdc light traps yielded a total of 7,136 identifiable mosquitoes of 27 species. commonly collected species included aedes vexans (meigen) (n ...200818714885
penetration and development of the mermithid nematode reesimermis nielseni in eighteen species of mosquitoes.the susceptibility of 18 species of mosquitoes to the infective stage of the mermithid nematode reesimermis nielseni was compared to that of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. thirteen species were more susceptible, with three anopheles species and culiseta inornata the most susceptible. aedes triseriatus, culex territans, and psorophora ferox were highly resistant. resistance to r. nielseni appeared to be behavioral, physical, or physiological, and some host species exhibited one or more types of ...197519308157
a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of california serogroup and cache valley viruses.a duplex taqman real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed for the detection of california (cal) serogroup viruses and cache valley virus (cvv), for use in human surveillance. the targets selected for the assay were the sequences encoding the nucleocapsid protein of cal and the g1 glycoprotein of cvv. conserved regions were selected by aligning genetic sequences from various strains available in the genbank database. primers and probes were selected in co ...200919748425
laboratory transmission of western equine encephalomyelitis virus by mosquitoes of the genera culex and culiseta.1. western equine virus has been successfully transmitted in the laboratory by 3 species of mosquitoes from 2 genera not previously reported as laboratory vectors: culex tarsalis, culiseta inornata, and culiseta incidens. 2. though transmission was not demonstrated, survival of the virus for more than a few days was shown to occur in culex stigmatosoma and psorophora confinnis. possibly transmission occurred by the former. 3. in experiments with culex tarsalis, infection of the mosquitoes occurr ...194319871339
laboratory transmission of japanese b encephalitis virus by seven species (three genera) of north american the present studies ten common species of western north american mosquitoes have been tested for their ability to act as vectors of japanese b encephalitis virus (see summary table xii). the strain of japanese b encephalitis virus which was used was adapted to direct mouse brain passage, probably a disadvantage, but no freshly isolated strain was available. of the ten species of mosquitoes tested, seven were demonstrated to be laboratory vectors. these seven species represent three genera (cu ...194619871524
potential vectors of west nile virus in a semiarid environment: doña ana county, new mexico.the potential vectors of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in doña ana county, nm, were determined during 2004 and 2005. trapping was conducted using centers for disease control and prevention miniature light-traps baited with dry ice, and gravid traps baited with a hay infusion. in addition, sentinel chickens were housed at four of the trapping locations to monitor wnv epizootic transmission. in total, 5,576 pools consisting of 115,797 female mosquitoes were tested fo ...200919960700
transmission potential of two chimeric western equine encephalitis vaccine candidates in culex tarsalis.western equine encephalitis virus (weev) is a zoonotic alphavirus that circulates in western north america between passerine birds and mosquitoes, primarily culex tarsalis. since it was isolated in 1930, weev has caused tens of thousands of equine deaths in addition to thousands of human cases. in addition because weev is a virus of agricultural importance in addition to a public health threat, we developed two live-attenuated chimeric vaccine candidates that have been shown to be immunogenic an ...201020134017
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
mosquitoes and west nile virus along a river corridor from prairie to montane habitats in eastern colorado.we conducted studies on mosquitoes and west nile virus (wnv) along a riparian corridor following the south platte river and big thompson river in northeastern colorado and extending from an elevation of 1,215 m in the prairie landscape of the eastern colorado plains to 1,840 m in low montane areas at the eastern edge of the rocky mountains in the central part of the state. mosquito collection during june-september 2007 in 20 sites along this riparian corridor yielded a total of 199,833 identifia ...200920836831
vector-host interactions governing epidemiology of west nile virus in southern california.southern california remains an important focus of west nile virus (wnv) activity, with persistently elevated incidence after invasion by the virus in 2003 and subsequent amplification to epidemic levels in 2004. eco-epidemiological studies of vectors-hosts-pathogen interactions are of paramount importance for better understanding of the transmission dynamics of wnv and other emerging mosquito-borne arboviruses. we investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engor ...201021118934
the full genome sequence of three strains of jamestown canyon virus and their pathogenesis in mice or monkeys.jamestown canyon virus (jcv), family bunyaviridae, is a mosquito-borne pathogen endemic in the united states and canada that can cause encephalitis in humans and is considered an emerging threat to public health. the virus is genetically similar to inkoo virus circulating in europe, suggesting that much of the northern hemisphere contains jcv or similar variants.201121435230
surveillance for west nile virus and vaccination of free-ranging island scrub-jays (aphelocoma insularis) on santa cruz island, california.abstract transmission of west nile virus (wnv) on mainland california poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (issj, aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on santa cruz island, california, and whose total population numbers <5000. our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of wnv introduction into the issj population. we suspect that wnv would most likely be introduced to ...201121438695
laboratory selection for an accelerated mosquito sexual development rate.abstract: background: separating males and females at the early adult stage did not ensure the virginity of females of anopheles arabiensis (dongola laboratory strain), whereas two years earlier this method had been successful. in most mosquito species, newly emerged males and females are not able to mate successfully. for anopheline species, a period of 24 h post-emergence is generally required for the completion of sexual maturation, which in males includes a 180degrees rotation of the genital ...201121595988
variation in metabolic rate of anopheles gambiae and a. arabiensis in a sahelian the sahel, the anopheles gambiae complex consists of anopheles arabiensis and the m and s molecular forms of a. gambiae sensu stricto. however, the composition of these malaria vectors varies spatially and temporally throughout the region and is thought to be linked to environmental factors such as rainfall, larval site characteristics and duration of the dry season. to examine possible physiological divergence between these taxa, we measured metabolic rates of mosquitoes during the wet seaso ...201121697426
the centers for disease control and prevention resting trap: a novel device for collecting resting mosquitoes.commercially available wood-fiber pots used to collect resting mosquitoes were modified to improve sampling efficiency. the modified traps, called the centers for disease control and prevention resting traps, collected 16.0 and 5.2 times more adult culex pipiens and cx. tarsalis than the conventional wood-fiber pots. the resting trap increases the mean number of resting mosquitoes collected per trap-night and is useful for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes.201122017100
theoretical potential of passerine filariasis to enhance the enzootic transmission of west nile virus.vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses are often infected with microfilariae (mf). laboratory studies have shown that mf can enhance the infectivity of arboviruses to mosquitoes. soon after being ingested, mf penetrate the mosquito midgut. if the host blood also contains virus (i.e., vertebrate is dually infected), penetrating mf may introduce virus into the hemocoel. this can transform otherwise virus-incompetent mosquito species into virus-competent species and simultaneously accelerate viral de ...201223270173
functional units in the labellar chemosensory hairs of the mosquito culiseta inornata (williston). 20144151072
experimental laboratory infection of mosquito larvae with fungi of the genus coelomomyces. 1. experiments with coelomomyces psorophorae var. in aedes taeniorhynchus and coelomomyces psorophorae var. in culiseta inornata. 1986239068
behavioral studies of inhibition and integration in the mosquito culiseta inornata (williston). 20154384473
arboviruses in north dakota, investigate arbovirus transmission in north dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by vero cell culture assay. seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of west nile virus (wnv), cache valley virus, jamestown canyon virus (jcv), and trivittatus virus are reported. snowshoe hare virus, potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. the risks of culex tarsalis and aede ...201425487728
an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis virus, maine, usa in 2009: outbreak description and entomological studies.from july to september, 2009, an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) occurred in five counties in maine. the virus was isolated from 15 horses, 1 llama, and pheasants in three separate captive flocks. one wild turkey, screened before translocation, also showed exposure to the virus in january 2010. two pools of culiseta melanura (coquillett) tested positive for eeev during routine seasonal surveillance in york county in september, but none of the mosquitoes collected during rapi ...201223208877
predicting the mosquito species and vertebrate species involved in the theoretical transmission of rift valley fever virus in the united states.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental africa to madagascar and the arabian peninsula. the establishment of rvfv in north america would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. published and unpublished data on rvfv vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the united states were combined ...201425211133
genetic diversity and population genetics of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae: culex spp.) from the sonoran desert of north america.the population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of culex mosquitoes inhabiting the sonoran desert region of north america were studied using mitochondrial dna and microsatellite molecular markers. phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the baja california peninsula, and mainland localities in southern arizona, usa and sonora, mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding ...201324302868
molecular identification of vertebrate and hemoparasite dna within mosquito blood meals from eastern north understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. this study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central red river valley of north dakota. mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the mi ...201324107213
jamestown canyon virus disease in the united states-2000-2013.jamestown canyon virus (jcv) is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus in the california serogroup that can cause an acute febrile illness, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. we describe epidemiologic and clinical features for jcv disease cases occurring in the united states during 2000-2013. a case of jcv disease was defined as an acute illness in a person with laboratory evidence of a recent jcv infection. during 2000-2013, we identified 31 cases of jcv disease in residents of 13 states. the median ...201526033022
anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in north america over the past century.the recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. however, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (ddt; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito ...201627922001
analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals.we assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. mosquitoes were trapped at the rio grande zoo in albuquerque, nm, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. the distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. we found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. th ...022548540
north american wetlands and mosquito control.wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. there is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by ...201223222252
bionomics and vector potential of culex thriambus (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in lake county, california.california statewide west nile virus (wnv) minimum infection rates in culex thriambus dyar mosquitoes are high; however, few specimens are submitted and tested each year, as their distribution seems limited to larval habitats along riparian systems. to evaluate the role of cx. thriambus in the amplification, maintenance, and overwintering of wnv in lake county, ca, the bionomics and vector potential of the species was investigated during 2014 and 2015. culex thriambus was the most abundant mosqu ...201627493251
ecophysiology of anopheles gambiae s.l.: persistence in the sahel.the dry-season biology of malaria vectors is poorly understood, especially in arid environments when no surface waters are available for several months, such as during the dry season in the sahel. here we reappraise results on the dry-season physiology of members of the anopheles gambiae s.l. complex in the broad context of dormancy in insects and especially in mosquitoes. we examine evidence on seasonal changes in reproduction, metabolism, stress tolerance, nutrition, molecular regulation, and ...201424933461
mosquito oviposition behavior and vector control.the burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. the selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. the dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of ovipositio ...201627869724
phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology.phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. the generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address.200920028549
evidence for a lectin specific for sulfated glycans in the salivary gland of the malaria vector, anopheles gambiae.salivary gland homogenate (sgh) from the female mosquitoes anopheles gambiae, an. stephensi, an. freeborni, an. dirus and an. albimanus were found to exhibit hemagglutinating (lectin) activity. lectin activity was not found for male an. gambiae, or female ae aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus, phlebotomus duboscqi, and lutzomyia longipalpis. with respect to species-specificity, an. gambiae sgh agglutinates red blood cells (rbc) from humans, horse, sheep, goat, pig, and cow; it is less active for ra ...201425207644
a review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. the antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different t ...021864156
leucokinin mimetic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron.insect kinins (leucokinins) are multifunctional peptides acting as neurohormones and neurotransmitters. in females of the mosquito vector aedes aegypti (l.), aedeskinins are known to stimulate fluid secretion from the renal organs (malpighian tubules) and hindgut contractions by activating a g protein-coupled kinin receptor designated "aedae-kr." we used protease-resistant kinin analogs 1728, 1729, and 1460 to evaluate their effects on sucrose perception and feeding behavior. in no-choice feedin ...201627274056
identification of morphological and chemical markers of dry- and wet-season conditions in female anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.increased understanding of the dry-season survival mechanisms of anopheles gambiae in semi-arid regions could benefit vector control efforts by identifying weak links in the transmission cycle of malaria. in this study, we examined the effect of photoperiod and relative humidity on morphologic and chemical traits known to control water loss in mosquitoes.201424970701
bunyavirus-vector interactions.the bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the hantavirus, orthobunyavirus, nairovirus, tospovirus, and phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. the viruses within the orthobunyavirus, nairovirus, and phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. this review present ...201425402172
targeting male mosquito mating behaviour for malaria control.malaria vector control relies heavily on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) and indoor residual spraying (irs). these, together with the combined drug administration efforts to control malaria, have reduced the death toll to less than 700,000 deaths/year. this progress has engendered real excitement but the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is challenging our ability to sustain and consolidate the substantial gains that have been made. research is required to discover ...201526113015
dry season reproductive depression of anopheles gambiae in the sahel.the african malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae, is widespread south of the sahara including in dry savannahs and semi-arid environments where no surface water exists for several months a year. adults of the m form of an. gambiae persist through the long dry season, when no surface waters are available, by increasing their maximal survival from 4 weeks to 7 months. dry season diapause (aestivation) presumably underlies this extended survival. diapause in adult insects is intrinsically linked to ...201222609421
a mosquito sperm's journey from male ejaculate to egg: mechanisms, molecules, and methods for exploration.the fate of mosquito sperm in the female reproductive tract has been addressed sporadically and incompletely, resulting in significant gaps in our understanding of sperm-female interactions that ultimately lead to fertilization. as with other diptera, mosquito sperm have a complex journey to their ultimate destination, the egg. after copulation, sperm spend a short time at the site of insemination where they are hyperactivated and quickly congregate near the entrance of the spermathecal ducts. w ...027147424
evaluation of mosquito responses to pyrethroid insecticides topically applied to sheep.a rise in the incidence of mosquito-transmitted cache valley virus (cvv) in lambs in 2011 prompted a study to evaluate on-animal pyrethroid insecticides to reduce mosquito attacks on sheep. using enclosure traps for 1 night per wk for 6 wk, we compared engorgement rates of mosquitoes given the opportunity to feed on untreated sheep and sheep treated with 1 python insecticide ear tag (containing 10% zeta-cypermethrin and 20% piperonyl butoxide) per animal or 2 synergized permethrin body spray tre ...201323923329
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis (nematoda: filarioidea) in mosquitoes from northeast arkansas, the united states.a mosquito survey was conducted to identify which species of mosquitoes carry dirofilaria immitis (leidy) (nematoda: filarioidea), dog heartworm, in northeast arkansas. using polymerase chain reaction, mosquitoes were analyzed for d. immitis, dirofilaria repens railliet & henry, and acanthocheilonema dracunculoides cobbold. mosquitoes were collected from april to october 2009 using black light ultraviolet traps baited with dry ice. sixteen mosquito species were identified. d. immitis was identif ...201323926787
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: onchocercidae) infection in aedes, culex, and culiseta mosquitoes from north san joaquin valley, ca.canine heartworm is one of the most serious infections primarily affecting domestic dogs but will also infect cats and wild canids. to evaluate the potential of mosquitoes as vectors of dog heartworm, dirofilaria immitis (leidy) in san joaquin county, ca, we collected mosquitoes in 2011 and analyzed for infection with heartworm by using polymerase chain reaction. of 3,000 mosquito pools (total number of specimens = 36,554), d. immitis dna was detected in 97 pools of seven species, and the overal ...201324843938
studies on bioassay of the entomopathogenic hyphomycete fungus tolypocladium cylindrosporum in mosquitoes.larvae of aedes aegypti, ae. vexans and culiseta inornata were used to study the pathogenicity of the hyphomycete fungus tolypocladium cylindrosporum. experiments consisted of continuous exposure of second-instar larvae to 5 concentrations of conidia at 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees c. the 3 test species were susceptible at all temperatures tested. there was generally a direct relationship between dosage and pathogenicity in the host population, however linear relationships between probit mortality ...19872904966
evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge.mortality of american white pelican (pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks attributed to west nile virus (wnv) prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern montana. one component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for culex tarsalis, the primary vector of wnv in the region, and the potential bridge vectors aedes vexans and culiseta inornata. to accomplish this, 3 methods were evaluated to collect bloodfed mosquitoes: a gasoline powered aspir ...201323923324
evaluation of culture filtrates of culicinomyces clavisporus: mycoadulticide for culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi.the culicinomyces clavisporus is a fungal pathogen of a wide range of mosquito larvae. the c. clavisporus was isolated from the larvae of culiseta inornata. we have investigated into potential pathogenicity against the adults of culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi. the culture filtrates released from the strain of c. clavisporus 46258 were grown in the emypss broth, were filtered and used for the bioassays after a growth of 15 days. the results demonstrated these metabo ...201221647670
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--a twelfth symposium. denver, colorado, february 2002. summaries.the 12th annual latin american symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 68th annual meeting in denver, co, in february 2002. the principal objective, as for the previous 11 symposia, was to promote participation in the amca by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 35 presentations that were given orally in spanish or presented as posters by participants ...200212322934
colonization of abandoned swimming pools by larval mosquitoes and their predators following hurricane katrina.thousands of flooded swimming pools were abandoned in new orleans following hurricane katrina and provided a natural experiment to examine colonization of a novel aquatic habitat by mosquito larvae and their aquatic predators. we conducted a randomized survey of flooded swimming pools in two neighborhoods in january 2006 and found that 64% contained mosquito larvae, 92% contained predatory invertebrates, and 47% contained fishes. we collected 12,379 immature mosquitoes representing five species, ...200818697320
surveillance for zika in mexico: naturally infected mosquitoes in urban and semi-urban areas.zika cases have been reported in 29 out of the 32 states of mexico. information regarding which mosquito species might be driving zika virus transmission/maintenance in nature must be regularly updated. from january 2017 to november 2018, mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using the cdc backpack aspirator in urban and semi-urban areas with evidence of mosquito-borne disease transmission. 3873 mosquito pools were tested for zika infection using the cdc trioplex real-time rt-pcr. for e ...202031902313
entomological and sociobehavioral components of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection in two florida communities with a high or low prevalence of dogs with heartworm infection.objective to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) and mosquito vectors among residents (dog owners and non-dog owners) in 2 neighborhoods in florida and to perform entomological surveys of mosquito species in these neighborhoods and identify mosquito species infected with heartworm. design cross-sectional study. sample 2,572 mosquitoes and 96 residents of 2 northern florida communities. procedures a 32-item questionnaire was orally administered to ...201930668298
species abundance and seasonal activity of mosquitoes on cattle facilities in southern alberta, canada.seventeen mosquito species were collected at eight cattle facilities in southern alberta, canada, during 2002-2004. five species, culiseta inornata (williston), aedes dorsalis (meigen), culex tarsalis (coquillett), aedes vexans (meigen), and aedes campestris dyar & knab accounted for 93.6% of the mosquitoes collected. culiseta inornata, ae. dorsalis, and ae. campestris were trapped earliest in the year. cs. inornata was active latest in the year and had the longest period of activity. ae. dorsal ...201020180306
isolation of western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus from mosquitoes in saskatchewan, 1962.saskatchewan, in the summer of 1962, was the scene of an extensive outbreak of western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) in horses. the results of mosquito survey work showed culiseta inornata and culex tarsalis respectively to be the two most abundant mosquito species during midsummer. these species are those reported to be most commonly associated with outbreaks of wee. five hundred and sixty-four pools of mosquitoes were examined for the presence of wee virus. six pools, three of c. tarsalis and ...196317649476
immunoblot analysis of ige and igg binding antigens in extracts of mosquitos aedes vexans, culex tarsalis and culiseta inornata.extracts of one globally distributed mosquito species (aedes vexans) and two north american species (culex tarsalis and culiseta inornata) were prepared from heads and thoraxes. proteins of the three extracts were separated by 12% sds-page and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblotting. immunoblotting was completed by sequential incubations of the membranes with a pooled human serum from subjects allergic to mosquito bites, monoclonal antibodies to human ige or igg, and goat anti ...19968645977
purinergic reception by culicine mosquitoes.1. adult female culex pipiens and culiseta inornata have purinergic receptors that respond to extracellular adp and related compounds. stimulation of these receptors caused ingestion of artificial diets. addition of bicarbonate to the saline solvent enhanced the phagostimulatory effect. saline-bicarbonate was as effective a solvent as blood plasma for cx. pipiens, and was used in the dose-effect determinations. ranking of the potencies was: adp greater than amp-pnp greater than atp = amp greater ...19882903919
vertical and venereal transmission of california group viruses by aedes triseriatus and culiseta inornata mosquitoes.aedes triseriatus and culiseta inornata mosquitoes were compared in their ability to transmit vertically la crosse (lac) and snowshoe hare (ssh) viruses. lac virus was transovarially transmitted by 53% of ae. triseriatus, the natural vector, and by 22% of cs. inornata mosquitoes. ssh virus was transovarially transmitted by 89% of cs. inornata, a proposed natural vector, and by 29% of ae. triseriatus. a genetic approach, using lac, ssh, and lac/ssh reassortant viruses was then used to elucidate v ...19911686962
mosquito-borne arboviruses in arctic america.mosquito-borne arboviruses are prevalent throughout subarctic regions of canada and alaska, principally in the boreal forest extending between latitudes 53 and 66 degrees n, but they have been identified in tundra regions as far north as 70 degrees n. all mosquito-borne agents have been bunyaviruses, comprising principally the snowshoe hare subtype of california encephalitis (ce) virus, but also northway virus. mosquito vectors comprise several aedes species and culiseta inornata, all of which h ...19751602
morphology of the thoracic skeleton and muscles of the mosquito, culiseta inornata (williston), (diptera: culicidae).the objectives of this research were to investigate the morphology of the thoracic skeleton and muscles of the mosquito, culiseta inornata (williston). the results are presented in 25 text figures and descriptions of each skeletal part and muscle. undescribed exoskeletal structures are the postmediotergite, intersegmental cleft on the caudal margin of the metapleuron, and the parascutellar process. this process is considered a homologue of the fourth axillary. the acrotergite 2 and subalifer wer ...197730249070
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