organochlorine and organotin compounds in caspian seals (phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the caspian sea in 2000.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of caspian seals (phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the caspian sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (cdv) in 2000. among organochlorines analyzed, ddts were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 microg/g on a lipid-weight basis. caspian seals collected in 2000 during the epizootic had higher concentrations of or ...200211911523
retrospective differentiation of canine distemper virus and phocine distemper virus in phocids.formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from one caspian seal (phoca caspica), one harp seal (phoca groenlandica), one hooded seal (cystophora cristata), and one harbor seal (phoca vitulina vitulina) were used to compare the utility of immunohistochemistry (ihc) versus that of a novel seminested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) to detect and differentiate canine distemper virus (cdv) and phocine distemper virus (pdv). four antibodies made against pdv were able to detect ...200415137488
corynebacterium caspium sp. nov., from a caspian seal (phoca caspica).a previously unknown gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-lipophilic, catalase-positive, irregular rod-shaped bacterium (m/106/00/5(t)) was isolated, in mixed culture, from the penis of a caspian seal (phoca caspica). the strain was a facultative anaerobe that was able to grow at 22 and 42 degrees c. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing showed that the organism formed a hitherto unknown subline within the genus corynebacterium. sequence divergence values of more than 5 % from other described co ...200415143043
mass die-off of caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus.thousands of caspian seals (phoca caspica) died in the caspian sea from april to august 2000. lesions characteristic of morbillivirus infection were found in tissue specimens from dead seals. canine distemper virus infection was identified by serologic examination, reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of selected p gene fragments. these results implicate canine distemper virus infection as the primary cause of death.200011076723
[molecular-genetic comparison of morbilliviruses which caused epizooty in baikal (phoca siberica) and caspian (phoca caspica) seals].the nucleotide sequences were determined for a phosphoprotein gene fragment of canine distemper virus (cdv) by using the rt-pcr method with the subsequent sequencing of amplicons from total rna isolated from 2 samples of caspian seals, 15 samples of baikal seals and from samples of dog's and sea-lion's brains. the above materials were phylogenetically analyzed. the heterogeneity of the virus circulating in the baikal-seal population was demonstrated. morbillivirus, that caused epizooty in caspia ...200314664160
the origin and genetic relationships of the baikal seal, phoca sibirica, by restriction analysis of mitochondrial dna.the origin and genetic relationships of the baikal seal, phoca sibirica, were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial dna (mtdna). using 17 different six-base recognition restriction endonucleases, we examined 98 baikal seals, and two other related species, the ringed seal, p. hispida, (n=87), and the caspian seal, p. caspica, (n=94). analysis revealed the existence of 87 mtdna haplotypes in the total of 279 specimens. the haplotypes of each species were div ...200314624043
accumulation of heavy metals in caspian seals (phoca caspica).concentrations of heavy metals (fe, mn, zn, cu, pb, ni, cd, co, and hg) were determined in the muscle, liver, and kidney of 42 caspian seals and fishes collected from the caspian sea in 1993. higher mn and lower fe and cu concentrations were found in the liver in comparison with other marine pinnipeds. lower cu concentrations in the liver appear to be a common feature in small seals belonging to subgenus pusa, which include ringed, baikal, and caspian seals. however, low fe and high mn in livers ...200212045881
arsenic accumulation in the liver tissue of marine mammals.arsenic concentrations were determined in livers of 226 individuals representing 16 different marine mammal species to elucidate its accumulation with age, sex, and feeding habits. arsenic concentrations varied widely among species and individuals, and ranged from < 0.10 to 7.68 micrograms g-1 dry weight. marine mammals feeding on cephalopods and crustaceans contained higher arsenic concentrations than those feeding on fishes. no significant gender difference in arsenic concentration was found f ...200111706803
[anisakiasis in the caspian seal].on the basis of 548 helminthological dissections the main foci of anisakis infection of caspian seal and the character of pathomorphological process in the stomach infected with the nematode anisakis schupakovi have been established.20122748202
localization of the highest retinal resolution area in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the caspian seal phoca caspica: a topographic study. 201620170077
collapse of a marine mammal species driven by human impacts.understanding historical roles of species in ecosystems can be crucial for assessing long term human impacts on environments, providing context for management or restoration objectives, and making conservation evaluations of species status. in most cases limited historical abundance data impedes quantitative investigations, but harvested species may have long-term data accessible from hunting records. here we make use of annual hunting records for caspian seals (pusa caspica) dating back to the ...201223028446
assessment of caspian seal by-catch in an illegal fishery using an interview-based approach.the caspian seal (pusa caspica) has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by iucn. we made the first quantitative assessment of caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north caspian sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of russia (kalmykia, dagestan), kazakhstan and turkmenistan. we recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurre ...201323840590
udp-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt) 2b subfamily interspecies differences in carnivores.udp-glucuronosyltransferases (ugts) are among the most important xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that conjugate a wide range of chemicals. previous studies showed that felidae and pinnipedia species have very low ugt activities toward some phenolic compounds because of the ugt1a6 pseudogene and small numbers of ugt1a isozymes. in addition to the ugt1as, ugt2bs isozymes also conjugate various endogenous (e.g., estrogens, androgens, and bile acids) and exogenous compounds (opioids, nsaids, and env ...201728453659
temporal trends of persistent organochlorine contamination in russia: a case study of baikal and caspian examine temporal trends of organochlorine (oc) contamination in lake baikal and the caspian sea, concentrations of persistent ocs, such as ddt and its metabolites (ddts), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), hexachlorocyclohexane (hchs), chlordane compounds (chls), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (tcpme), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (tcpmoh), in the blubber of female seals were determined. collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995 and 1998. ddt concentrations in baikal and caspian seals showed ...200312712284
characterization of species differences in xenobiotic metabolism in non-experimental animals.the ability to metabolize xenobiotics in organisms has a wide degree of variation among organisms. this is caused by differences in the pattern of xenobiotic bioaccumulation among organisms, which affects their tolerance. it has been reported in the veterinary field that glucuronidation (ugt) activity in cats, acetylation activity in dogs and sulfation (sult) activity in pigs are sub-vital in these species, respectively, and require close attention when prescribing the medicine. on the other han ...201728250318
a histopathology study of caspian seal (pusa caspica) (phocidae, mammalia) liver infected with trematode, pseudamphistomum truncatum (rudolphi, 1819) (opisthorchidae, trematoda).main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, pseudamphistomom truncatum against the caspian seal (pusa caspica) and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (lm) and electron microscopy (em) levels.201725848395
the role of canine distemper virus and persistent organic pollutants in mortality patterns of caspian seals (pusa caspica).persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (cdv) occurred in caspian seals (pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. here we integrate caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971-2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organoc ...201424987857
re: the 2000 canine distemper epidemic in caspian seals (phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors. 200617099170
[antibodies to brucella in caspian seals].as the result of the study of caspian seals, the presence of antibodies to brucella was detected in the blood serum of these animals. the annual dynamics of the proportion of seropositive animals was noted. these data indicate the possibility of the circulation of the infective agent of brucellosis in the population of caspian seals.200415636154
contamination levels and specific accumulation of persistent organochlorines in caspian seal (phoca caspica) from the caspian sea, russia.persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) including coplanar congeners, ddts, hchs, chlordanes (chls), and hcb, were determined in the blubber of caspian seals (phoca caspica) and their fish diet (rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern caspian sea, russia. notable concentrations of ddts and hchs were found at mean values of 19 and 1.3 microg/g on wet-weight basis in adult male seals, respectively. pcb pollution in caspian seals was not so considerable compare ...199910473798
uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt) xenobiotic metabolizing activity and genetic evolution in pinniped species.there are various interspecies differences in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. it is known that cats show slow glucuronidation of drugs such as acetaminophen and strong side effects due to the ugt1a6 pseudogene. recently, the ugt1a6 pseudogene was found in the northern elephant seal and otariidae was suggested to be ugt1a6-deficient. from the results of measurements of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt) activity using liver microsomes, the steller sea lion, northern fur seal, and ...201526179383
elevated concentrations of trace elements in caspian seals (phoca caspica) found stranded during the mass mortality events in 2000.concentrations of v, mn, fe, cr, co, cu, zn, as, se, mo, ag, cd, tl, hg, pb, and organic mercury (org-hg) were determined in liver, kidney, and muscle of healthy caspian seals ( phoca caspica) collected in 1998. these concentrations were compared with those of seals infected with canine distemper virus (cdv) found stranded along the coastal areas in 2000. concentrations of toxic elements (as, ag, cd, tl, hg, pb, and org-hg) in caspian seals stranded in 2000 were comparable or lower than those of ...200211910465
caspian seal die-off is caused by canine distemper virus. 200111239773
retinal ganglion cell layer of the caspian seal pusa caspica: topography and localization of the high-resolution area.retinal topography, cell density and sizes of ganglion cells in the caspian seal (pusa caspica) were analyzed in retinal whole mounts stained with cresyl-violet. the topographic distribution of ganglion cells displayed an area of high cell density located in the temporal quadrant of the retina and was similar to the area centralis of terrestrial carnivores. it extended nasally, above the optic disk, as a streak of increased cell density. in different whole mounts, the peak cell density in the hi ...201021079394
virology. canine virus blamed in caspian seal deaths.canine distemper virus has been identified as the most likely cause of a die-off of thousands of seals in the caspian sea earlier this year. although the findings by two independent research groups allay fears of a threat to humans, they heighten concerns about the survival of the imperiled species.200011032547
canine distemper virus in a caspian seal. 19989885131
the muscles of mastication in the caspian seal (phoca caspica).the muscles of mastication and their related skull characters in the caspian seal (phoca caspica) were anatomically examined and compared with those of the baikal (phoca sibirica) and ringed (phoca hispida) seals. a well-developed masseter muscle was observed in the caspian seal, whereas the temporal muscle consisted of thin bundles. the skull of the caspian seal possessed the same thin frontal bone and the dorso-ventrally developed zygomatic arch found in the baikal seal that are required to in ...200212484416
[sleep of caspian seals].ecog both hemispheres, eog, neck emg, ecg and electrical activity of olfactory bulbs were recorded in 4 free moving adult caspean seals of both sexes. their sleep on land and in water was compared. the wakefulness occupied 85,5 +/- 1,5% of total recording time, the slow wave sleep--12,8 +/- 1,4% and paradoxical sleep--1,7 +/- 0,2%. unlike the dolphins, the caspean seals possess no unihemispheric slow wave sleep. when the seals sleep on the land or on the water surface and do not change their pos ...20066741278
[comparative morphology of the cerebellum of the seal (pinnipedia, mammalia)].the work describes the anatomical structure of the cerebellum of the caspian seal (pusa caspica gmelin) and greenland seal (pagophoca groenlandica erxleben). the shape of the cerebellum, the disposition of the main lobes and convolutions are characterized. the schemes of three projections of the cerebellum of both species are presented. the figures of the cerebellum size, its absolute and relative weight and the surface of the cerebellum and its portions in seals have been obtained. the well-dev ...19751191041
persistent organic pollutants (pops) in caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001.persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, pcbs, and pcdds/dfs were determined in the blubber of caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. ddts were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 microg/g lipid. a negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. during spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due t ...200817900768
[the quantity of bone marrow in the caspian seal]. 19685745528
[canine distemper virus--an agent looking for new hosts].canine distemper is caused by the canine distemper virus (cdv), a rna virus belonging to the genus morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae. the genus morbillivirus includes measles virus, rinderpest virus and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus. the host spectrum of cdv, which includes numerous families of carnivores, has been changed in the last years and distemper-like diseases have been observed in numerous other species. these include epidemics in large felids, marine mammals and javelinas. ...200312756952
the 2000 canine distemper epidemic in caspian seals (phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors.more than 10,000 caspian seals (phoca caspica) were reported dead in the caspian sea during spring and summer 2000. we performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the cause of mortality and potential contributory factors. the monthly stranding rate in 2000 was up to 2.8 times the historic mean. it was preceded by an unusually mild winter, as observed before in mass mo ...200616672579
comparison of trace element accumulation in baikal seals (pusa sibirica), caspian seals (pusa caspica) and northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus).concentrations of 18 trace elements (v, cr, mn, co, cu, zn, se, rb, sr, zr, mo, ag, cd, sb, cs, hg, tl and pb) were determined in liver, kidney, muscle and hair of baikal seals, caspian seals and northern fur seals. all the three species showed the highest concentrations of hg, v, mn, se and ag in liver, cd, co and tl in kidney, and cs in muscle among the soft tissues examined. the highest burdens of zn, rb and cs were observed in muscle, mo and ag in liver, and sb and pb in hair in all the thre ...200414553998
seroepidemiological survey of distemper virus infection in the caspian sea and in lake baikal.forty caspian seals were surveyed seroepidemiologically between 1993 and 1998 around the times of mass mortality that occurred in 1997 in the caspian sea and seven baikal seals were also surveyed in 1998. virus neutralizing tests and elisa clearly suggested that distemper virus epidemic was caused in caspian seals before the spring of 1997 and that cdv infection continued to occur in lake baikal in recent years.200111470542
pup production and breeding distribution of the caspian seal (phoca caspica) in relation to human impacts.aerial surveys of caspian seals on the winter ice field in kazakhstan territorial waters were carried out in february 2005 and 2006 to assess the annual pup production for the species and natural predation on newborn pups. estimated pup production was 21063 in 2005 and 16905 in 2006 (including an estimated figure for pups born in russian territory in each year). the breeding population size of approximately 20 000 females is much less than published estimates from the late 1980s. eagles were the ...200818828281
serological evidence of transmission of human influenza a and b viruses to caspian seals (phoca caspica).seroepidemiological surveillance of influenza in caspian seals (phoca caspica) was conducted. antibodies to influenza a virus were detected in 54% (7/13), 57% (4/7), 40% (6/15) and 26% (11/42) of the serum samples collected in 1993, 1997, 1998 and 2000 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in an hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test using h1-h15 reference influenza a viruses as antigens, more than half of the examined elisa-positive sera reacted with an h3n2 prototype strain a/aichi/2/68 ...200212437032
cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a pantropic morbillivirus with a worldwide distribution, which causes fatal disease in dogs. affected animals develop dyspnea, diarrhea, neurological signs and profound immunosuppression. systemic cdv infection, resembling distemper in domestic dogs, can be found also in wild canids (e.g. wolves, foxes), procyonids (e.g. raccoons, kinkajous), ailurids (e.g. red pandas), ursids (e.g. black bears, giant pandas), mustelids (e.g. ferrets, minks), viverrids (e.g. civet ...201528616465
organochlorine contaminants in caspian and harbour seal blubber.organochlorine contaminants (pesticides and individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, pcbs) were measured in caspian (phoca caspica) seal blubber and compared with concentrations in harbour (phoca vitulina) seal blubber. concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and its metabolites were significantly higher in caspian seal than harbour seal samples, whereas pcb congeners were significantly higher in harbour than caspian seals. our finding suggests that caspian seals are ...199915093047
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