toxicity and residue studies of fenvalerate to some selected freshwater fishes.the toxicity test of fenvalerate were conducted to fresh water fishes labeo rohita (hamilton), catla catla (hamilton), cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton), aplocheilus punchex (hamilton) and ctenopharygodon idellus (valenciennes). the static and continuous flow through tests were employed to determine the lethal concentration (lc50) for 24h, 48h and 96h to the test fish. it was observed that cirrhinus mrigala is more sensitive to this pesticide followed by applochielus punchex, lebeo rohita, catla catl ...200112017257
biochemical changes induced by chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate compound in sublethal concentrations to the freshwater fish catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala.freshwater fishes, catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala were exposed to sublethal concentration of the pesticide chlorpyrifos an organophosphate pesticide. biochemical changes in total glycogen, total proteins, lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), alanine amino transferase (alat) and aspartate amino transferase (aat) and nucleic acids, deoxy and ribose, were estimated in the tissues of fishes exposed to the toxicant chlorpyrifos technical grade. the decrease in total glycogen and proteins ove ...200516334264
antibacterial properties of fish mucus from channa punctatus and cirrhinus mrigala.extracts and preparations made from the animal origin were used extensively in folk and modern medicine for treating many human diseases. in the present study efforts have been made to find the antimicrobial effect of the mucus of two bottom dwelling fresh water fishes namely, channa punctatus and cirrhinus mrigala. fish mucus were tested against ten pathogenic bacteria such as escherichia coli, klebsiella oxytoca, klebsiella pneumoniae, lactobacillus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aer ...200818700685
[organization of olfactory system of the indian major carp labeo rohita (ham.): a study using scanning and transmission microscopy].catla catla, labeo rohita, and cirrhinus mrigala are important alimentary fish in india. their reproduction (breeding) depends on season. the fish perceive external factors-stimuli and chemical signals through the olfactory system that plays the key role in the central regulation of reproduction. however, in the available literature, any electron microscopy data on organization of olfactory elements in these fish are absent. we have studied ultrastructure of the olfactory organ in male l. rohita ...200717725034
nitrite toxicity in indian major carps: sublethal effect on selected enzymes in fingerlings of catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala.the effects of 96-h sublethal exposure of nitrite (1, 2, 4, 8 and 10.4 mg l(-1)) on selected enzymatic activities in serum and tissues of fingerlings of catla (catla catla), rohu (labeo rohita) and mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) were studied for the first time in these species. all three species responded almost identically to nitrite exposure. with increasing nitrite concentration, reduction in activities was observed in acetylcholinesterase (ache) in brain and liver; alkaline phosphatase (alp) in ...200415313441
effect of phenol on haematological components of indian major carps catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala.the effect of phenol on haematological components of indian major carps, catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala were observed. after exposure to sublethal concentrations of 5.17 mg l(-1), 6.06 mg l(-1) and 6.99 mg l(-1), the number of red blood cells, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume all decreased but the glucose level increased. the order of decrease in the haematological components of the three fish is in the order of catla catla > labeo rohita > cirrhinus mrigala.200717915746
studies of some biochemical changes in the tissues of catla catla (hamilton), labeo rohita (hamilton) and cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton) exposed to nh3-n, no2-n and no3-n.biochemical changes, total proteins, glycogen, aspartate and alanine (aat and alat) amino transferases were studied with exposure of sublethal concentrations of nh3-n, no2-n and no3-n to the freshwater fish catla catla (hamilton), labeo rohita (hamilton) and cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton). depletion in the food reserves and enzyme activity was observed in all the three fish species exposed to these toxicants. hence, the concentrations of nh3, no2 and no3 in water need to be monitored in water qual ...200212674377
the effect of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate in acetyl cholinesterase activity in freshwater fishes.the freshwater fish catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala are exposed to the toxicant chlorpyrifos, an organo phosphate commonly used in agriculture as well as in aquaculture. the effect was studied on the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase activity which was inhibited in the selected tissues of the fish. in different tissues and in brain, the maximum inhibition was observed.200516114464
microbiological quality of finfish and shellfish with special reference to shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o157.the objective of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of fish and shellfish from kolkata, india, with special emphasis on e. coli o157. fresh and ice-preserved labeo rohita, catla catla, cirrhinus mrigala, oreochromis mossambica, heteropneustesfossilis, clarias batrachus, and penaeus monodon were examined for total heterotrophic bacteria and coliform loads and presence of e. coli and e. coli serotype o157 by culture method. while the total plate count of bacteria was within ac ...200819241559
reproduction phase-related expression of gnrh-like immunoreactivity in the olfactory receptor neurons, their projections to the olfactory bulb and in the nervus terminalis in the female indian major carp cirrhinus mrigala (ham.).the reproductive biology of the indian major carp cirrhinus mrigala is tightly synchronized with the seasonal changes in the environment. while the ovaries show growth from february through june, the fish spawn in july-august to coincide with the monsoon; thereafter the fish pass into the postspawning and resting phases. we investigated the pattern of gnrh immunoreactivity in the olfactory system at regular intervals extending over a period of 35 months. although no signal was detected in the ol ...200312957480
antimicrobial resistance and in vitro gene transfer in bacteria isolated from the ulcers of eus-affected fish in india.the occurrence of drug resistance and plasmid-mediated transferability was investigated in 15 aeromonas isolates collected from the ulcers of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected fishes katla (catla catla), mrigel (cirrhinus mrigala) and punti (puntius sp.).200919709369
immunisation of indian major carps against aeromonas hydrophila by intraperitoneal injection.the indian major carps catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala were immunised against the potent bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila by the intraperitoneal route, in field conditions. two different polyvalent antigen preparations namely, whole cell and extracellular products (ecp) were used. immunisation schedule consisting of a single booster dose given 28 days after priming resulted in a good agglutinating antibody response in the carps. kinetics of the response were similar ...200212201649
production of superoxide anion by head-kidney leucocytes of indian major carps immunised with bacterins of aeromonas hydrophila.on contact with micro-organisms or any other antigenic particles which are recognised as phagocytosable, the leucocytes of vertebrates raise their oxygen consumption suddenly (respiratory burst). the consumed oxygen is then converted into reactive oxygen species (ros). an effort has been made in the present study to estimate the production of superoxide anion, one of the ros, by the resident as well as activated head-kidney leucocytes of indian major carps. activation was accomplished by immunis ...200211931016
toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorpyrifos in indian carp catla catla (hamilton), labeo rohita (hamilton), and cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton). 200415669740
effect of different concentrations of cryoprotectant and extender on the hatching of indian major carp embryos (labeo rohita, catla catla, and cirrhinus mrigala) stored at low temperaturerohu (labeo rohita), catla (catla catla) and mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) embryos were examined for hatching success after short-term (8-13 h) storage at low temperature (4 degreesc) using three concentrations of three cryoprotectants, methanol (1, 2, and 3 m), dimethyl sulfoxide (1.282, 1.923, and 2.564 m, equal to 10, 15, and 20%), and glycerol (1.087, 1.63, and 2.174 m, equal to 10, 15, and 20%), separately as well as together with a single concentration of sucrose (0.5 m). the aim was to deter ...19989917348
purification and properties of an indian major carp (cirrhinus mrigala, ham.) pituitary thyrotropin.thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) was isolated and purified from the pituitaries of indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala, with the help of a sensitive in vitro bioassay system, based on incubating isolated thyroid follicles from murrel, channa gachua. in this assay, addition of test material containing tsh increased thyroxine (t4) release into the medium which was then measured by radioimmunoassay (ria). tsh activity was eluted as one major peak on sephadex g-100 gel filtration (peak i), which a ...19938319876
application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in siliguri city of west bengal, india.sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in siliguri cityof west bengal, india. in regular surveys undertaken during june to august 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (qim) was applied to assess its quality raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samp ...201021387907
observation on prevalence of ectoparasites in carp fingerlings in two districts of west bengal.the present study has been carried out to find out the prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings during different months of the year 2008-2009. four groups of ectoparasites viz. myxozoan, ciliophoran, monogenean and crustacean were recorded from 400 fingerlings of rohu (labeo rohita), catla (catla catla), mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala), bata (labeo bata), common carp (cyprinus carpio) and lata (channa punctatus) collected from different ponds of nadia and hooghly district of west bengal from j ...201021526033
composite fish culture for mosquito control in rice fields in southern india.composite culture of edible fishes (common carp, cryprinus carpio; silver carp, hypopthalmithys molitrix, grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idella; catla, catla catla; rohu, labeo rohita; and mrigal, cirrhinus mrigala) in rice fields in the cauvery delta of tamil nadu, southern india, resulted in 81.0% reduction in the immature mosquito population of anophelines and 83.5% of culicines. analysis of fish feces for mosquito larval head capsules showed that common carp and silver carp are effective larvi ...19947777919
gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates thyroid activity in a freshwater murrel, channa gachua (ham.), and carps, catla catla (ham.) and cirrhinus mrigala (ham.).injections of mammalian gnrh (mgnrh), salmon gnrh (sgnrh), and a homologous murrel, channa punctatus, gnrh (cgnrh) to a murrel, channa gachua, and a carp, catla catla, at a dose of 1 microg/250 g body wt significantly increased plasma thyroxine (t4) levels above control. piscine gnrhs (sgnrh and cgnrh) had significantly greater stimulatory effects compared with mgnrh. to observe whether this stimulatory effect by gnrhs is direct or indirect, thyroid follicles were isolated from hypobranchial mus ...200010764556
utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps.fermented silkworm pupae (swp) silage or untreated fresh swp pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. the feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2-30.9% protein) and isocaloric (me = 2905-2935 kcal/kg). feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (catla catla), mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds to evaluate the nutritive quality of swp silage. survi ...200312421005
high vitamin a content in some small indigenous fish species in bangladesh: perspectives for food-based strategies to reduce vitamin a deficiency.recognising the importance of fish in the bangladeshi diet, the objective of the present study was to screen commonly consumed fish species for vitamin a content to evaluate the potential of fish as a vitamin a source in food-based strategies to combat vitamin a deficiency. samples of 26 commonly consumed fish species and one crustacean were collected in kishoreganj and mymensingh, bangladesh. to obtain edible parts, the fish were cleaned by bangladeshi women according to traditional practices. ...200212396468
in vitro effects of cyanoketone and epostane on lh-induced germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of indian major carps.the effect of cyanoketone (inhibitor of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and epostane (inhibitor of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) on lh-induced in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (gvbd) in the oocytes of indian major carps, labeo rohita, cirrhinus mrigala, and catla catla, was investigated using five concentrations for each inhibitor. both of these inhibitors could significantly inhibit the lh-induced gvbd at all of their concentrations in l. rohita and c. catla. however, in ...19892920902
on the origin, development and probable functions of taste bud in the lip and bucco-pharyngeal epithelia of an indian freshwater major carp, cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton) in relation to food and feeding habits.1. various developmental stages of taste bud have been observed in the fry, fingerling and adult of cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton). 2. the fries are zooplankton-feeders (carnivorous) and sight-feeders. therefore, functional taste buds are absent in the lip and bucco-pharyngeal epithelia. only formative stages of taste bud are present. some epithelial cells aggregate together to form this structure which has no function in gustation. moreover, the fires have low r. l. g. valle (0.71;..1.20) due to ...19751224765
a histochemical study of the mucous cells in the bucco-pharyngeal epithelium of young cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton), a freshwater carp, (pisces: teleostomi: cypriniformes), in relation to the origin, structure and cytomorphosis. 1977913993
a histochemical study of the mucous cells in the bucco-pharyngeal region of four indian freshwater fishes in relation to their origin, development, occurrence and probable functions.observations on the origin, development and occurrence of mucous cells in the bucco-pharyngeal region of labeo rohita (ham.), cirrhinus mrigala (ham.), catla catla (ham.) and clarias batrachus (linn.) have been made histochemically, by pas technique. the mucous cells have been found to develop from ordinary epithelial cells of the stratum malpighii which is situated immediately above the basement membrane. the different stages in the development of mucous cells are: 1. formation stage: some of t ...1975811054
prevalence of zoonotic trematodes in fish from a vietnamese fish-farming community.the prevalence of fish-borne zoonotic trematode (fzt) metacercariae was investigated in fish farmed by rural households in nghe an province, located in northern vietnam. in total, 716 fish, including tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) and 6 carp species, i.e., grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (aristichthys nobilis), mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala), common carp (cyprinus carpio), silver carp (hypophthalmychthys molitrix), and roha (labeo rohita), collected from 53 fish farms were exami ...200818564743
the morpho-histology of the pituitary glands in two freshwater major carps of india, labeo rohita (ham.) and cirrhinus mrigala (ham.).1. the pituitary gland in labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala is a small, pear-shaped, whitish, soft body situated in a cavity -- the sella turcica. the gland is of the lepto-dorso basic type. 2. it consists of the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. the latter comprises three lobes viz., the rostral pars distalis, the proximal pars distalis and the pars intermedia. 3. the neurohypophysis branches into the pars distalis, extends into the pars intermedia and ramifies extensively. it is composed o ...1976984440
seasonal variations in the histology of the pituitary gland of cirrhinus mrigala (ham.) an indian freshwater major carp, in relation to gonadal activity.1. seasonal variations in the histology of the pituitary gland of cirrhinus mrigala (ham.), an indian freshwater major carp, in relation to gonadal activity has been studied during a one year period commencing, january, 1971. 2. the proximal pars distalis undergoes a great deal of seasonal variation in size, weight and nature of pituicytes. 3. the percentage composition of acidophils and cyanophils in the proximal pars distalis show a reciprocal relationship during the year. the acidophils predo ...19761020417
ontogenetic and comparative analysis of ldh isozymes in the three species of indian major carp.expression patterns of lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) isozyme were investigated in embryonic and post embryonic stages of labeo rohita, cirrhinus mrigala and catla catla using starch gel electrophoresis. species specific and differential enzyme locus (gene) expression patterns were found in ldh up to 18th hr of study. the isozyme up to 36th hr after fertilization seemed to be completely active and showed electrophoretic patterns very similar to those of the adults. comparative analysis of the isozy ...19921521871
sublethal effects of heavy metals on biochemical composition and their recovery in indian major carps.studies were conducted to assess the effects of sublethal exposure of heavy metals cadmium, arsenic and zinc for 45 days on indian major carps, labeo rohita, cirrhinus mrigala and catla catla. heavy metal treatments in general showed significant reduction in carbohydrate and lipid contents content in muscles as well as in gills in all the three fish species. the order of reduction of muscle and gill carbohydrate and lipid content due to different treatments was cd+as+zn>cd+as>as+zn>cd+zn>cd>as>z ...200918775601
metal concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from sewage-fed aquaculture ponds of kolkata, india.the concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were investigated in the sewage-fed pond water, sediment, and the various organs of labeo rohita, catla catla, cirrhinus mrigala, oreochromis mossambicus, and cyprinus carpio cultured in sewage-fed ponds, kolkata, india. among the metals, cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in water and, except lead, were below the water quality guideline levels for the protection of freshwater aquatic life proposed by ceqg (canadian environmental ...200918998223
cloning, nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analyses, and tissue-specific expression of the transferrin gene in cirrhinus mrigala infected with aeromonas hydrophila.transferrin partial complementary dnas were cloned from the livers of five species in four genera of indian carps (indian major carp species: labeo rohita, catla catla and cirrhinus mrigala; medium carp: puntius sarana; minor carp: labeo bata) subsequent to polymerase chain reaction amplification with published heterologous primers or self-designed primers derived from conserved regions of transferrin cdna sequences. the partial transferrin cdnas of the five species of carps had sizes from 624 t ...200918718662
bioaccumulation and depuration of chromium in the selected organs and whole body tissues of freshwater fish cirrhinus mrigala individually and in binary solutions with nickel.contamination of aquatic ecosystems with heavy metals has been receiving increased worldwide attention due to their harmful effects on human health and other organisms in the environment. most of the studies dealing with toxic effects of metals deal with single metal species, while the aquatic organisms are typically exposed to mixtures of metals. hence, in order to provide data supporting the usefulness of freshwater fish as indicators of heavy metal pollution, it has been proposed in the prese ...200919402427
inhibitory effect of pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of indian major carps: an in vitro study.aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. tannin content in the water lettuce, pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three indian major carps (imc), namely rohu (labeo rohita), catla (catla catla) and mrigala (cirrhinus mrigala). result of th ...201020369287
fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in cultured and wild-caught freshwater fish from the red river delta, vietnam.nam dinh province in red river delta, vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. a cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (fzt) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of fzt in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigatio ...201020370427
biochemical and stress responses of rohu labeo rohita and mrigal cirrhinus mrigala in relation to acclimation temperatures.the biochemical and stress responses of two indian major carps, rohu labeo rohita and mrigal cirrhinus mrigala were studied after acclimating them to four preset temperatures (26, 31, 33 and 36 degrees c) for 30 days. the blood glucose and liver glycogen levels showed an inverse trend in both the species and were significantly different in l. rohita at higher temperatures. the decrease in the liver glycogen level of c. mrigala, however, was not significant. plasma cortisol levels increased signi ...200920735648
simple gas chromatographic method for the quantification of total cholesterol in fish meats.six fish species-cirrhinus mrigala (morakhi), labeo rohita (danbhro), catla catla (thalli), wallago attu (jarko), ctenopharyngodon idella (grass), and cyprimus carpio (gulfam)--commonly found in the pakistani indus river, were selected for fat and cholesterol evaluation. fat content was quantified by the folch method and cholesterol content was determined by a simple gc method. the application of the proposed method to quantify cholesterol content revealed variations among the six breeds evaluat ...201020922959
in vitro effect of mammalian pituitary hormones on germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of major carps, labeo rohita, cirrhinus mrigala, catla catla and cyprinus carpio.among all the mammalian pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (lh) was the most potent in vitro inducer of oocyte maturation in l. rohita, c. mrigala, c. catla and c. carpio. it induced significant germinal vesicle breakdown (gvbd) at concentrations of 10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 micrograms/ml. at the highest concentration used, lh induced 77.9 +/- 5.9, 73.8 +/- 4.6, 50.3 +/- 2.8 and 40.8 +/- 1.4% gvbd in oocytes of l. rohita, c. mrigala, c. catla and c. carpio, respectively. among other hormones, fol ...19892632393
goat serum as an alternative to establish cell culture from indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala.serum from goat, calf, and chicken sources were evaluated in terms of attachment, growth, and proliferation of explants of indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala. the attachment of explants viz. heart, liver, and kidney was directly proportional to the concentration of the serum. among these sera, the highest percentage of attachment, growth, and proliferation was recorded for 10% goat serum and 15% newborn calf serum without affecting their cell morphology. on contrary to these sera, chicken seru ...200919118441
effect of dietary spirulina on reduction of copper toxicity and improvement of growth, blood parameters and phosphatases activities in carp, cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton, 1822).the effect of spirulina supplementation on reduction of copper toxicity based on food utilization, phosphatases activities and selected haematological parameters was studied in a freshwater cultivable fish c. mrigala. metal concentration in medium, body tissues and fecal matter was also analysed. sublethal exposure of c. mrigala fed spirulina-free diet significantly reduced the consumption and growth rates, phosphatases activities and haematological parameters. however, the above parameters enha ...200919957889
role of waterborne copper on survival, growth and feed intake of indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala hamilton.the effect of copper on survival, growth and feed intake of indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton) fry (0.92 +/- 0.28 g) was studied for 60 days. survival rates of the fish exposed to control (0.02), 0.10, 0.15 and 0.23 mg l(-1) copper were 100%, 83 +/- 3%, 58 +/- 6%, and 50 +/- 4%, respectively. average daily growth was significantly (p < 0.05) lower at 0.15 and 0.23 mg l(-1) of copper. there was almost no growth at 0.23 mg l(-1) of copper. feed intake rates reduced significantly (p < ...200919165406
comparative analysis of innate immune parameters of the skin mucous secretions from certain freshwater teleosts, inhabiting different ecological niches.the innate immune system of fish is considered first line of defense against a broad spectrum of pathogens. being a component of innate immunity and lying at the interface between fish and the aqueous environment, skin mucus plays a frontier role in protecting fish from infections. in the present study, skin mucus of cirrhinus mrigala, labeo rohita, catla catla, rita rita and channa punctata, inhabiting different ecological niches, was analyzed to characterize potential innate immune factors suc ...201222350522
a cross-sectional study on the potential transmission of the carcinogenic liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini and other fishborne zoonotic trematodes by aquaculture fish.throughout southeast asia and china, eating raw and or partially cooked cyprinid fish causes liver (hepatobiliary) disease and cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) due to fishborne zoonotic trematodes (fzt), in particular clonorchis sinensis and opisthorchis viverrini. the primary source of transmission is by native fish, but aquaculture fish are also reported to have high infective potential. here, a cross-sectional survey of fzt in fish farms was conducted in an endemic area in khon kaen province, thai ...201323320421
isolation and expression of grass carp toll-like receptor 5a (citlr5a) and 5b (citlr5b) gene involved in the response to flagellin stimulation and grass carp reovirus infection.toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5), a member of toll-like receptors (tlrs) family and is responsible for the bacterial flagellin recognition in vertebrates, play an important role in innate immunity. in the study, two tlr5 genes of grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus), named citlr5a and citlr5b, were cloned and analyzed. both citlr5a and citlr5b are typical tlr proteins, including lrr motif, transmembrane region and tir domain. the full-length cdna of citlr5a is 3054 bp long, with a 2646 bp open readin ...201525665802
inductive expression of toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5) and associated downstream signaling molecules following ligand exposure and bacterial infection in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptors (tlrs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. among various types of tlrs, tlr5 is involved in recognizing bacterial flagellin and after binding, it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines. in this report, we analyzed the expression profile of tlr5 and its associated downstream signaling molecules like myd88 and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) receptor-associated factor (traf) 6 ...201222085689
susceptibility, metacercarial burden, and mortality of juvenile silver barb, common carp, mrigal, and tilapia following exposure to haplorchis zoonotic trematodes (fzt) including heterophyids and opisthorchiids are prevalent in native and aquaculture fish in southeast asia. fzt are reported highly prevalent in juvenile aquaculture fish that belonged to the family heterophyidae, particularly haplorchis taichui. aquaculture fish are reported to have varying levels of natural infection with h. taichui, but data for their susceptibility as well as resistance to infection are not available. the aim of this study was to determine ...201525636245
record of the species of tripartiella (lom, 1959) from fishes of manipur.survey on trichodinid ciliophorans from the fresh water fishes of manipur revealed three known species of the genus tripartiella from the gills of major carps labeo rohita (hamilton); cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton); catla catla and ciprinus carpio. these are redescribed in this communication.201223542123
methyl mercury in fish-a case study on various samples collected from ganges river at west bengal.this study investigated the presence of total mercury (hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river ganges, west bengal, india. the total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (mehg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. the results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high leve ...201121713467
characterization of igm of indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish igm antibodies.indian major carps (imc), rohu (labeo rohita), catla (catla catla) and mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin m (igm) was purified by affinity chromatography. the heavy and light chain of igm of all the three species of imc were about 88 and 26kda, respectively. anti-fish igm antibody against all the three species were raised in mice and the reaction of anti-fish igm antibodies with igm of all the three species of imc were studied by west ...200919063976
analysis of lactate and malate dehydrogenase enzyme profiles of selected major carps of wetland of calcutta.the east calcutta wetland (ecw), a ramsar site in india, acts as the only sink for both city sewages as well as effluents from the surrounding small-scale industries and is alarmingly polluted with heavy metals. the three best edible major carp species rohu (labeo rohita,), catla (catla catla,) and mrigala (cirrhinus mrigala) were undertaken to monitor lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (cae) to assess the effects of pollutants, if any ...201223360005
distributions of metals in the food web of fishponds of kolleru lake, india.the distributions of trace metals (pb, cd, cr mn, zn and cu) in water, sediment, plankton and four fish species (labeo rohita, catla catla, pangasius pangasius and cirrhinus mrigala) from fishponds of kolleru lake, india were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. the concentrations of lead (0.01-0.03mg/l) and copper (0.01-0.08mg/l) in water and cadmium (3.0-9.0mg/kg), chromium (47-211mg/kg) and copper (10-64mg/kg) in sediment were above the epa threshold effects level (tel) and are of ...200919070365
expression of mx gene in cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton, 1822) to ompc protein of aeromonas hydrophila and bacterial infection.the aims of this study were to identify alternative myxovirus (mx) stimulatory compounds in cirrhinus mrigala and to characterize the kinetics and intensity of their stimulated responses by semi-quantitative rt-pcr. mx transcripts were measured in c. mrigala injected with aeromonas ompc (outer membrane protein) at a dose 0.4 mg/fish. at day 1, day 2, day 3, day 5, day 10, day 20 and day 30, samples were collected from kidney, spleen, liver, heart brain, gill, intestine and muscle for the study o ...201626487188
potential probiotics from indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala. characterization, pathogen inhibitory activity, partial characterization of bacteriocin and production of exoenzymes.the study explored antagonistic activity of the cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria from mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) against fish pathogens with a basic insight of the chemical nature of the antagonistic compound. totally 208 autochthonous gut bacteria were isolated, of which 22 strains revealed antagonism towards ≥2 of the six common fish pathogens. zones of inhibition (halo diameter) were presented as score and the four most promising strains were selected as putative probiotics ...201627663374
probiotic potential of autochthonous bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of four freshwater this study, a total of 121 bacterial strains were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of four teleostean species, namely striped snakehead (channa striatus), striped dwarf catfish (mystus vittatus), orangefin labeo (labeo calbasu) and mrigal carp (cirrhinus mrigala), among which 8 isolates showed promising antibacterial activity against four potential fish pathogens, aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas salmonicida, aeromonas sobria and pseudomonas fluorescens and were non-hemolytic. the isol ...201727557836
characterization and expression analysis of common carp cyprinus carpio tlr5m.tlr5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. in this study, we cloned the tlr5m gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) method. the tlr5m cdna was 3182 bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). the entire coding region of the tlr5m gene was successfully amplified from genomic dna and contained a single exon. the aa sequence of carp tlr5m showed the highest similarity (8 ...201323930591
toxicity of four pesticides on the fingerlings of indian major carps labeo rohita, catla catla, and cirrhinus mrigala.fingerlings of labeo rohita, catla catla, and cirrhinus mrigala were exposed to selected doses of four commonly used pesticides carbofuran, ddt, dimethoate, and meta-systox for a period up to 30 days to determine relative toxicological effects, lc50 values for 96 hr, maximum acceptable tolerant concentration, and application factor. the use of early life history tests has been emphasized for toxicological assessments.19863792265
variation in susceptibility pattern of fish to argulus siamensis: do immune responses of host play a role?branchiuran ectoparasites of the genus argulus can have extensive damaging effects on cultured fish. there exist no systematic studies that evaluate susceptibility or resistance of various carp species to argulus sp. and the underlying mechanisms. the present study aimed at identifying the most susceptible and resistant cultured species, studying settlement and survival of parasite on these species, and finally unravelling the variations of immune response in both resistant and susceptible speci ...201627084477
induction of toll-like receptor (tlr) 2, and myd88-dependent tlr- signaling in response to ligand stimulation and bacterial infections in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) is a member of tlr family. it recognizes a wide range of bacteria and their products, and is involved in inducing innate immune responses. in this article, we reported inductive expression of tlr2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. ontogeny analysis of tlr2, myd88 and traf6 (tnf receptor asso ...201122207179
cytological changes in the prolactin cells of the pituitary of the freshwater teleost cirrhinus mrigala (ham.), in response to osmotic stress and reserpine. 20123765791
post-harvest loss of farm raised indian and chinese major carps in the distribution channel from mymensingh to rangpur of loss of catla (catla catla), rohu (labeo rohita), mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in mymensingh to retail sale rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. quality defect points of the fish a ...201324494525
a comparative study of coi and 16 s rrna genes for dna barcoding of cultivable carps in india.the 5' region of the mitochondrial dna gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) is the standard marker for dna barcoding. however, 16 s rrna has also been advocated for dna barcoding in many animal species. herein, we directly compare the usefulness of coi and 16 s rrna in discriminating six cultivable carp species: labeo rohita, catla catla, cirrhinus mrigala, labeo fimbriatus, labeo bata and cirrhinus reba from india. analysis of partial sequences of these two gene fragments from 171 individu ...201524047160
effects of water borne iron on spawn of indian major carps (catla catla (ham.), labeo rohita (ham.) and cirrhinus mrigala (ham.)).effects of water-borne iron on indian major carps spawn were evaluated in the present study. ferrous sulphate was used to prepare different test iron concentrations. mrigal had the lowest 96 h lc(50) value of 0.30 ± 0.06 mg l(-1) while rohu had the highest value of 0.73 ± 0.06 mg l(-1) of iron. accumulation of iron in mrigal spawn was highest whereas it was lowest in catla. abnormal behaviour and reduced growth were observed in chronic toxicity. application factors were calculated to establish a ...201223052582
review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central gujarat, india.mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. in view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as guppy (poecilia reticulata) and gambusia (g. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic contain ...201323703433
characterization and physical mapping of 18s and 5s ribosomal genes in indian major carps (pisces, cyprinidae).characterization of the major (18s) and minor (5s) ribosomal rna genes were carried out in three commercially important indian major carp (imc) species, viz. catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. the diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. the 18s rdna signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in c. catla and l ...201323587674
a histochemical study on the adrenal components of the teleost cirrhinus mrigala (ham.).the adrenal components of c. mrigala are embedded in the pronephric cephalic kidney around the post cardinal vein. the cortical cells responded positively to the lipids, ascorbic acid, delta 5-3 beta-hsd, g-6-pd, mao, acid and alkaline phosphatase tests. the presence of intense mao activity may suggest the possible involvement of monoamines in the adrenocortical function. localization of lipids and delta 5-3 beta-hsd show the sites of corticosteroid synthesis. in the chromaffin cells, mao, acid ...19806251648
isolation and characterization of collagen from fish waste material- skin, scales and fins of catla catla and cirrhinus mrigala.the collagen of skin, scales and fins of catla catla and cirrhinus mrigala were isolated and characterised. nine fishes of each fish species of three weight groups were collected from a commercial fish farm. collagen characterisation using sds-page revealed the molecular weights (kda) of the c. catla skin, scales, and fins which ranged from 120 to 210, 70 to 201, and 68 to 137 kda, respectively. the size of the collagen of c. mrigala skin, scales and fins ranged from 114 to 201, 77 to 210, and 7 ...201526139894
cross-priming of microsatellite loci in subfamily cyprininae (family cyprinidae): their utility in finding markers for population genetic analysis in three indian major carps.this study is aimed to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and establish their potential for population genetics studies in three carp (family cyprinidae; subfamily cyprininae) species, labeo rohita, catla catla and cirrhinus mrigala through use of cyprinid primers. these species have high commercial value and knowledge of genetic variation is important for management of farmed and wild populations. we tested 108 microsatellite primers from 11 species belonging to three different cyprini ...201424792330
effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. the solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (tvb-n) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storag ...201424741158
comparative organoleptic quality of indian major carps collected from pond and attempt was made to distinguish the possible organoleptic differences between the pond reared and wild fish species of reservoirs and correlate these with the physicochemical characteristics of water bodies. the texture was found to firmer in wild varieties of fishes than pond reared fish, with best in catla catla followed by labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala. all the cultured fishes had lighter colour than wild fish species which were darker in appearance. comparatively, higher dissolved ox ...201324640254
variation in genotoxic susceptibility and biomarker responses in cirrhinus mrigala and catla catla from different ecological niches of the chenab river.a large number of methods have been applied to evaluate genotoxic damage in different aquatic species. comet assay, as a method for detecting dna alterations, and micronucleus test, as an index of chromosomal damage are the most widely used and authentic methods in laboratory and field studies. the primary objective of the study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of heavy metals generated by toxic industrial effluents and various kinds of pollutants from urban and agricultural areas and domes ...201627068917
prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in punjab (india).native carp species cultured in indian farms in punjab (catla catla catla, rohu labeo rohita, mrigal cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp cyprinus carpio and a catfish sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. the number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine ...201626912043
nutrients budget and effluents characteristics in polyculture of scampi (macrobrachium rosenbergii) and indian major carps ponds using organic inputs.experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in farmers' ponds (0.4-0.6 ha) in orissa, india, at stocking densities of 0.30-0.38/m(2) for scampi (macrobrachium rosenbergii) and 0.60-0.70/m(2) for indian major carps (catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala). the average initial body weights of scampi and the major carps were 0.02 and 8-10 g, respectively. the culture period was 272-292 days. feed was the main input. the fcr (feed conversion ratio) varied from 1.78 to 1.83. ...201222864442
characterization of carboxylesterase in skin mucus of cirrhinus mrigala and its assessment as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.presence of carboxylesterase (cbe) activity in the skin mucus of cirrhinus mrigala was investigated. cbe activity in skin mucus showed higher substrate preference for α-naphthyl acetate over p-nitrophenyl acetate. four cbe isozymes-cbe-1, cbe-2, cbe-3, and cbe-4 were observed in skin mucus during zymography. the isozyme cbe-4 was characterized as typical serine esterase, whereas cbe-1, cbe-2, and cbe-3 were identified as sulphhydryl group-dependent serine esterases. in vitro treatment of skin mu ...201424092332
effect of temperature on the prevalence of different parasites in cirrhinus mrigala hamilton of west bengal.a study has been done to find out the prevalence of different kinds of parasites in cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton 1822) during 2010-2011. it has been found that the temperature variation affects some parasitic infestation over the fish species. it was found that ciliophoran and crustacean parasites are more prevalent from november to february whereas the myxozoan and monogenean parasites are more prevalent from january to april. considering temperature variation throughout the year it has been inf ...201525698872
trypsin from the digestive system of carp cirrhinus mrigala: purification, characterization and its potential application.trypsin was purified 35.64-fold with 4.97% recovery from the viscera of carp cirrhinus mrigala (mrigal) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. the purified enzyme was active at a wide range of ph (7.0-9.2) and temperature (10-50°c). the purified enzyme exhibited high thermal stability up to 50°c for 1h. the enzyme activity was stabilized by ca(+2) (2mm) up to 7h at 40°c. the km and kcat values of purified enzyme were 0.0672 mm and 92.09/s/mm, respectively. s ...201525577096
molecular phylogeny of myxobolus orissae (myxosporea: myxobolidae) infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp cirrhinus mrigala (actinopterygii: cyprinidae).myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. the 18s rrna gene sequence of morphologically identified myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. the plasmodia of m.orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. phylogenetically, the 18s rdna nucleotide sequence of m.o ...201527843992
glycoproteins in the buccal epithelium of a carp, cirrhinus mrigala (pisces, cyprinidae): a histochemical profile.glycoproteins (gps) were visualized histochemically in the secretory cells - the mucous goblet cells (the type a and the type b), the rodlet cells and the epithelial cells in different regions of the buccal cavity of cirrhinus mrigala. the type a mucous goblet cells, the type b mucous goblet cells, the rodlet cells and the epithelial cells elaborate gps with oxidizable vicinal diols and gps with sialic acid residue without o-acyl substitution. the type a mucous goblet cells, in addition, contain ...201423551209
toxicological effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on plasma thyroid hormones of an indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala during short and long-term the present investigation, the toxicity of most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment namely clofibric acid (ca) and diclofenac (dcf) was investigated in an indian major carp cirrhinus mrigala. fingerlings of c. mrigala were exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100μgl(-1)) of ca and dcf for a period of 96h (short term) and 35 days (long term). the toxic effects of ca and dcf on thyroid hormones (ths) such as thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh), thyroxine (t4) an ...201425461555
molecular characterization of myxobolus cuttacki (myxozoa, myxosporea, bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of minor carp labeo bata (ham.).as new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (myxozoa) are receiving much attention in recent years. myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. molecular data on indian myxosporeans are rare. in this report, the 18s rrna gene sequence of myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp labeo bata (ham.) and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. the plasmo ...201427843987
short-term mercury exposure on na(+)/k(+)-atpase activity and ionoregulation in gill and brain of an indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala.recently mercury pollution has been increased considerably in aquatic resources throughout the world and it is a growing global concern. in this study, the 96 h lc50 value of waterborne mercuric chloride for cirrhinus mrigala was found to be 0.34 mg/l (with 95% confidence limits). fingerlings of c. mrigala were exposed to 0.068 and 0.034 mg/l of mercuric chloride for 96 h to assess the na(+)/k(+)-atpase activity and ionoregulation (na(+), k(+) and cl(-)) in gill and brain. results showed that na ...201322944584
a new growth curve model for biological growth: some inferential studies on the growth of cirrhinus mrigala.growth of living organisms is a fundamental biological process. it depicts the physiological development of the species related to the environment. mathematical development of growth curve models has a long history since its birth. we propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of relative growth rate as a function of time based on a real life experiment on a major indian carp cirrhinus mrigala. we establish that the proposed model is able to describe the fish growth dynamics more acc ...201424933474
effect of dietary supplementation of l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate in cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings under varied stocking density.a 60 day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate of freshwater fish, mrigala, cirrhinus mrigala reared under ambient temperature at low and high stocking density. four hundred eighty fingerlings were distributed into eight experimental groups. four groups each of low density group (10 fishes/75l water) and higher density group (30 fishes/75l water) were fed a diet containing 0, 0.68, 1.36 or 2.72% l-tryptophan in th ...201424679973
chemical composition and functional properties of mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) egg protein concentrates and their application in pasta.protein concentrates were prepared from underutilized mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) roe to produce value added by-products for food applications. chemical composition and physicochemical properties of protein concentrates prepared from mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) roes were determined. the effects of ph and salt concentration on protein solubility were investigated. the protein content of the concentrates was found to be 75, and 91%, respectively for dehydrated and defatted powders. the maximum prote ...201324425946
histological and histochemical investigations of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of a carp cirrhinus mrigala.the histological organization and histochemical aspects of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of the indian major carp cirrhinus mrigala are described. the pharyngeal jaw apparatus consists of a lower pharyngeal jaw and a chewing pad. histochemical analysis reveals that the epithelium covering the lower pharyngeal jaw is mucogenic and is involved in the secretion of different classes of glycoproteins (gps) including gps with oxidizable vicinal diols, gps with o-sulphate esters and gps with sialic acid ...201424103525
the first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.the presence of cholinesterase (che) activity in skin mucus of three carps, cirrhinus mrigala, labeo rohita, and catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ches. significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin ...201422887814
impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.the fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (catla catla), rohu (labeo rohita) and mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at bangladesh agricultural university, mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. phytoplankton (chlorophyceae, ...201224191618
surface ultrastructure of gill arches and gill rakers in relation to feeding of an indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala.the surface ultrastructure of the gill arches and the gill rakers of an herbivorous fish, cirrhinus mrigala was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. these structures show significant adaptive modifications associated with the food and feeding ecology of the fish. closely lying short gill rakers and narrow inter-raker channels on the gill arches are associated to filter and retain food particles. prominent epithelial protuberances on the gill rakers and the gill arches enable the taste b ...200919261316
relativein vitro effectiveness of estradiol-17β, androgens, corticosteroids, progesterone and other pregnene derivatives on germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of indian major carps,labeo rohita, cirrhinus mrigala andcatla catla.the relative effectiveness of estradiol-17β, androgens, corticosteroids, progesterone and other pregnene derivatives on germinal vesicle breakdown (gvbd) was investigatedin vitro using folliculated oocytes of three carps,labeo rohita, cirrhinus mrigala, andcatla catla. in all three species progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone could induce gvbd but relatively 17α,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone was consistently found to be the most potent maturation-inducing steroid. both estradiol-17β and testoste ...198924221598
the phylogenetic position of myxoboluscarnaticus (myxozoa, myxosporea, bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of cirrhinus mrigala (hamilton, 1822) based on 18s rrna sequence analysis.myxozoans are an economically important group of microscopic parasites best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish hosts. the classification of myxosporeans is generally based on the morphology of their myxospores. without molecular data, it is very difficult to identify new or existing species. dna sequence information is therefore, a prerequisite to taxonomic and phylogenic studies of myxosporeans. in the present study, a myxozoan parasite, myxobolus carnaticus, infec ...201527844004
free cyanide-induced biochemical changes in nitrogen metabolism of the indian major carp cirrhinus mrigala.we studied the effect of free cyanide on several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in the gills, liver, and muscle tissue of the indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala. free amino acid levels and protease activity were elevated following exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of free cyanide. at the lethal concentration, significant changes were noticed on day 4 for both parameters. the normal condition was restored only at the sublethal concentration.200718380169
morphological and molecular characterization of henneguya bicaudi n. sp. (myxosporea: myxobolidae) infecting gills of cirrhinus mrigala (ham.) in harike wetland, punjab (india).in the present study, henneguya bicaudi n. sp. infecting gills of cirrhinus mrigala (ham.) an indian major carp from harike wetland in punjab, india, has been described on the basis of myxospore morphology and partial amplification of the ssu rrna gene. the pseudocysts of h. bicaudi n. sp. were located within the gill filament, whitish with round to irregular outer margin and 0.5-0.7 mm in diameter, 3-4 pseudocysts each containing about 50-100 myxospores were detected per gill. mature myxospores ...201526239799
heavy metal accumulation in edible fish species from rawal lake reservoir, pakistan.the aim of the present study was to describe the accumulation of trace metals in the liver, kidney, gills, muscles, and skin of four edible fish species (tor putitora, cirrhinus mrigala, labeo calbasu, and channa punctatus) of rawal lake reservoir, pakistan. the fish samples were collected in the pre-monsoon (may 2008) and post-monsoon (october 2007) seasons and were analyzed for heavy metals by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. kidney and liver showed relatively high concentrations of he ...201423884877
population divergence and structure of cirrhinus mrigala from peninsular rivers of india, revealed by mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and truss morphometric analysis.genetic diversity and population structure of cirrhinus mrigala from peninsular riverine systems of india was studied using mitochondrial dna gene, cytochrome b and truss morphometric analysis. analysis of 982 bp of the cytochrome b gene from 182 samples collected from six rivers revealed the presence of 28 haplotypes with overall high haplotype diversity value of 0.78981 and nucleotide diversity value of 0.00215. analysis of molecular variance (amova) showed that genetic variation is mainly har ...201423795828
short and long-term effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on certain biochemical and ionoregulatory responses in an indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala.extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine and aquaculture practices pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. in the present investigation, cirrhinus mrigala an indian major carp was exposed to different concentrations of clofibric acid (ca) and diclofenac (dcf) and certain biochemical and ionoregulatory responses were assessed under short and long term exposures. during short-term (96h) exposure period, plasma glucose and sodium (na(+)) levels were increased at all con ...201323777676
visco-elastic and flow properties of gelatin from the bone of freshwater fish (cirrhinus mrigala).the average yield of gelatin from the bone of freshwater fish (cirrhinus mrigala) was 6.13%. the fluorescence spectra revealed maximum emission at 303 nm indicating the exposure of chromophores to bulk solvent. the amino acid profile of gelatin revealed a higher proportion of glycine and imino acids. the bloom strength of gelled gelatin was 159.8 g. the average molecular weight of fish bone gelatin was 281 kda as determined by gel filtration technique. the dynamic oscillatory test of gelatin sol ...201323701696
alteration in certain enzymological parameters of an indian major carp, cirrhinus mrigala exposed to short- and long-term exposure of clofibric acid and diclofenac.the extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine may enter the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to non-target aquatic organisms like fish. in this study, indian major carp cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg l⁻¹) of most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs clofibric acid (ca) and diclofenac (dcf) to evaluate its impacts on certain enzymological parameters during short- and long-term exposures. during short-term (96 h) expos ...201323579460
bioaccumulations of aluminum and the effects of chelating agents on different organs of cirrhinus mrigala.the study of biological indicator organisms may be more informative than analyzing water or sediments for monitoring heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment. non-essential elements enter into the animals and accumulate at the different organs so that chelating agents are most versatile and effective antidotes to eliminate the metals toxicities. the aim of our present study is to find out bioaccumulations of aluminum and the effects of chelating agents dfo and dfp in muscle, gill, kidney ...201223063109
microelectrophoretic study of environmentally induced dna damage in fish and its use for early toxicity screening of freshwater bodies.this study investigates the potential of the comet and micronucleus assays of fish dna as a means of screening the toxicity of aquatic environments. catla catla and cirrhinus mrigala collected from the river chenab in pakistan were used as a case study for the application of comet and micronucleus techniques. comet and micronucleus assays were used to compare dna damage in c. catla and c. mrigala collected from polluted areas of the river chenab and farmed fish. atomic absorption spectrophotomet ...201728213766
fish scales as a non-lethal tool of the toxicity of wastewater from the river chenab.water pollution is gradually increasing in natural waters through anthropogenic activities. this study aimed to use fish scales as a bio-indicator of pollution, along with water quality parameters, and the assessment and detection of selected heavy metals in water samples collected from the river chenab, including the chakbandi drain that gathers domestic sewage waste and industrial effluents from faisalabad and deposits it into this freshwater body. all water quality parameters (ph, total disso ...201727817145
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