phoretic dispersal of armored scale crawlers (hemiptera: diaspididae).dispersal and colonization of new areas by armored scale insects (hemiptera: diaspididae) is achieved by mobile first-instar nymphs, called crawlers. few studies have considered the actual mechanisms by which crawlers disperse, and although crawlers are capable of actively wandering over short distances (generally < 1 m), their dispersal over longer distances has been thought to be wind-mediated. here, we present evidence of a potentially more important means of dispersal over longer distances ( ...201020857725
rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (hemiptera: diaspididae) on mexican 'hass' avocado.'hass' avocado, persea americana mill., fruit imported into california from mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (hemiptera: diaspididae), constituting several species. the paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armo ...200919886461
high levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding usda-aphis' phytosanitary risk assessment.between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected california avocado, persea americana mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. soon after mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 february 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (hemiptera: diaspididae) not believed to be present in california were detected on 'hass' avocados entering the state from mexico. initially, the california department of food and agricultur ...200919610397
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