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finding needles in the haystack: single copy microsatellite loci for aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae).first identified in three north american states in 1998, aedes japonicus japonicus, the asian bush mosquito, has since spread to 21 states, plus ontario in canada, northern france, and belgium. analyses of the introduction and expansion of this potentially deadly disease vector will be radically improved by including powerful genetic markers like microsatellites. useful microsatellite loci have, however, been difficult to identify for mosquitoes in the genus aedes because of the high amount of r ...200516222019
first report in italy of the exotic mosquito species aedes (finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae.in the veneto region (north-eastern italy) an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) in 1991. during the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded italian fauna.201121951867
development of dirofilaria immitis within the mosquito aedes (finlaya) koreicus, a new invasive species for europe.over the recent decades, container-breeding mosquito species belonging to the genus aedes have frequently been recorded far from their place of origin. aedes koreicus was first reported in north-eastern italy in 2011, in a region endemic for dirofilaria immitis, the agent of canine heartworm disease. the vector competence of ae. koreicus for d. immitis was here tested under laboratory conditions, by infecting mosquitoes with a local strain of d. immitis.201525884876
exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast italy.many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. this work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine blood bank of the ...201627357128
current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the uk.non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into europe, and are now established in many european countries. the continued european importation of potential vectors and their expansion within europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the uk. coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.201526122427
out of the bush: the asian bush mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) (diptera, culicidae) becomes invasive.the asian bush or rock pool mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. being native to east asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in new zealand where it could not establish, though. in 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern us, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. after a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed i ...201424495418
a review of the invasive mosquitoes in europe: ecology, public health risks, and control options.there has been growing interest in europe in recent years in the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes, notably the incursion of aedes albopictus through the international trade in used tires and lucky bamboo, with onward spread within europe through ground transport. more recently, five other non-european aedine mosquito species have been found in europe, and in some cases populations have established locally and are spreading. concerns have been raised about the involvement of these ...201222448724
european surveillance for west nile virus in mosquito populations.a wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in europe or through risk of introduction. prominent among these is west nile virus (wnv), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. endemic outbreaks of west nile fever have been reported in italy, greece, france, romania, hungary, russia and spain, with further spread expected. most outbreaks in western europe have been due ...201324157510
detection of japanese encephalitis virus genotype v in culex orientalis and culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in korea.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the asian countries. the virus is known to be transmitted by culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in korea. in this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit jev as a second or regional vector. we selected five cities where patients have experienced je in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four ...201525658839
molecular detection and genotyping of japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the republic of korea.japanese encephalitis virus (jev), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. to reduce the impact of japanese encephalitis among children in the republic of korea (rok), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. through the efforts of this program only 0-7 (mean 2.1) cases of japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the rok during the period of 1984-2009. however, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of j ...201323390520
development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in europe.the recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in europe prove that the region is vulnerable to these diseases in areas where known mosquito vectors (aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti) are present. strengthening surveillance of these species as well as other invasive container-breeding aedine mosquito species such as aedes atropalpus, aedes japonicus, aedes koreicus and aedes triseriatus is therefore required. in order to support and harmonize surveillance activities ...201323866915
current distribution of the invasive mosquito species, aedes koreicus [hulecoeteomyia koreica] in northern italy.the invasive species aedes (finlaya) koreicus was first identified in north-eastern italy in 2011, during the ongoing surveillance activity of aedes albopictus. following this finding, a more intensive monitoring was carried out to assess the distribution of the species and to collect biological data. herein, we report the new records obtained by four years of surveillance.201526626019
distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito aedes koreicus [hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern italy.the container breeding species belonging to the genus aedes (meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. invasive aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. a new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern italy: aedes (finlaya) koreicus [hulecoeteomyia koreica]. the aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and the current d ...201324457085
first report of the invasive mosquito species aedes koreicus in the swiss-italian border region.in 2012 and 2013, an entomological survey of aedes albopictus, the asian tiger mosquito, was carried out in the border region of southern switzerland and northern italy, using ovitraps. in july 2013, besides a. albopictus already known to the region several unusual eggs were recovered.201526223377
invasion biology of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae).aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of japan and korea into large parts of north america and central europe. population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in north america revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies ...024397520
detection of invasive mosquito vectors using environmental dna (edna) from water samples.repeated introductions and spread of invasive mosquito species (ims) have been recorded on a large scale these last decades worldwide. in this context, members of the mosquito genus aedes can present serious risks to public health as they have or may develop vector competence for various viral diseases. while the tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) is a well-known vector for e.g. dengue and chikungunya viruses, the asian bush mosquito (ae. j. japonicus) and ae. koreicus have shown vector competenc ...201627626642
molecular xenomonitoring of dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern italy by real-time pcr coupled with melting curve analysis.dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are transmitted by bloodsucking culicid mosquitoes belonging to culex, aedes, ochlerotatus, anopheles and mansonia genera. the detection of filarioids in mosquitoes for assessing distribution of vectors and/or of pathogens in a given area (also known as "xenomonitoring"), when based on individual dissection of wild-caught female mosquitoes is time consuming and hardly applicable in large epidemiological surveys. our study aimed to evaluate the recently ...201222520170
implementation of surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in belgium according to the ecdc guidelines.in 2012, the new guidelines for the surveillance of ims in europe, produced by the european centre for disease prevention and control (ecdc), were tested in belgium. this study aimed at (1) testing the usefulness and applicability in the field of the ecdc guidelines for the surveillance of ims in europe and (2) surveying ims throughout belgium.201424766783
potential risk of dengue and chikungunya outbreaks in northern italy based on a population model of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).the rapid invasion and spread of aedes albopictus (skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. we used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern italy to calibrate a population model for aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the abse ...201627304211
mosquito species composition and plasmodium vivax infection rates for korean army bases near the demilitarized zone in the republic of korea, 2011.vivax malaria is a significant military and civilian health threat in northern republic of korea (rok). mosquito collections were performed at two rok army installations, paju near the demilitarized zone (dmz) using black light traps in 2011. the dmz, a 4 km wide border, is the northernmost point of the rok and separates the rok from the democratic people's republic of korea (dprk). anopheles spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction and screened for plasmodium vivax sporozoites. of 4,35 ...201223243112
vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in europe.presently, 45% of the total human population of europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (vbh) causing diseases. a plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. although canine dirofilarioses by dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of vbh spreading into non-endemic areas, another e ...201323324440
first record of the asian bush mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus, in italy: invasion from an established austrian population.in 2011 we identified the asian bush mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald, 1901) (diptera: culicidae) for the first time in northern slovenia and in the bordering austrian federal state of styria. between may and july 2012 the distribution area of ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into carinthia and eastwards towards burgenland and bordering hungary. in august 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of hungary. in subsequent years, follow-up f ...201627184024
first assessment of potential distribution and dispersal capacity of the emerging invasive mosquito aedes koreicus in northeast italy.invasive alien species represent a growing threat for natural systems, economy and human health. active surveillance and responses that readily suppress newly established colonies are effective actions to mitigate the noxious consequences of biological invasions. however, when an exotic species establishes a viable population in a new area, predicting its potential spread is the most effective way to implement adequate control actions. emerging invasive species, despite monitoring efforts, are p ...201626842546
dirofilaria immitis and angiostrongylus vasorum: the contemporaneous detection in kennels.the cardiopulmonary nematodes dirofilaria immitis and angiostrongylus vasorum are increasingly reported in dogs and are responsible for two diseases with overlapping endemic areas, especially in europe: dirofilariosis and angiostrongylosis. the reasons for their apparent emergence are unknown, but several factors (e.g. increased disease awareness, better diagnostic tools, climatic changes, seasonal population dynamics and movements of animals) may play a role in the recent rise in reports of inf ...201526689960
low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause european aedine strain, aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).the interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. however, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent ...201222621367
detection of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and aedes koreicus in the area of sochi, russia.following the identification of aedes (ae.) aegypti in the sochi area in russia at the beginning of 2000, entomological surveys were conducted during the summers of 2007, 2011, and 2012, leading to the identification of ae. albopictus and ae. koreicus. these findings highlight russia as being the only country in the world health organization european region with a documented presence of both ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes. both mosquito species are found on the coasts of the black sea ...201626741323
public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in europe.there are currently five invasive aedes mosquito species known to be established in europe, namely aedes albopictus, aedes aegypti, aedes japonicus, aedes atropalpus and aedes koreicus. aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in europe. however, both laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that these invasive mosquitoes have a potential to also transmit other pathogens of public health importance. incr ...201323574618
a 2-yr mosquito survey focusing on aedes koreicus (diptera: culicidae) in northern italy and implications for adult trapping.aedes koreicus (edwards) is an invasive mosquito species, like aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes japonicus japonicus (theobald), that has already colonized a large part of northeastern italy and other european countries. despite its rapid expansion, information about adult distribution and trapping is lacking. here, we conducted a 2-yr longitudinal survey using adult traps to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of ae. koreicus and evaluated the effectiveness of three trapping devices in ...201728399310
emergence of aedes koreicus (diptera: culicidae) in an urban area, hungary, 2016.in june 2016, three adult females of aedes koreicus mosquitoes were trapped in the urban area of pécs, southwest hungary. the introduction of this invasive mosquito species in this region, along with the recent detection in germany, may indicate the capability of the species to spread across europe. along with aedes albopictus and aedes japonicus mosquitoes, this is the third invasive mosquito species occurred in hungary.201627511369
first record of aedes koreicus (diptera: culicidae) in germany.within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern germany was identified as aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from east asia. after the asian bush mosquito aedes japonicus, which is already established in germany and widely distributed, and the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern europe, a. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in ge ...201626614356
molecular phylogenetics of aedes japonicus, a disease vector that recently invaded western europe, north america, and the hawaiian islands.we used two mitochondrial loci (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 and cytochrome oxidase ii) and a nuclear locus (28s-d2 spacer) for a total of 1337 bp to evaluate the relationships among the four subspecies of aedes (finlaya) japonicus theobald. ae. j. japonicus was recently introduced into the united states and has been expanding rapidly. we also included in our analysis a morphologically very closely related species, aedes (finlaya) koreicus edwards, as well as three m ...201020695267
laboratory colonization of the european invasive mosquito aedes (finlaya) koreicus.aedes (finlaya) koreicus (edwards) is a mosquito that has recently entered europe from asia. this species is considered a potential threat to newly colonized territories, but little is known about its capacity to transmit pathogens or ability to compete with native mosquito species. the establishment of a laboratory colony is a necessary first step for further laboratory studies on the biology, ecology and vector competence of ae. koreicus.201728183328
identification of belgian mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) by dna barcoding.since its introduction in 2003, dna barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae). many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. to use dna barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified dna sequences is required. hence, dna sequence diversity of mosqu ...201525143182
[the first finding of invasive species aedes (finlaya) koreicus (edwards, 1917) in european russia].for the first time mosquito aedes koreicus were identified by morphology and molecular genetics in the south of european russia (sochi city) in 2013.201424738221
bionomics of the established exotic mosquito species aedes koreicus in belgium, europe.adults of an exotic mosquito, aedes (finlaya) koreicus (edwards) (diptera: culicidae) were identified by morphology and genotyping from one site in belgium in 2008. in late summer of that year, the occurrence of adults and immature stages reconfirmed its presence. this is the first record of this species outside its native range and in particular in europe. two subsites of the original location were prospected from april until october 2009 with different traps to evaluate the extent of its prese ...201223270149
the citizen science project 'mueckenatlas' helps monitor the distribution and spread of invasive mosquito species in germany.the citizen science project 'mueckenatlas' (mosquito atlas) was implemented in early 2012 to improve mosquito surveillance in germany. citizens are asked to support the spatiotemporal mapping of culicids by submitting mosquito specimens collected in their private surroundings. the mueckenatlas has developed into an efficient tool for data collection with close to 30,000 mosquitoes submitted by the end of 2015. while the vast majority of submissions included native mosquito species, a small perce ...201729029273
weak larval competition between two invasive mosquitoes aedes koreicus and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).aedes (hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (edwards) and aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) are two invasive mosquito species well established in northeastern italy, and these two species may co-occur in artificial larval habitats such as tires, buckets, drums, and catch basins. because ae. albopictus has been shown experimentally to be a superior competitor to several mosquito species, we investigated larval competition between ae. koreicus and ae. albopictus using two diet levels (low level and high le ...201728460074
first record of aedes koreicus (diptera, culicidae) in slovenia.the first record of aedes koreicus was made in the village of lovrenc na dravskem polju, north-eastern part of the country. the discovery of ae. koreicus in various continental european countries motivated us to revise samples of the collected aedes japonicus japonicus. we found ae. koreicus in samples from 2013, where the larvae were misidentified as ae. j. japonicus. the species was identified morphologically and molecularly. the first discovery of ae. koreicus advocates an urgent need for a n ...201728624875
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