rectal infusion and aspiration of material through the guts of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae).a technique for inoculating and removing substances via the anus of vector ticks was devised to define features of vector competence precisely. calibrated inocula (greater than 5 nanoliter) containing aqueous dye and polystyrene beads as well as infectious agents were infused into the rectal sacs of ticks using glass microcapillary pipettes placed within the expanded anal orifice. the guts of preadult and adult ticks, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, dermacentor variabilis (s ...19911770516
biology of hyalomma impeltatum (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.completion of the life cycle of hyalomma impeltatum schulze & schlottke required an average of 108 d at 26 +/- 1 degree c, 92-96% rh, and 12:12 (l:d) photoperiod. weights of unfed larvae, nymphs, and females were 0.02, 0.16, and 15.4 mg, respectively, and increased 23-, 164-, and 55-fold, respectively, as a result of feeding on guinea pigs. larvae and adults exhibited host-seeking behavior less than 1 d after hatching and molt, respectively; nymphs exhibited host-seeking behavior 2.9 d after mol ...19892795620
note on the transmission of theileria annulata by hyalomma ticks in the sudan.nymphs of hyalomma impeltatum and h. dromedarii, fed as larvae on an infected calf, transmitted fatal theileria annulata infection to two susceptible calves. the significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis in the sudan.19836415894
transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus by hyalomma impeltatum (acari:ixodidae) after experimental infection.we examined the potential for hyalomma impeltatum schulze & schlottke ticks to transmit crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus. after feeding on 1-d-old mice that had been inoculated with cchf virus, larval h. impeltatum became infected with and subsequently transmitted cchf virus transstadially to nymphs. these nymphs transmitted virus horizontally to guinea pigs and transstadially to adults. a minimum of 13% of the adult h. impeltatum, exposed to virus as larvae, transmitted virus by bit ...19968840695
an outbreak of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in the united arab emirates, 1994-1995.a multi-faceted investigation was conducted in the united arab emirates to characterize the epidemiologic and ecologic factors underlying an outbreak of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) noted in november 1994 among abattoir workers. a chart review was conducted among hospitalized suspected cases of viral hemorrhagic fever with onset between january 1994 and march 1995 coupled with serologic testing of available specimens for the presence of virus antigen and igg and igm antibodies by elisa ...19979392589
distribution and ecology of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting livestock in tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.ticks (ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in tunisia. the major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. these include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in tunisia. this overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. during ...199911071534
hyalomma impeltatum (acari: ixodidae) as a potential vector of malignant theileriosis in sheep in saudi arabia.little is known about tick-borne diseases in saudi arabia, particularly regarding the prevalence of theileriosis in small ruminants. this survey studied the potential vectors of malignant theileriosis in saudi arabian sheep. blood, lymph node and tick samples were collected from animals being treated or necropsied at the veterinary diagnostic laboratory in jeddah, makkah (western region), and bureida, al-qasim (central region). blood and lymph node smears were prepared and examined for theileria ...200111511417
comparison of dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin b, yersinia pestis-specific f1 antigen, and venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.the dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (delfia) were developed for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin b, yersinia pestis-specific f1 antigen, and venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. these assays were compared to previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) by determining the sensitivity or limit of detection (lod), the dynamic range, and the reproducibility of each assay in a number of different sample matrices. the sensitivity and specificit ...200111687442
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in northern a cross sectional survey conducted during the period june 2001 to july 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the sudan was determined. seventeen locations were surveyed from northern, central, eastern, western, blue nile and white nile provinces. total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. four tick genera and 11 species were identified. the tick species collected included amblyomma lepidum, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, hyalom ...200415732459
rickettsial agents in egyptian ticks collected from domestic assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between june 2002 and july 2003. dna extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using pcr and sequencing, for anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. ticks included: 29 argas persicus, 10 hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 hyalomma dromedarii, 2 hyalomma impeltatum, 3 hyalomma marginatum rufipe ...200617004028
man-threatening viruses isolated from ticks in saudi determine tick viruses transmissible to man in saudi arabia.200718060218
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting camels (camelus dromedarius) in northern sudan.monthly total body tick collections from 13-20 camels were conducted for 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) in northern sudan. tick populations were correlated with locality, season, predeliction site, sex and coat colour. hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant (89%) tick species infesting the camels. other tick species found in very low numbers were hyalomma impeltatum (7.7%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (3.3%), hyalomma truncatum (0.29%), hyalomma marginatum rufipes (0.25%), rhipi ...200920698438
developmental stages of hepatozoon hemprichii sp. nov. infecting the skink scincus hemprichii and the tick hyalomma impeltatum from saudi arabia.abstract the whole life cycle of hepatozoon hemprichii sp. nov. was discussed in the vertebrate host scincus hemprichii and the vector hyalomma impeltatum. erythrocytic stages of 18+1.8 x 4+0.8 ´ü¡m developed in the haemocoel of ticks to sporozoites within 16-18 days. schizogony occurred in the liver parenchyma and the endothelial cells of blood capillaries in lung and spleen. mature schizonts of 27+3.11 x 20.13+3.0 ´ü¡m producing 28 merozoites were usually recorded. the merozoites measured 13+1 ...201121711097
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in israel.we report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in israel. rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in hyalomma marginatum and hyalomma detritum while rickettsia massiliae was present in rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. furthermore, a novel uncultured sfgr was detected in haemaphysalis adleri and haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. the pathogenicity of the novel sfgr for humans is unk ...201122049050
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cattle and african buffaloes in the tsavo conservation area, kenya.several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and african buffaloes (syncerus caffer). so too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. the aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the tsavo conservation area, kenya. to this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in february 2010. eight species, namely amblyomma gemma, amblyomma lepid ...201223327329
pathogen prevalence in ticks collected from the vegetation and livestock in nigeria.ticks are important disease vectors that can cause considerable economic losses by affecting animal health and productivity, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. in this study, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of bacterial and protozoan tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from the vegetation and cattle in nigeria by pcr. the infection rates of questing ticks were 3.1% for rickettsia species, 0.1% for coxiella burnetii and 0.4% for borrelia species. other pathogens, suc ...201222327584
molecular evidence of bartonella species in ixodid ticks and domestic animals in palestine.ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the gram-negative pathogen bartonella. here, we evaluated the presence of bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from palestine. we tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for bartonella using its-pcr. bartonella dna was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. none of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive f ...201627540374
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel.dna of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in israel. the findings include evidence for the existence of rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel. the dna of r. africae was detected in a hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and dna of c. rickettsia barbariae was detected in rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. the dna of rickettsia massiliae was found in rh. sanguineus and haemaphysalis erinacei ...201424615133
multiple pathogens including potential new species in tick vectors in côte d'ivoire.our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in côte d'ivoire.201626771308
association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western palearctic. a digital data set.we compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western palearctic (11°w, 45°e; 29°n, 71°n), published during 1970-2010. the literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. records from some curated collections were included. we focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, h. sulcata, hyalomma marginatum, h ...201222843316
morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick hyalomma dromedarii (acari: ixodidae) vectors of rickettsioses in egypt.rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. the dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of rickettsiae. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of r. sanguineus and h. dromedarii.201627847418
molecular detection and identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from the west bank, palestinian territories.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae. although spotted fever is prevalent in the middle east, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the west bank. we aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize sfg rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the west bank-palestinian territories.201626771654
ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in maswa and iringa, tanzania.ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. in november 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the maswa district and iringa urban, tanzania. amblyomma gemma, a. lepidum, and a. variegatum were identified from maswa cattle, and a. variegatum was the predominant species. a. marmoreum, hyalomma impeltatum, and rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 ambl ...201425352709
path analyses of cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggest that variability in natural communities of blood-associated parasites is derived from host characteristics and not interspecific interactions.the parasite composition of wild host individuals often impacts their behavior and physiology, and the transmission dynamics of pathogenic species thereby determines disease risk in natural communities. yet, the determinants of parasite composition in natural communities are still obscure. in particular, three fundamental questions remain open: (1) what are the relative roles of host and environmental characteristics compared with direct interactions between parasites in determining the communit ...201526286391
identification of rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks in northern senegal.the spotted fevers, caused by the rickettsia bacteria, are a group of emerging diseases that are responsible for significant human morbidity. in africa, the distribution of different species of rickettsia in their tick vectors is poorly studied. we have collected 1169 hard ticks from 5 different species in the northern senegal, close to the saharan border. in a far northern collection site, corresponding to the rickettsia africae distribution area, we collected three amblyomma variegatum ticks i ...201424908548
molecular detection of rickettsia africae, rickettsia aeschlimannii, and rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and hyalomma spp. ticks from this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and bedouin communities in southern israel. a total of 618 ixodid ticks (hyalomma dromedarii, hyalomma turanicum, hyalomma excavatum, and hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by ta ...201324107206
population dynamics of ticks infesting the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius) in central tunisia.a tick population was monitored on 30 camels (camelus dromedarius) over one year in kairouan region, central tunisia. a total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. the ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by hyalomma excavatum (1%), hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (p<0.001). mean infestation prevalenc ...201323999226
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