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characterization of an atp translocase identified in the destructive plant pathogen "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus".atp/adp translocases transport atp across a lipid bilayer, which is normally impermeable to this molecule due to its size and charge. these transport proteins appear to be unique to mitochondria, plant plastids, and obligate intracellular bacteria. all bacterial atp/adp translocases characterized thus far have been found in endosymbionts of protozoa or pathogens of higher-order animals, including humans. a putative atp/adp translocase was uncovered during the genomic sequencing of the intracellu ...201019948801
association of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" with the psyllid, trioza apicalis (hemiptera: triozidae) in europe.the psyllid trioza apicalis förster (hemiptera: triozidae) is a serious pest of carrots, daucus carota l., in europe. carrots exhibiting symptoms of psyllid damage were observed in commercial fields in southern finland in 2008. symptoms in affected plants included leaf curling, yellow and purple discoloration of leaves, stunted growth of shoots and roots, and proliferation of secondary roots. mechanisms by which t. apicalis induces symptoms in plants are not understood, and no plant pathogens ha ...201020857712
movement of bactericera cockerelli (heteroptera: psyllidae) in relation to potato canopy structure, and effects on potato tuber weights.with the threat of new plant diseases on the increase, plant disease epidemiology requires research on pathogen vector movement. here, releases were performed in planted potato fields of different ages and canopy structures, located in the texas panhandle, to evaluate the range of movement of the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (sulc.). this insect is a known causative agent of psyllid yellows disease, and is a vector of the reported etiological agents of zebra chip disease of potato, 'can ...201021061949
diversity of endosymbionts in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (triozidae), vector of zebra chip disease of potato.zebra chip disease is an emerging, serious disease of solanaceous crops and the causal agent is a bacterium "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (cls), also known as "candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous", which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc). we performed bacterial tag-encoded flx amplicon pyrosequencing (btefap) of the 16s rdna genes to determine the bacterial microbiota in adult insects from cls-uninfected and cls-infected strains of b. cockerelli and pot ...201121327558
repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum, causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate the repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of b. cockerelli on tomato plants that had been sprayed with kaolin particle film on the upper surface only, on the lower surface only and on both leaf surfaces.201121337676
translocation of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum", the zebra chip pathogen, in potato and tomato.zebra chip disease is a serious threat to potato production. the causative agent, the phloem-limited bacterium "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," is vectored by the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli, to potato and tomato. patterns of pathogen translocation through phloem in potato and tomato plants were examined to determine whether rate or direction of translocation vary by host species or potato varieties. two insects were given a 7-day inoculation access period on a single l ...201121770778
Vector transmission efficiency of liberibacter by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in zebra chip potato disease: effects of psyllid life stage and inoculation access period.Successful transmission of plant pathogens by insects depends on the vector inoculation efficiency and how rapidly the insect can effectively transmit the pathogen to the host plant. The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), has recently been found to transmit "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," a bacterium associated with zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in several parts of the world. Currently, little is known about the epidemiology of ZC a ...201122066176
transcriptome analysis of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" in its psyllid vector, bactericera cockerelli."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso) is an emergent pathogen of carrots in europe and solanaceous plants in north and central america and new zealand. this bacterium is closely related to other pathogenic candidatus liberibacter spp., all vectored by psyllids. in order to understand the molecular interaction of this pathogen and its psyllid vector, bactericera cockerelli, illumina sequencing of psyllid harboring lso was performed to determine if this approach could be used to assess the ...201424992557
interactions "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum"-bactericera cockerelli: haplotype effect on vector fitness and gene expression analyses."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso) has emerged as a serious threat world-wide. five lso haplotypes have been identified so far. haplotypes a and b are present in the americas and/or new zealand, where they are vectored to solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae). the fastidious nature of these pathogens has hindered the study of the interactions with their eukaryotic hosts (vector and plant). to understand the strategies used by the ...201627376032
indirect effects of one plant pathogen on the transmission of a second pathogen and the behavior of its potato psyllid vector.plant pathogens can influence the behavior and performance of insect herbivores. studies of these associations typically focus on tripartite interactions between a plant host, a plant pathogen, and its insect vector. an unrelated herbivore or pathogen might influence such interactions. this study used a model system consisting of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), the psyllid bactericera cockerelli sulc, and tomatoes to investigate multipartite interactions among a pathogen, a nonvector, and a plant ho ...201526314051
risk assessment of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' transmission by the psyllids bactericera trigonica and b. tremblayi from apiaceae crops to potato.candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (lso) is bacterium transmitted by psyllids to solanaceae and apiaceae plants. so far, lso is found in europe affecting apiaceae. in the mediterranean region, bactericera trigonica is the only known vector of lso, but the leek-onion psyllid bactericera tremblayi is another widespread psyllid and potential vector of lso. commonly, carrot, leek and potato are cultivated in the same zones and it is uncertain if these psyllid species are able to transmit lso to po ...201728368017
whole-genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" strain r1 from california.the draft whole-genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" strain r1, isolated from and maintained in tomato plants in california, is reported. the r1 strain has the genome size of 1,204,257 bp, g+c content of 35.3%, 1,101 predicted open reading frames, and 57 rna genes.201425540355
influence of the pathogen candidatus liberibacter solanacearum on tomato host plant volatiles and psyllid vector settlement.candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso) is an unculturable bacterium vectored by the tomato potato psyllid (tpp) bactericera cockerelli and has been associated with zebra chip disease in potato and with other economically relevant symptoms observed in solanaceous crops. by altering their host and vector's biological system, pathogens are able to induce changes that benefit them by increasing their transmission rate. understanding these changes can enable better targeting of mechanisms to con ...201425378121
solanum habrochaites, a potential source of resistance against bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) and "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum".the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli sulc, also known as tomato psyllid, is a serious pest of solanaceous plants. its host selection criteria are poorly understood. in this study, we tested whether the solanum habrochaites (pi127826), a wild solanaceous plant known for its property to repel whiteflies, was repellent to potato psyllids. using a combination of nonchoice assays and choice assays on different psyllid stages, we demonstrated that s. habrochaites is both repelling and toxic to p ...201425026681
comparative genomics of cultured and uncultured strains suggests genes essential for free-living growth of liberibacter.the full genomes of two uncultured plant pathogenic liberibacter, ca. liberibacter asiaticus and ca. liberibacter solanacearum, are publicly available. recently, the larger genome of a closely related cultured strain, liberibacter crescens bt-1, was described. to gain insights into our current inability to culture most liberibacter, a comparative genomics analysis was done based on the rast, kegg, and manual annotations of these three organisms. in addition, pathogenicity genes were examined in ...201424416233
comparison of potato and asian citrus psyllid adult and nymph transcriptomes identified vector transcripts with potential involvement in circulative, propagative liberibacter transmission.the potato psyllid (pop) bactericera cockerelli (sulc) and asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso) and ca. l. asiaticus (clas), respectively. clso causes zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, clas causes citrus greening disease. the reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in altern ...201425436509
effects of liberibacter-infective bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) density on zebra chip potato disease incidence, potato yield, and tuber processing quality.in plant pathosystems involving insect vectors, disease spread, incidence, and severity often depend on the density of the vector population and its rate of infectivity with the disease pathogen. the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc), has recently been associated with zebra chip (zc), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in the united states, mexico, central america, and new zealand. "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," a previously undescribed species of liber ...201122299337
molecular and physiological properties associated with zebra complex disease in potatoes and its relation with candidatus liberibacter contents in psyllid vectors.zebra complex (zc) disease on potatoes is associated with candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (cls), an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (šulc). the name zc originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. we determined that compared to healthy p ...201222615987
seasonal population dynamics of the potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae) and its associated pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" in potatoes in the southern great plains of north america.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), and its associated pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (ca. l. solanacearum), the putative causal agent of zebra chip (zc) disease in potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.), were sampled in commercial potato fields and untreated control plots for 3 yr in multiple locations in texas, kansas, nebraska, and colorado. populations of the potato psyllid varied across years and across potato growing regions. however, the per ...201222928306
experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. we tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli) is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. we controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (solanum tub ...201223166641
"candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" titer over time in bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) after acquisition from infected potato and tomato plants.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is a serious pest of potato and other solanaceous crops. b. cockerelli has been associated with the bacterium "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), the causal agent of zebra chip, a new and economically important disease of potato in the united states, mexico, central america, and new zealand. the biology of liberibacter transmission to potato and other host plants by the potato psyllid is largely unknown. the curre ...201324224236
methods for rapid and effective pcr-based detection of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' from the insect vector bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the dna extraction/purification process.this study provides a protocol for rapid dna isolation from psyllid vectors (bactericera cockerelli and diaphorina citri) that can be used directly with dna-based methods for the detection of 'candidatus (ca.) liberibacter solanacearum,' the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip disease and eventually for 'ca. liberibacter asiaticus' the causal agent of huanglongbing disease in citrus. the fast dna extraction protocol was designed to work with conventional polymerase chain reaction (cpcr) ...201323865212
horizontal transmission of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" by bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) on convolvulus and ipomoea (solanales: convolvulaceae)."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (solanales: solanaceae) in north america and new zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. this phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae). while some plants in the convolvulaceae (solanales) are also known hosts for b. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect li ...201526555359
"candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" associated with the psyllid, bactericera maculipennis (hemiptera: triozidae).the psyllid bactericera maculipennis (crawford) (hemiptera: triozidae) often cohabits field bindweed (convolvulus arvensis, solanales: convolvulaceae) and other plants with the congeneric psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), in the pacific northwestern united states. bactericera cockerelli is a vector of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease of potato (solanales: solanaceae). because b. maculipennis and b. cockerelli both naturally occur on ce ...201728108600
identification and location of symbionts associated with potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli) lifestages.the potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli, sulc) is an invasive pest of solenaceous plants including potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.)and tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l.). the insect transmits the phytopathogen candidatus liberibacter solanacearum, which has been identified as the causal agent of zebra chip in potatoes. the microbiome of the potato psyllid provides knowledge of the insect's bacterial makeup which enables researchers to develop targeted biological control strategies. in this stu ...201222525064
low-level detection of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum in bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) by 16s rrna pyrosequencing.accurate detection and quantification of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (cls), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato (solanum tuberosum l.), in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc), has become necessary to better understand the biology of the disease cycle. studies on the transmission efficiency of potato psyllids have shown inconsistencies with field surveys. there have also been reports of laboratory colonies inexplicably losing and regaining cls infectio ...201324331599
latent period and transmission of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" by the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae)."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso) is an economically important pathogen of solanaceous crops and the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato (solanum tuberosum l.). this pathogen is transmitted to solanaceous species by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), but many aspects of the acquisition and transmission processes have yet to be elucidated. the present study was conducted to assess the interacting effects of acquisition access period, incubation period, ...201424682175
loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure (lamp) for detection of the potato zebra chip pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum".an efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure (lamp) for the detection of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip (zc) disease, is described in this chapter. similar to the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the lamp employs a bacterial polymerase to amplify specific dna sequences. however, the method differs from conventional pcr in that it uses six primers specific to the target region to generate a loop structure and autocycl ...201525981248
zebra chip disease decreases tuber (solanum tuberosum l.) protein content by attenuating protease inhibitor levels and increasing protease activities.zebra chip disease of potato decreases protease inhibitor levels resulting in enhanced serine-type protease activity, decreased protein content and altered protein profiles of fully mature tubers. zebra-chip (zc), caused by candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso), is a relatively new disease of potato that negatively affects growth, yield, propagation potential, and fresh and process qualities of tubers. diseased plants produce tubers with characteristic brown discoloration of vascular tissu ...201526092706
a predictive degree day model for the development of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) infesting solanum tuberosum.bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is a pest of potato (solanum tuberosum l.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum.' zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of b. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant b. cockerelli populatio ...201526314066
settling and ovipositional behavior of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) on solanaceous hosts under field and laboratory conditions.potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), is a seasonal insect pest in the lower rio grande valley of texas, where it transmits the bacterial pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" that causes zebra chip disease of potato. studies were conducted to evaluate host preference of b. cockerelli adults for different plant species, and plant size and density. settling and oviposition behavior of b. cockerelli was studied on its wild and cultivated solanaceous hosts, including potato, toma ...201526470210
de novo genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" from a single potato psyllid in california.the draft genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" strain rstm from a potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli) in california is reported here. the rstm strain has a genome size of 1,286,787 bp, a g+c content of 35.1%, 1,211 predicted open reading frames (orfs), and 43 rna genes.201526679599
the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of bactericera cockerelli and comparison with three other psylloidea species.potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli) is an important pest of potato, tomato and pepper. not only could a toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants, but also over the past few years b. cockerelli was shown to transmit "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum", the putative bacterial pathogen of potato zebra chip (zc) disease, to potato and tomato. zc has caused devastating losses to potato production in the western u.s., mexico, and elsewhere. new knowledge of t ...201627227976
assessing the likelihood of transmission of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum to carrot by potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important solanaceae and apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. this bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli, and to apiaceae by carrot psyllids, including trioza apicalis and bactericera trigonica. five haplotypes of lso have so far been described, two are associated with solanaceous species and potato psyllids, ...201627525703
museum specimen data reveal emergence of a plant disease may be linked to increases in the insect vector population.the emergence rate of new plant diseases is increasing due to novel introductions, climate change, and changes in vector populations, posing risks to agricultural sustainability. assessing and managing future disease risks depends on understanding the causes of contemporary and historical emergence events. since the mid-1990s, potato growers in the western united states, mexico, and central america have experienced severe yield loss from zebra chip disease and have responded by increasing insect ...201728459124
correlation between "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" infection levels and fecundity in its psyllid vector.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) transmits the bacterium, "candidatus (ca.) liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), also known as "ca. liberibacter psyllaurous", which causes zebra chip disease in potato and other solanaceous crops. the authors previously showed that fecundity and nymph survival is significantly reduced in lso-infected psyllids compared to uninfected psyllids on tomato. however, it is not known whether the level of the pathogen is correlated with concomitant re ...201424211673
gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a key pest of potato (solanum tuberosum l., solanales: solanaceae) and a vector of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. in addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the solanaceae. a better understanding of landscape-level ecology of b. cockerelli would substantially improve our a ...201627271944
identification of the genes required for the culture of liberibacter crescens, the closest cultured relative of the liberibacter plant pathogens.here tn5 random transposon mutagenesis was used to identify the essential elements for culturing liberibacter crescens bt-1 that can serve as antimicrobial targets for the closely related pathogens of citrus, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) and tomato and potato, candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (lso). in order to gain insight on the virulence, metabolism, and culturability of the pathogens within the genus liberibacter, a mini-tn5 transposon derivative system consisting of a gene sp ...201627148230
transcriptome analyses of bactericera cockerelli adults in response to "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" infection.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) is an economically important crop pest that not only causes damage through its feeding but also transmits the bacterium, "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (cls), which causes zebra chip disease in potato. there is some information about the phenotypic effects of phytopathogenic bacteria on their insect vectors; however, there are no published reports of the molecular mechanisms underlying phytopathogenic bacteria-insect vector interac ...201222945464
potential economic pests of solanaceous crops: a new species of solanum-feeding psyllid from australia and first record from new zealand of acizzia solanicola (hemiptera: psyllidae).acizzia credoensis sp. n. is described from a single population on the native plant, solanum lasiophyllum, from semi-arid western australia. the host range of acizzia solanicola kent & taylor, initially recorded as damaging eggplant, s. melongena, in commercial crops and gardens and on wild tobacco bush, s. mauritianum in eastern australia, is expanded to include the following solanaceae: rock nightshade, s. petrophilum, cape gooseberry, physalis peruviana, and an undetermined species of angel's ...201324698916
zebra chip disease enhances respiration and oxidative stress of potato tubers (solanum tuberosum l.).the physiological phenotype of potato tubers afflicted by zebra chip disease is characterized by increased oxidative stress metabolism and upregulation of systems for its mitigation. starch catabolism and extensive buildup of reducing sugars render potatoes infected with zebra chip (zc) pathogen (candidatus liberibacter solanacearum) unsuitable for fresh market and processing into chips/fries. here we show that the disease inflicts considerable oxidative stress, which likely constitutes a substa ...028623560
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