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serologic examination of birds from the area of southern moravia for the presence of antibodies against arboviruses of the groups alfa, flavo, uukuniemi, turlock and bunyamwera supergroup. ii. wild living birds.280 specimens of 29 species of wild living birds from 11 families captured in the endemic area of the virus lednice in southern moravia (cssr) were investigated by haemagglutination-inhibition test (hit) on presence of antibodies against 12 arbovirus antigens of the groups alfa-virus (western and eastern equine encephalomyelitis, semliki, sindbis, chikungunya), flavovirus (tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, west nile), the uukuniemi group (poteplí), the turlock group (lednice) and the bunyamwera s ...19761010494
[epidemiology of west nile virus: study of a focus in camargue. v. the fector: culex modestus ficalbi diptera; culicidae]. 19705464130
[field trials of bac. thuringiensis berl. preparations on the larvae of anopheles atroparvus thiel. and culex modestus fic. mosquitoes. 2]. 19846717381
[isolation in france of the west nile virus from patients and from the vector culex modestus ficalbi]. 196414260659
[the study of mosquito fauna (diptera, culicidae) in volgograd city in light of the outbreak of west nile fever in volgograd region, 1999].mosquito sampling was carried out in volgograd city and its vicinity in august 2001 and 2002. in total 16,000 individuals belonging to 6 genera and 12 species were collected. nine species were anthropophilic. culex modestus and aedes vexans dominated in all outdoor samples collected in volgograd city. in addition to these species, coquillettidia richiardii and ae. caspius were abundant in the vicinity of volgograd. autogenous cx. popiens dominated among six species sampled indoors in volgograd c ...200415272818
entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including dipterans. fungal pathogens such as lagenidium, coelomomyces and culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. there are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. the discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pa ...200415861235
evaluation of potential west nile virus vectors in volgograd region, russia, 2003 (diptera: culicidae): species composition, bloodmeal host utilization, and virus infection rates of mosquitoes.potential west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) vectors were assessed during 2003 at indoor and outdoor collection sites in urban volgograd, russia, and in three nearby towns and surrounding rural areas. in total, 9,182 female mosquitoes comprising 13 species in six genera were collected. relative abundance and bloodmeal host utilization differed temporarily and spatially. during june and july in volgograd, aedes vexans (meigen) (85.4%) and culex p. pipiens l. (7.6%) were ...200616739415
distribution of mosquito species in areas with high and low incidence of classic kaposi's sarcoma and seroprevalence for hhv-8.the 'promoter-arthropod' hypothesis, which postulates that exposure to the bites of certain species of haematophagous arthropods is an environmental risk cofactor linked to human herpes virus 8 (hhv-8) and kaposi's sarcoma, was investigated in the po river valley, northern italy. the presence and density of adult female mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) was determined by cdc light trap catches in two adjacent districts, at variance with respect to kaposi's sarcoma incidence and hhv-8 seroprevalenc ...200616871701
horse-, bird-, and human-seeking behavior and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in a west nile virus focus of southern france.after 35 yr of disease absence, west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) circulation has been regularly detected in the camargue region (southern france) since 2000. wnv was isolated from culex modestus ficalbi, which was considered the main vector in southern france after horse outbreaks in the 1960s. recent wnv transmissions outside of the cx. modestus distribution suggested the existence of other vectors. to study potential wnv vectors, horse- and bird-baited traps and hum ...200617017231
evidence of laboratory vector competence of culex modestus for west nile virus.during the past 10 years, west nile virus (wnv) has been responsible for large and severe human outbreaks and horse epizootics through the old and the new world. since wnv was first isolated from field-collected mosquitoes of culex modestus in 1964 in france, this species, which aggressively feeds on birds and mammals, is considered a putative wnv vector in europe. we report on the first evidence on the laboratory vector competence of cx. modestus for wnv. to assess this trait, f3 and f4 females ...200717847861
population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and west nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the camargue, france.the camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of france, which is highly influenced by human activities. large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and west nile virus. therefore, the popu ...200718092973
effects of local anthropogenic changes on potential malaria vector anopheles hyrcanus and west nile virus vector culex modestus, camargue, france.using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important west nile virus (wnv) vector, culex modestus, in the camargue region, france. from world war ii to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. they then fell, likely beca ...200718258028
magpies as hosts for west nile virus, southern france.european magpies (pica pica) from southern france were tested for antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and viral shedding in feces during spring-autumn 2005. results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on wnv ecology in europe.200818258098
vector competence of some french culex and aedes mosquitoes for west nile virus.to identify the mosquito species able to sustain the transmission of west nile virus (wnv) in the camargue region (the main wnv focus of southern france), we assessed the vector competence of culex modestus and culex pipiens, the most abundant bird-feeders, and aedes caspius, the most abundant mammophilic species occasionally found engorged with avian blood. female mosquitoes were exposed to the infectious meal (10(10.3) plaque forming units (pfu)/ml) by membrane feeding, and hold at 26 degrees ...200818447623
epidemiology of west nile infection in volgograd, russia, in relation to climate change and mosquito (diptera: culicidae) bionomics.in 1999, there was the large outbreak of west nile fever (wnf) in southern russia (>500 cases in the volgograd province). in 2000-2004, the wnf incidence rate decreased steadily to zero, but a new outbreak occurred in 2007 (64 cases). the analysis of historical climate data for volgograd from 1900 to present showed that the years 1999 and 2007 were the hottest ones due to a very mild "winter" (dec.-mar.) and a hot "summer" (june-sep.). there are up to 15 potential wnf vectors in volgograd, but o ...200819030885
spread of the west nile virus vector culex modestus and the potential malaria vector anopheles hyrcanus in central europe.mosquito faunal studies were carried out in five separate wetland regions in the czech republic during 2004-2007, sampling with dry ice-baited and sentinel host-baited cdc traps. a total of 79,245 adults was identified, representing 23 mosquito species that belonged to the genera anopheles, culiseta, coquillettidia, aedes, and culex. our findings reveal that the mosquito fauna is enriched by new elements in the mediterranean region. historical and cdc trap data suggest that the newly-emerging po ...200819263846
changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis.abstract : ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. as key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (cvbds), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (canl) by leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by dirofilaria immiti ...200919426441
a quantitative risk assessment approach for mosquito-borne diseases: malaria re-emergence in southern france.the camargue region is a former malaria endemic area, where potential anopheles vectors are still abundant. considering the importation of plasmodium due to the high number of imported malaria cases in france, the aim of this article was to make some predictions regarding the risk of malaria re-emergence in the camargue.200818673551
is culex modestus (diptera: culicidae), vector of west nile virus, spreading in the dombes area, france?as a main vector of west nile (wn) virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus) in europe, culex modestus ficalbi (diptera: culicidae) is commonly found in delta regions, lakes, and ponds. the dombes area is located along one of the main corridors of bird migrations in france and lies 300 km north of the camargue region, a frequent focus of wn virus circulation. it is an important breeding, wintering, and stopover site for many bird species that are putative carriers of viruses of different kin ...200919960670
[isolation and identification of banna virus from mosquito for the first time in inner mongolia].to identify the virus isolated from a mosquito culex modestus collected from tongliao city of inner mongolia autonomous region.200920104749
putative new lineage of west nile virus, spain.to ascertain the presence of west nile virus (wnv), we sampled mosquitoes in 2006 in locations in southern spain where humans had been infected. wnv genomic rna was detected in 1 pool from unfed female culex pipiens mosquitoes. phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this sequence cannot be assigned to previously described lineages of wnv.201020202444
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
first report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of west nile disease in italy.west nile virus (wnv) is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. a surveillance plan was implemented in italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of wnv equine encephalomyelitis and a wnv outbreak in france very close to the italian border. this plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillan ...200820405446
mosquito (diptera: culicidae) surveillance for arboviruses in an area endemic for west nile (lineage rabensburg) and tahyna viruses in central europe.six viral isolates were obtained from 23,243 female mosquitoes (examined in 513 pools) belonging to 16 species and collected along the lower reaches of the dyje river in south moravia (czech republic, central europe) during 2006-2008: five isolates of orthobunyavirus tahyna (tahv, california group, family bunyaviridae: three isolations from aedes vexans (meigen), one from ae. sticticus (meigen), one from culex modestus ficalbi); and one isolation of flavivirus west nile (wnv, japanese encephalit ...201020496595
epidemiology of west nile in europe and in the mediterranean basin.in the last 30 years several cases of west nile (wn) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in europe and in the mediterranean basin. most of them were determined by strains of the lineage 1 included in the european mediterranean/kenyan cluster. strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. in recent years, however, wn cases determined by strains grouped in the israeli/american cluster of lineage ...201020517490
[current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (diptera: culicidae) in spain].in this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (diptera: culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. the faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. the results show the existence of several common and anthropophi ...201020661525
[hibernation of arbovirus tahyna in culex modestus fic. in france]. 19704986362
experimental studies on comparison of the potential vector competence of four species of culex mosquitoes in china to transmit west nile virus.to assess the risk that indigenous mosquitoes in china are capable of transmitting and sustaining west nile virus (wnv), four important culex mosquito species, culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex modestus, culex pipiens pallens, and culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, were allowed to feed on the artificial infectious blood meal with wnv dose of 10(6.8) plaque-forming unit/ml and tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection and transmission rates. the results indicated that four culex mosquitoes ...201020939372
newly recognized mosquito-associated viruses in mainland china, in the last two decades.there are four principal arboviruses in mainland china. two kinds of them are mosquito-borne viruses, namely japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus, which lead to japanese encephalitis, and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever respectively; the other two are tick-borne viruses, namely tick-borne encephalitis virus and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus), which contribute to tick-borne encephalitis and xinjiang hemorrhagic fever respective ...201121314994
continuity and change of japanese encephalitis virus in toyama prefecture, japan.abstract. to determine the mechanisms of maintenance and evolution of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in a temperate zone, we attempted to isolate jev from mosquitoes and pigs in toyama prefecture, japan. a total of 87 jevs were isolated from female culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and pigs during 2005-2009. the prevalence of jev in toyama prefecture was seasonally late in comparison with that of the virus during 1966-1972. furthermore, jevs were isolated after the peak in the number of fema ...201121540378
role of the repartition of wetland breeding sites on the spatial distribution of anopheles and culex, human disease vectors in southern france.abstract: background: in this study, carried out in the camargue region (france), we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. the species studied are important and competent disease vectors in europe: culex modestus ficalbi and cx. pipiens linnaeus (west nile virus), anopheles atroparvus van thiel, a former plasmodium vector, and an. melanoon hackett, competent to trans ...201121548912
emergence of genotype i of japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in asia.japanese encephalitis virus (jev), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide. previous phylogenetic studies based on the envelope protein indicated that there are four genotypes, and surveillance data suggest that genotype i is gradually replacing genotype iii as the dominant strain. here we report an evolutionary analysis based on 98 full-length genome sequences of jev, including 67 new samples isolated from humans, pigs, mosquitoes, midges. ...201121697481
west nile and usutu viruses in mosquitoes in spain, 2008-2009.west nile virus lineage 1 (similar to the strains obtained from golden eagles in spain, 2007) and usutu virus (similar to the strains obtained from culex pipiens in spain, 2006) were detected in pools from culex perexiguus collected in southern spain in 2008 and 2009, respectively. this is the first detection and isolation of west nile virus lineage 1 from mosquitoes in spain.201121734145
Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority def ...201122152822
species composition and wnv screening of mosquitoes from lagoons in a wetland area of the algarve, portugal.the aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the algarve, portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for west nile virus (wnv). wnv has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human wn cases. adult mosquitoes were collected with cdc traps baited with co(2), and po ...201122347862
vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats.owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases (vbds), whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of vbds. knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens that they transmit is vital to the risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance, and control of vbds. upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face an ever-increasing range of possi ...201425566522
current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the uk.non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into europe, and are now established in many european countries. the continued european importation of potential vectors and their expansion within europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the uk. coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.201526122427
pilot longitudinal mosquito surveillance study in the danube delta biosphere reserve and the first reports of anopheles algeriensis theobald, 1903 and aedes hungaricus mihályi, 1955 for romania.mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses) are of growing importance in many countries of europe. in romania and especially in the danube delta biosphere reserve (ddbr), mosquito and mobovirus surveillance are not performed on a regular basis. however, this type of study is crucially needed to evaluate the risk of pathogen transmission, to understand the ecology of emerging moboviruses, or to plan vector control programmes.201627066827
direct pcr of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. however, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. the identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the anopheles maculipennis complex (diptera: culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as culex pipiens pipiens/culex pipiens molestus (diptera: culicidae), presents a major problem. in addition, the detection and discrimination of newly ...201526663040
impacts of the creation, expansion and management of english wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of west nile virus and malaria. for some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. some mosquito species explo ...201525889666
european surveillance for west nile virus in mosquito populations.a wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in europe or through risk of introduction. prominent among these is west nile virus (wnv), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. endemic outbreaks of west nile fever have been reported in italy, greece, france, romania, hungary, russia and spain, with further spread expected. most outbreaks in western europe have been due ...201324157510
west nile virus state of the art report of malwest project.during the last three years greece is experiencing the emergence of west nile virus (wnv) epidemics. within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (malwest project) with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. one out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the state of the art report for wnv. three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. medical dat ...201324317379
comparison of genotypes i and iii in japanese encephalitis virus reveals distinct differences in their genetic and host diversity.japanese encephalitis (je) is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the asia-pacific region. the causative agent, japanese encephalitis virus (jev), has been phylogenetically divided into five genotypes. recent surveillance data indicate that genotype i (gi) is gradually replacing genotype iii (giii) as the dominant genotype. to investigate the mechanism behind the genotype shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human c ...201425056890
monitoring of west nile virus in mosquitoes between 2011-2012 in hungary.west nile virus (wnv) is a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus. wnv strains are classified into several genetic lineages on the basis of phylogenetic differences. whereas lineage 1 viruses are distributed worldwide, lineage 2 wnv was first detected outside of africa in hungary in 2004. since then, wnv-associated disease and mortality in animal and human hosts have been documented periodically in hungary. after the first detection of wnv from a pool of culex pipiens mosquitoes in 2010, s ...025229703
importance of wetlands management for west nile virus circulation risk, camargue, southern france.to assess environmental and horse-level risk factors associated with west nile virus (wnv) circulation in camargue, southern france, a serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables) in 2007 and 2008. fifteen landsat images were examined to quantify areas with open water and flooded vegetation around sampled horses. mean percentages of areas of open water and flooded vegetation, as well as variations in these percentages between 3 periods (november to february = not ...201425093652
insights into the evolutionary history of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) based on whole-genome sequences comprising the five genotypes.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is the etiological agent of japanese encephalitis (je), one of the most serious viral encephalitis worldwide. five genotypes have been classified based on phylogenetic analysis of the viral envelope gene or the complete genome. previous studies based on four genotypes have reported that in evolutionary terms, genotype 1 jev is the most recent lineage. however, until now, no systematic phylogenetic analysis was reported based on whole genomic sequence of all five ...201525884184
mosquito (diptera: culicidae) fauna of qom province, iran.there is very little information about the mosquito fauna of qom province, central iran. by now only three species; anopheles claviger, an. multicolor, and an. superpictus have been reported in the province. to study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.201223293779
mosquito, bird and human surveillance of west nile and usutu viruses in emilia-romagna region (italy) in 2010.in 2008, after the first west nile virus (wnv) detection in the emilia-romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested.201222666446
ecology of west nile virus in north america.the introduction, dispersal and establishment of west nile virus in north america were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. the overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. the cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective.201324008376
co-circulation of usutu virus and west nile virus in a reed bed ecosystem.mosquito-borne flaviviruses are a major public health threat in many countries worldwide. in central europe, west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv), both belonging to the japanese encephalitis virus group (flaviviridae) have emerged in the last decennium. surveillance of mosquito vectors for arboviruses is a sensitive tool to evaluate virus circulation and consequently to estimate the public health risk.201526459018
exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts of west nile virus: a review of the recent literature.over the last two decades west nile virus (wnv) has been responsible for significant disease outbreaks in humans and animals in many parts of the world. its extremely rapid global diffusion argues for a better understanding of its geographic extent. the purpose of this inquiry was to explore spatio-temporal patterns of wnv using geospatial technologies to study populations of the reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts, in addition to the spatio-temporal interactions among these populations. r ...201324284356
a review of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of west nile virus.the resurgence of west nile virus (wnv) in north america and europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. wnv is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in le ...201424748813
evaluating the feeding preferences of west nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.the total contact rates (tcrs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the west nile virus (wnv) in europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. the results of our previous study showed that wnv seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. the current study aims to assess the role of bird type (raptor ...201627580694
identifying biotic interactions which drive the spatial distribution of a mosquito community.spatial variation in the risk of many mosquito-borne pathogens is strongly influenced by the distribution of communities of suitable vector mosquitoes. the spatial distributions of such communities have been linked to the abiotic habitat requirements of each constituent mosquito species, but the biotic interactions between mosquitoes and other species are less well understood. determining which fauna restrict the presence and abundance of key mosquito species in vector communities may identify s ...201526170202
landscape effects on the presence, abundance and diversity of mosquitoes in mediterranean wetlands.environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. in this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of west nile and other pathogens (usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the doñana natural park, spain ...201526086804
feeding patterns of potential west nile virus vectors in south-west spain.mosquito feeding behaviour determines the degree of vector-host contact and may have a serious impact on the risk of west nile virus (wnv) epidemics. feeding behaviour also interacts with other biotic and abiotic factors that affect virus amplification and transmission.201222745781
molecular xenomonitoring of dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern italy by real-time pcr coupled with melting curve analysis.dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are transmitted by bloodsucking culicid mosquitoes belonging to culex, aedes, ochlerotatus, anopheles and mansonia genera. the detection of filarioids in mosquitoes for assessing distribution of vectors and/or of pathogens in a given area (also known as "xenomonitoring"), when based on individual dissection of wild-caught female mosquitoes is time consuming and hardly applicable in large epidemiological surveys. our study aimed to evaluate the recently ...201222520170
west nile virus surveillance in 2013 via mosquito screening in northern italy and the influence of weather on virus circulation.west nile virus (wnv) is a recently re-emerged health problem in europe. in italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of west nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. this is particularly true in northern italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. the aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for wnv in northern italy to char ...201526488475
first report outside eastern europe of west nile virus lineage 2 related to the volgograd 2007 strain, northeastern italy, 2014.west nile virus (wnv) is a flavivirus transmitted to vertebrate hosts by mosquitoes, maintained in nature through an enzootic bird-mosquito cycle. in europe the virus became of major public health and veterinary concern in the 1990s. in italy, wnv re-emerged in 2008, ten years after the previous outbreak and is currently endemic in many areas of the country. in particular, the northeastern part of italy experience continuous viral circulation, with human outbreaks caused by different genovariant ...201526265490
examining landscape factors influencing relative distribution of mosquito genera and frequency of virus infection.mosquito-borne infections cause some of the most debilitating human diseases, including yellow fever and malaria, yet we lack an understanding of how disease risk scales with human-driven habitat changes. we present an approach to study variation in mosquito distribution and concomitant viral infections on the landscape level. in a pilot study we analyzed mosquito distribution along a 10-km transect of a west african rainforest area, which included primary forest, secondary forest, plantations, ...200919915916
disentangling vector-borne transmission networks: a universal dna barcoding method to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals.emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. about one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. in this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. however, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international dna barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vect ...200919768113
malaria resurgence risk in southern europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the mediterranean shore of spain.international travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. this fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern europe. such a study is made for the first time in spain. the ebro delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it ...201020673367
the complete sequence of a west nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (turdus philomelos) in eastern romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain volgograd 2007.in this study the first complete sequence of the west nile virus (wnv) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in romania was determined. the virus was detected in a hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (turdus philomelos) in the romanian danube delta close to the city of tulcea, end of august 2013. our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of wnv infections. sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the romanian w ...201425279973
climatic effects on mosquito abundance in mediterranean wetlands.the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. one of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission.201425030527
a review of the vector management methods to prevent and control outbreaks of west nile virus infection and the challenge for europe.west nile virus infection is a growing concern in europe. vector management is often the primary option to prevent and control outbreaks of the disease. its implementation is, however, complex and needs to be supported by integrated multidisciplinary surveillance systems and to be organized within the framework of predefined response plans. the impact of the vector control measures depends on multiple factors and the identification of the best combination of vector control methods is therefore n ...201425015004
enhanced west nile virus surveillance in the north kent marshes, uk.as part of efforts to more fully understand the potential risks posed by west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv) in the uk, and following on from previous reports of a potential bridge vector culex modestus for these viruses, at wetland sites in north kent, mosquito surveillance was undertaken more widely across the isle of sheppey, the hoo peninsula and the kent mainland.201525884920
west nile virus vector culex modestus established in southern england.the risk posed to the united kingdom by west nile virus (wnv) has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main culex sp. bridge vectors. the mosquito culex modestus is widespread in southern europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of wnv. this species was not previously thought to be present in the united kingdom.201222316288
effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. however, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. we collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed b ...201627373794
effect of blood meal digestion and dna extraction protocol on the success of blood meal source determination in the malaria vector anopheles atroparvus.host identification is an essential step in studies on the transmission dynamics of vector-borne disease. nowadays, molecular tools allow the identification of vertebrate hosts to the species level. however, the proportion of successful identifications is variable and may be affected by the quality of the samples and the laboratory protocols. here, the effect of two of these factors, namely the digestion status of mosquito blood meal and the dna extraction procedure, on the success of host ident ...201323517864
circulation of dirofilaria repens and dirofilaria immitis in moldova.over the last two decades, a significant spread of dirofilariasis has been observed in eastern and central europe. however, data on the circulation of dirofilaria spp. in moldova were absent although direct neighbor states reported high incidence rates of human dirofilariasis.201627912786
lack of evidence for the presence of schmallenberg virus in mosquitoes in germany, 2011.in 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus of the simbu serogroup was discovered near the german-dutch border and named schmallenberg virus (sbv). so far, sbv genome has been detected in various field-collected culicoides species; however, other members of the simbu serogroup are also transmitted by mosquitoes.201425174354
microsporidium infecting anopheles supepictus (diptera: culicidae) larvae.microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae). in a recent study on the mosquito fauna of chahar mahal and bakhtiari province, at the central western part of iran, a few larvae of anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level.201627308299
risk of canine and human exposure to dirofilaria immitis infected mosquitoes in endemic areas of italy.the occurrence of infections by dirofilaria immitis in canine and human populations depends on several factors linked to both the definitive and intermediate hosts. little data are available on the risk of human and dog exposure to d. immitis in endemic areas. data collected on dog- and human-bait traps in endemic areas of north-eastern italy were used to estimate the likelihood of a receptive host coming into contact with an infected vector.201323510597
approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the eu.the recent emergence in europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most european countries. central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. as active mosquit ...201525567671
identifying the main mosquito species in china based on dna barcoding.mosquitoes are insects of the diptera, nematocera, and culicidae families, some species of which are important disease vectors. identifying mosquito species based on morphological characteristics is difficult, particularly the identification of specimens collected in the field as part of disease surveillance programs. because of this difficulty, we constructed dna barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, the coi gene, for the more common mosquito species in china, including the major dise ...201223071708
identification of climatic factors affecting the epidemiology of human west nile virus infections in northern greece.climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as west nile virus (wnv) infections. we explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of west nile fever (wnf) or west nile neuro-invasive disease (wnnd) in humans in northern greece over the years 2010-2014. time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and pre ...201627631082
host-seeking behavior and arbovirus detection in mosquitoes of habahe county, xinjiang uigur autonomous region, china.mosquitoes in habahe county of xinjiang uigur autonomous region in china are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light traps operated at three locations in june through august 2008. nine traps were used at each location a ...201526675454
[complete genome characterization of the kyzylagach virus (kyzv) (togaviridae, alphavirus, sindbis serogroup) isolated from mosquitoes culex modestus ficalbi, 1889 (culicinae) collected in a colony of herons (ardeidae leach, 1820) in azerbaijan].complete genome sequencing of the kyzylagach virus (kyzv) leiv-65a strain isolated from the culex modestus ficalbi, 1889 (culicinae), which was collected in the colony of the ardeidae leach, 1820 birds on the coast of caspian sea, kyzyl-agach bay, in the southern part of azerbaijan, was carried out. kyzv has high homology (about 99%) with the chinese xj-160 strain of the sindbis virus (sinv) isolated from anopheles sp. in xinjiang uyghur autonomic region (north-eastern china). homologies of kyzv ...201425895208
transmission dynamics of the west nile virus in mosquito vector populations under the influence of weather factors in the danube delta, romania.mosquitoes were collected in the danube delta during the active seasons of 2011-2013. for culex spp. mosquitoes, the abundance was calculated. culex pipiens (sensu lato), (s.l.) and culex modestus pools were tested for the presence of west nile virus (wnv) genome, and the maximum likelihood of the infection rate was established. mean daily temperatures and precipitation were obtained for the closest meteorological station. a negative binominal model was used to evaluate linkages between the temp ...201627709311
the 2011 west nile disease outbreak in sardinia region, italy.in 2011, strains of west nile virus (wnv) belonging to lineage 1 spread for the first time in sardinia region (italy). in contrast to previous wnv italian incursion, the strains were found in culex modestus and, more surprisingly, they were able to cause severe clinical signs in the affected birds. based on the partial sequence of the ns3 encoding gene, the sardinian wnv strains demonstrated a high similarity with the other wnv strains recently detected in the mediterranean basin. nonetheless, t ...201525842208
establishment of the west nile virus vector, culex modestus, in a residential area in denmark. 201425424250
west nile virus lineage 2 isolated from culex modestus mosquitoes in the czech republic, 2013: expansion of the european wnv endemic area to the north?we report the detection and isolation of four almost identical strains of west nile virus (wnv) lineage 2from culex modestus mosquitoes collected at three fish ponds in south moravia, czech republic, during august 2013. phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the czech wnv strains isolated are closely related to austrian, italian and serbian strains reported in 2008,2011 and 2012, respectively. our findings show the current northernmost range of lineage 2 wnv in europe.201425138970
equine seroprevalence rates as an additional indicator for a more accurate risk assessment of the west nile virus transmission.the west nile virus (wnv) is a zoonotic arbovirus that has recently been causing outbreaks in many countries in southern and central europe. in 2012, for the first time, it caused an outbreak in eastern croatia with total of 7 human clinical cases. with an aim of assisting public health personnel in order to improve survey protocols and vector control, the high risk areas of the wnv transmission were estimated and mapped. the study area included cities of osijek and slavonski brod and 8 municipa ...201324308242
feeding behavior and spatial distribution of culex mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in wetland areas of the czech republic.mosquito feeding behavior determines the degree of vector-host contact and may have a serious impact on the risk of pathogen transmission, including that of the west nile virus (wnv). to measure the role of culex mosquitoes as wnv vectors, host-seeking females were collected using animal-baited traps containing live birds (quail) or mammals (rabbits) and co2-baited center for disease control and prevention traps placed in several wetland areas in the czech republic. culex pipiens (l.) and culex ...201324180115
ecological niche modelling of potential west nile virus vector mosquito species and their geographical association with equine epizootics in italy.in italy, west nile virus (wnv) equine outbreaks have occurred annually since 2008. characterizing wnv vector habitat requirements allows for the identification of areas at risk of viral amplification and transmission. maxent-based ecological niche models were developed using literature records of 13 potential wnv italian vector mosquito species to predict their habitat suitability range and to investigate possible geographical associations with wnv equine outbreak occurrence in italy from 2008 ...201424121802
comparison of different trapping methods for surveillance of mosquito vectors of west nile virus in rhône delta, france.five trapping methods were compared for monitoring potential vectors of the west nile virus in four areas in the camargue plain of france: carbon dioxide traps, bird-baited traps, gravid traps, resting boxes, and human landing catches. a total of 73,721 specimens, representing 14 species, was trapped in 2006. results showed significant differences in species and abundance between the type of traps. many more specimens were collected using co(2) traps than any other method, with an average of 212 ...201223181848
distribution of west nile virus vector, culex modestus, in england. 201222983524
mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) of metropolitan hamburg, germany.in europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. a vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. it was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal change ...201424870250
[comparative characteristics of intergenic spacers of ribosomal rna gene cluster in mosquitoes of the genus culex (diptera: culicidae)].nucleotide sequences of intergenic spacer of ribosomal rna gene cluster (rigs) were identified in mosquitoes culex modestus, culex torrentium and culex pipiens pallens. the level of interpopulation variability of the rigs in the subspecies c. pipiens pipiens (form pipiens--mosquitoes that inhabit the open waters, and form molestus--mosquitoes that inhabit basements) living in russia was estimated. no extensive repetitive sequences characteristic of the rigs of all previously described species of ...201323888772
seasonal pattern of daily activity of aedes caspius, aedes detritus, culex modestus, and culex pipiens in the po delta of northern italy and significance for vector-borne disease risk assessment.the increasing concern about vector-borne diseases such as west nile disease in northern italy motivated our analysis of data on the mosquito fauna and the seasonal and daily flight patterns collected in 1998 in the po valley. collections were performed once a week from may to november, with human landing collections and co(2) traps. culex pipiens was present from july to october and showed a clearly unimodal nocturnal flight habit. culex modestus appeared in july-august and showed a bimodal fli ...201222548536
[isolation and molecular characterization on abbey lake orthobunyavirus (bunyaviridae) in xinjiang, china].to monitor and discover medically important mosquito-borne viruses circulating in xinjiang, china.201425376687
[on the stenogamy of culex modestus fic. (diptera, culicidae)]. 20096003358
screening blood-fed mosquitoes for the diagnosis of filarioid helminths and avian malaria.both dirofilaria repens and recently d. immitis are known to be endemic in hungary. as one of several recent cases, the fatal case of a dog infested with d. immitis in szeged, southern hungary, received attention from the media. hence it was decided to catch mosquitoes in the garden where the dog lived to screen for filarioid helminths and plasmodium spp. using molecular tools.201525582219
west nile virus host-vector-pathogen interactions in a colonial raptor.avian host species have different roles in the amplification and maintenance of west nile virus (wnv), therefore identifying key taxa is vital in understanding wnv epidemics. here, we present a comprehensive case study conducted on red-footed falcons, where host-vector, vector-virus and host-virus interactions were simultaneously studied to evaluate host species contribution to wnv circulation qualitatively.201728962629
lack of evidence for the presence of mosquito-borne arboviruses in the upper rhine valley, germany, in 1999 to 2000. 201020592140
clinical aspects of dermatitis associated with dirofilaria repens in pets: a review of 100 canine and 31 feline cases (1990-2010) and a report of a new clinic case imported from italy to dubai.cutaneous dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens, living in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs, cats, wild carnivores, and humans. cases have been recently reported also from germany, czech republic, hungary, ukraine, russia, austria, switzerland, france, the netherlands, and the middle east. d. repens is not widely known to cause chronic pruritic dermatitis in animals. dermatological signs observed in 100 canine clinic ...201122203888
distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in inner mongolia, china.during summers in 2007 and 2008, an investigation was conducted to identify the distribution of mosquitoes and circulation of mosquito-borne arboviruses in inner mongolia, china. a total of 10,542 mosquitoes consisting of seven species from the aedes, culex, and anopheles genera were trapped by uv-light traps, and they were sorted into 211 pools according to species, location, and date of collection. the result showed that aedes dorsalis was the most common species, accounting for 41.0% (4327/10 ...201121867416
an integrative eco-epidemiological analysis of west nile virus transmission.west nile disease, caused by the west nile virus (wnv), is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting humans and horses that involves wild birds as amplifying hosts. the mechanisms of wnv transmission remain unclear in europe where the occurrence of outbreaks has dramatically increased in recent years. we used a dataset on the competence, distribution, abundance, diversity and dispersal of wild bird hosts and mosquito vectors to test alternative hypotheses concerning the transmission of wnv in ...201728584951
genetic differentiation of populations within the culex pipiens complex and phylogeny of related species.the culex pipiens complex consists of several species, subspecies, forms, races, physiological variants, or biotypes according to different authors and includes the 2 holarctic variants cx. pipiens biotype pipiens and cx. pipiens biotype molestus. differences in morphological characters are overlapping and thus are delimited in their taxonomic value, even when behavioral and reproductive specializations are apparent. our enzyme electrophoretic study included 7 geographic populations of cx. pipie ...200919432063
mosquito species involved in the circulation of west nile and usutu viruses in italy.usutu (usuv) and west nile (wnv) are mosquito-borne flavivirus emerged in italy in 1996 and 1998, respectively, and reappeared 10 years later. the aim of this work is to review the italian mosquito species found positive for wnv and usuv between 2008 and 2014. moreover, the role of mosquitoes in promoting the overwintering of these viruses is discussed, as a result of the mosquito collections performed in molise region between september 2010 and april 2011. overall 99,000 mosquitoes were collect ...201728675249
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