recovery of reovirus type 2 from an immature dog with respiratory tract disease.two similar cytopathic agents were recovered from the throat and rectal swab specimens of an immature dog with upper respiratory tract disease. the reference isolate, 14-72r, was shown to be a member of the reovirus group by its physicochemical properties, cytopathic effects in cell cultures, and appearance when examined in the electron microscope. both isolates hemagglutinated human type o erythrocytes and antigenically were closely related to reovirus type 2. the affected pup had an increase i ...1977196533
effects of viral exposure of the two-cell mouse embryo on cleavage and blastocyst formation in vitro.the effect of viral exposure of two-cell mouse embryos on their capacity to undergo subsequent cleavage and blastocyst formation in vitro was determined. exposure to coxsackie viruses b-4 and b-6, reovirus type 2, influenza virus type a, mouse cytomegalovirus, adenovirus type 5, and mouse adenovirus resulted in statistically significant inhibition of blastocyst formation. development in vitro was unaffected by exposure to echo virus type 11, attenuated poliomyelitis virus type 2, parainfluenza v ...1979225719
the preferential cytotoxicity of reovirus for certain transformed cell lines.the susceptibility of a variety of cell lines of different mammalian origin to cytotoxic (ct) induction by either ultraviolet light-irradiated reovirus type 2 (uvr2) or viable reovirus type 2 plus the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, was examined. the following groups of cells were found to be susceptible to ct-induction: certain tumor cells and spontaneously transformed cell lines of human origin and certain virally and spontaneously transformed cell lines of murine origin. the follo ...1977562142
isolation of reovirus type 2 from respiratory tract of sheep.a virus isolated from a nasal swab taken from a healthy lamb was identified as a reovirus on the basis of morphology and physicochemical characteristics. this virus agglutinated human 0 erythrocytes and was shown by haemagglutination tests to be a type 2 reovirus. serological evidence indicated infection of other healthy lambs in the same group.1976999516
reovirus type 2 in domestic cats: isolation and experimental transmission.five reovirus isolates were recovered in ma104 cell cultures from the faeces of three cats with nictitating membrane protrusion and diarrhoea, one cat with diarrhoea only and from one healthy cat. four of these isolates were characterised as reovirus type 2 and one as reovirus type 3 by haemagglutination-inhibition and serum neutralization tests. reovirus type 2 has not been reported previously in cats. mild clinical signs of diarrhoea were noted in kittens infected experimentally with one of th ...19921316666
[virologico-serologic studies in horses with respiratory tract diseases].of 1081 acute and chronically respiratory diseased as well as clinically normal horses 824 sera and 257 paired serum samples collected 1986 and 1987 were tested for antibodies against several different respiratory viruses such as influenza virus a/equi 1 and 2 (influenza 1 a. 2), equine herpesvirus type 1/4 (ehv 1/4), mammalian reovirus type 1-3 (reovirus 1-3), equine rhinovirus type 1 (erv 1), equine adenovirus type 1 (eadv 1), and equine arteritis virus (eav). the investigations resulted in an ...19921558530
thymic atrophy in type 2 reovirus infected mice: immunosuppression and effects of thymic hormone. thymic atrophy caused by reo-2.suckling mice infected with reovirus type 2 showed a thymic atrophy followed by a marked suppression of the antibody, production to srbc (a t cell dependent antigen) and bacterial lps, when measured by the splenic pfc assay. the pfcs produced were sometimes less than 1% of uninfected control animals. histologically the thymus was usually smaller than normal, and atrophy of the cortex and increased number of hassal's bodies were observed. number of nucleated cells in the thymus of infected mice s ...19911656552
direct virus inactivation of tachyplesin i and its isopeptides from horseshoe crab virus inactivation of tachyplesin i and related isopeptides, which are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab (tachypleus tridentatus and limulus polyphemus), was examined against several viruses. vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) was inactivated by incubation with tachyplesin i and its isopeptides. influenza a (h1n1) virus was slightly inactivated by tachyplesin i, whereas herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, adenovirus 1, reovirus 2 and poliovirus 1 were resist ...19911666545
clonal analysis of the cytotoxic t-lymphocyte response to reovirus.reovirus has previously been classified into three serotypes based on hemagglutination inhibition assays. in the present study, the specificity of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) generated in reovirus type 3-infected c3h/hen mice was investigated at the population and clonal levels. short-term ctl lines generated in response to reovirus type 3 preferentially lysed cells infected with reovirus type 1 or 3 and, in some instances, type 2-infected cells as well. eleven ctl clones established from the ...19911725700
penetration of the nervous systems of suckling mice by mammalian reoviruses.penetration of the nervous systems of suckling mice by prototype strains of the three mammalian reovirus serotypes was studied after footpad inoculation of a dose (10(7) pfu) representing 3.5 x 10(3) 50% lethal doses (ld50) for reovirus type 3 dearing and less than 1 ld50 for reoviruses type 1 lang and type 2 jones. type 3 dearing entered both motor and sensory neurons; infected neurons were clearly detectable by immunohistochemical staining 19 h after inoculation. by day 2, a second cycle of in ...19911845880
comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and virus neutralization assays for the serology of reovirus infections in laboratory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection and quantification of reovirus-specific igm and igg serum antibodies in rodents, detecting reovirus group reactive antibodies, was compared with reovirus types 1, 2 or 3 specific virus neutralization (vn) assays. to this end, serum samples were collected from specific pathogen-free (spf) balb/c rivm mice, after experimental infection with any of the three mammalian reovirus serotypes. the majority (seven out of twelve) of the reoviru ...19902157093
reovirus type 2-induced diabetes in mice prevented by immunosuppression and thymic hormone.reovirus type 2 that had been isolated from a cow with diarrhoea and passaged in bovine kidney cell culture produced a type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes-like syndrome when inoculated into nc mice. the infection resulted in insulitis and destruction of islet cells. viral antigens were found in islet cells by staining with fluorescein-labelled antibody to reovirus type 2. the destruction of islet cells resulted in abnormalities shown on glucose tolerance testing. studies on the susceptibility of ...19902161369
pathogenicity of a reovirus type 2 in suckling mice: insulitis and lymphoid atrophy. 19892558250
influence of inoculum size, incubation temperature, and cell culture density on virus detection in environmental samples.the influence of inoculum size and cell culture density on virus titer by cytopathic effect or plaque assay was studied using poliovirus type 1 and bgm (buffalo green monkey) cells as a model for this evaluation. with a plaque assay system, a linear relationship was observed for an inoculum size of up 1 ml/25 cm2; a marked decrease in the number of plaques was observed when over 1 ml of sample was inoculated on this surface area. cell culture density also affected virus titer; maximal titers wer ...19853004683
recovery of reoviruses from tap water.samples of piped water were taken from the source of the springs in ten villages in lorraine. usually this water has not been subjected to disinfection. the water was tested for fecal indicator bacteria, phages and animal viruses. of the ten samples examined, seven contained no fecal indicator bacteria, phages or animal viruses, in three samples, however, reovirus type 2 was found. among the three positive samples only one contained fecal bacteria and phages. consequently, the two other samples ...19853006405
assessment of sequence relatedness of double-stranded rna genes by rna-rna blot hybridization.three well-characterized reovirus serotypes were used to investigate the usefulness of rna-rna blot hybridization as a means to assess the genetic relatedness of double-stranded rna (dsrna) viruses. [5'-32p]pcp-labeled genomic dsrnas from reovirus 1, 2 and 3 were used as probes in hybridization experiments in which segments of the three serotypes were separated in 10% polyacrylamide gels and transferred electrophoretically to membranes. nine of the 10 reovirus genes cross-hybridized between the ...19853972943
reovirus type 2-infection, cycloheximide, and cell death. 19674167134
reovirus type 2: production of and sensitivity to interferon in human amnion cells. 19684297699
hydrocephalus in mice inoculated neonatally by the oronasal route with reovirus type 1.mice inoculated neonatally by the oronasal route with reovirus type 1 or 2 developed typical acute disease. fifteen percent of the mice recovered from the acute infection. no further disease was noted in mice infected with reovirus 2, but 9 percent of the survivors of reovirus i infections developed hydrocephalus at a mean time of 109 days after inoculation. infectious virus could not be isolated from hydrocephalic mice.19704315408
hemagglutination inhibiting activity of human serum protein fractions towards reovirus type 2. 19714338166
studies on reovirus type 2: viral interference with uv-inactived virus. 19734355773
antiviral activity of tobacco smoke condensate on encephalomyocarditis infection in mice.a water-soluble nontumorigenic acidic fraction of tobacco smoke condensate of cigarettes has been found to have antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis (emc) virus infection in mice. the portion of lower molecular weight was inhibitory to the growth of emc virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus type 2, vaccinia virus, and poliovirus type 2, but not against adenovirus type 12, in kb cell cultures. the cigarette smoke agent did not induce serum interferon although it protected mice fr ...19734364177
growth characteristics and immunocytochemical studies of reovirus type 2 in a line of human amnion cells. 19664863392
effect of the purification of virus antigens on the production of specific complement-fixing antibodies.the effect of viral purification procedures on the antibody response of guinea pigs to immunization with reovirus type 2 and echovirus type 19 was investigated. three grades of antigens were employed: (i) infectious monkey kidney tissue culture fluid (tcf), (ii) virus sedimented in the ultracentrifuge and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, and (iii) virus purified by centrifugation in cscl density gradients. the antibody response of the guinea pigs was studied by the hemagglutination inhibi ...19714995851
growth characteristics of reovirus type 2: actinomycin d and the synthesis of viral rna. 19655217464
inactivation of reovirus type 2 by a combination of chloroform and moderate temperature.the infectivity and hemagglutinins of reovirus type 2 were destroyed at 37 c in the presence of chloroform, whereas no effect of chloroform was noted at 0 c.19695370463
reovirus type 2: induction of viral resistance and interferon production in fathead minnow cells. 19715544463
growth characteristics of reovirus type 2: the intracellular fate of viral rna. 19675600775
morphological and immunological studies on reovirus type 2 hemagglutinin. 19685698885
identification of reovirus type 2 in cell cultures inoculated with hepatitis sera. 19695770116
growth characteristics of reovirus type 2: ultraviolet light inactivated virion preparations and cell death. 19695782933
growth characteristics of reovirus type 2: actinomycin d and the preferential synthesis of viral rna. 19665918148
an electron-microscope study of reovirus type 2 in l cells. 19665964377
reovirus type 2 in strains of korean haemorrhagic fever virus. 19826122957
role of the s4 gene in the establishment of persistent reovirus infection in l cells.we have studied the viral genes playing a role in persistence of reovirus in l cells. we established persistent infections by coinfecting l cells using wild-type reovirus type 2 and defective reovirus type 3. an analysis of the genomic double-stranded rna pattern of the virus population selected during persistent infection revealed that the s4 gene was derived from the defective parent in three independently established lines, suggesting that the s4 gene plays an essential role in the establishm ...19827074685
biochemical studies on the mechanism of chemical and physical inactivation of reovirus.we have examined the effects of heat and several chemical inactivating agents on the buoyant density, particle-associated polypeptides and ultrastructure of reovirus particles. treatment at ph 11 removed polypeptide sigma 1 from the outer capsid of reovirus type 2 but not from type 1; resultant particles were unchanged in their buoyant density and morphology. treatment of reovirus types 2 and 3 with 2.5 m-guanidine-hcl produced particles with unchanged polypeptide content but an increased buoyan ...19827175501
infectivity, disease patterns, and serologic profiles of reovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 in infant and weanling mice.the oronasal median infectious doses of reovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were established in infant and weanling sencar mice on the basis of disease expression and seroconversion. infant mice were susceptible to infection with low doses of all three serotypes, whereas weanling mice were comparatively resistant to infection. uniform transmission of virus to cagemates or mothers of infants did not occur, indicating low contagiousness of all three virus serotypes. the comparative susceptibility of 2- ...19938277720
prevention of reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome in dba/1 suckling mice by treatment with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome in suckling mice is considered to be an animal model for human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. we have previously demonstrated that immunopathologic pancreatic islet cell damage might be relevant to reovirus type 2 infection. in this study the involvement of adhesion molecules in the development of reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome was examined. in infected mice infiltration of mononuclear cells mixed with polymorphonuclear leucocy ...19958652360
isolation of reovirus type 2 from diarrheal feces of pigs.reoviruses designated as os-320 to os-324 were isolated from a total of 5 fecal specimens from 3 with diarrhea and 2 apparently healthy pigs aged 3 months. the serotype of these isolates was determined as reovirus type 2 by cross neutralizing tests. furthermore, the results of hemagglutination test suggested the isolates were different from the other reoviruses. a survey of neutralizing antibody against reoviruses showed type 2 virus was widely prevalent among pigs in okayama prefecture. this pa ...19968811626
dimethylthiourea reduces pancreatic islet-cell damage in dba/1 sucking mice with reovirus type-2 infection.reovirus type 2 (reo-2) infection in dba/1 sucking mice causes pancreatic islet-cell destruction, which results in a diabetes-like syndrome. to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ros), the protective effect of dimethylthiourea (dmtu) was examined, this substance being an effective scavenger of hydroxyl radicals. the degree of cellular infiltration in and around pancreatic islets was the same in mice receiving either virus only or virus and dmtu. the latter had no effect on (1) the ...19979502269
interferon-gamma plays a role in pancreatic islet-cell destruction of reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome in dba/1 suckling mice.reovirus type 2 (reo-2) infection in dba/1 suckling mice causes insulitis, which leads to pancreatic islet-cell destruction, resulting in a diabetes-like syndrome. t-helper (th) 1 cytokines are thought to play a key role in islet inflammation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. we examined this hypothesis in the reo-2-induced diabetes-like syndrome. we used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and quantitative pcr techniques to examine mrna expression of interferon (ifn)-gam ...199810193314
role of interleukin-2 in pancreatic islet-cell destruction in reovirus type 2-infected dba/1 suckling mice.reovirus type 2 (reo-2)-infected dba/1 suckling mice develop insulitis, resulting in a diabetes-like syndrome. in this study, the role of interleukin-2 (il-2) in the death (destruction) of pancreatic islet cells was examined. the endogenous il-2 activity of splenic cells in infected mice was greater than that in uninfected mice. treatment of infected mice with monoclonal antibody against il-2 prevented the development of insulitis with impaired glucose tolerance, in a dose-dependent manner. thes ...199910213676
possible involvement of il-12 in reovirus type-2-induced diabetes in newborn dba/1 mice.this study extends our previous observations that the reovirus type-2(reo-2) can induce autoimmune insulitis, which may be mediated by t-helper (th) 1-dependent mechanisms, resulting in diabetes in newborn dba/1 mice. in this study mrna expression for th1-related cytokines including th1 and th2 cytokines in splenic cells was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in relation to the development of insulitis. furthermore, the effect of monoclonal antibody (moab) again ...200111422905
systemic administration of histamine reduces reovirus type 2-induced insulitis in suckling dba/1 mice.previously we suggested that reovirus type 2 (reo-2) infection induced autoimmune insulitis, resulting in mild diabetes in suckling mice. the effect of histamine (a lymphocyte function suppressor) on reo-2-induced insulitis was examined. systemic histamine administration reduced the development of insulitis and blood glucose elevation. endogenous interleukin-2 (il-2) activity by splenic cells and the production of antibodies to pancreatic islet cells were reduced by histamine treatment. in addit ...200211945004
plasmid encoding interferon-gamma exacerbates reovirus type-2-induced diabetes in dba/1 suckling mice.this study was designed to examine the effects of administration of a plasmid encoding interferon(ifn)-gamma on reovirus type-2(reo-2)-induced autoimmune insulitis in suckling dba/1 mice. cumulative incidences of diabetes and insulitis at 17 days post-infection in the mice treated with ifn-gamma-encoding plasmid were higher than those in control mice treated with "empty" plasmid. these results suggested that the ifn-gamma-encoding plasmid promoted autoimmune insulitis in reo-2-induced diabetes.200212354532
cpg oligodeoxynucleotides accelerate reovirus type 2-triggered insulitis in dba/1 suckling mice.we reported previously that reovirus type-2 (reo-2) triggers t-helper (th) 1-mediated autoimmune insulitis resulting in temporal impaired glucose tolerance (igt) approximately 10 days post infection (d.p.i) in suckling dba/1 mice. we hypothesized that cpg motifs in bacteria may enhance virus-induced insulitis through its content of unmethylated cpg motifs. in the infected mice, the intraperitoneal treatment of synthetic 20-base oligodeoxynucleotides with cpg motifs (cpg odn) caused increase in c ...200212641818
interleukin-4-expressing plasmid dna inhibits reovirus type-2-triggered autoimmune insulitis in dba/1 j suckling this study we have examined the effect of systemic administration of t helper (th) 2 cytokines on reovirus type-2 (reo-2)-triggered th1-mediated autoimmune insulitis with impaired glucose tolerance (igt) in dba/1j suckling mice. we have demonstrated clearly that the systemic administration of both interleukin (il)-4-expressing plasmid dna (pil-4) and recombinant il-4 (ril-4) inhibited the development of insulitis with igt in a dose dependent manner as compared to untreated groups in reo-2-inf ...200312801284
effect of antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule (icam)-1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (lfa)-1 on cytokine mrna expression in reovirus type-2-triggered autoimmune insulitis in suckling dba/1 mice.interleukin (il)-12 in the presence of il-18 induces t helper (th) 1 dominated systemic immune reactions, such as those that occur in autoimmune insulitis in suckling mice infected with reovirus type-2 (reo-2). the role of intercellular adhesion molecule (icam)-1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (lfa)-1 on the induction of cytokines responsible for reo-2-triggered insulitis with impaired glucose tolerance (igt) was examined. one-day-old dba/1 mice infected with reo-2 intraperitoneally ...200312834612
subtype differentiation of reovirus type 2 strains by hemagglutination-inhibition with mouse antisera. 196213904992
occurrence of reovirus infection in ontario.reovirus type 2 was isolated from three patients aged 5, 9 and 10 years. the etiological role of reovirus in one case was confirmed by demonstration of antibodies in convalescent serum and none in acute serum. symptoms in this case were suggestive of infectious mononucleosis. in the second case, rhinitis and non-purulent otitis were preceded by two waves of fever, abdominal pain and emesis. acute serum was not available but convalescent serum had a high titre to a reovirus, thus supporting a reo ...196214009709
fine structure of reovirus type 2.loh, philip c. (university of hawaii, honolulu), h. r. hohl, and m. soergel. fine structure of reovirus type 2. j. bacteriol. 89:1140-1144. 1965.-the fine structure reovirus type 2 was studied by electron microscopy with the negative-staining method. the virus has a mean diameter of 772 a and shows evidence of icosahedral shape and 5:3:2 symmetry. the particle is composed of a core, an inner layer, and a capsid composed of 92 elongated hollow capsomeres. these capsomeres have mean dimensions of ...196514276109
reovirus type 2 isolated from cerebrospinal 8-week-old female infant presented with a history of active varicella complicated by escherichia coli sepsis, oral thrush, hypoalbuminemia, intermittent fevers, diarrhea and feeding intolerance. rhesus monkey kidney cells inoculated with cerebrospinal fluid revealed reovirus-like particles by electron microscopy. virus neutralization and rna-gel electrophoresis studies identified the isolated pathogen as reovirus serotype 2. this report represents one of only a few to isolate reovirus from th ...200415071303
elimination of cd4+ cd25+ regulatory t cells breaks down reovirus type 2-triggered and cpg odn-induced prolonged mild autoimmune insulitis in dba/1 mice.we have reported previously that subclinical prolonged mild t helper (th) 1-dependent autoimmune insulitis with impaired glucose tolerance in wealing dba/1j mice, which is induced by the combined effects of reovirus type 2 (reo-2) and synthetic 20-base oligodeoxynucleotides with cpg motifs (cpg odn) (control mice). compared with the control mice, newborn mice treated with monoclonal antibody (moab) against mouse cd25(+) cd4(+) t cells together with reo-2 and cpg odn greatly reduced the absolute ...200616476010
accelerated cytopathology in hela cells induced by reovirus and cycloheximide.the addition of the protein inhibitor cycloheximide, at concentrations which suppress virus replication, to hela cell monolayers infected with reovirus type 2 results in the appearance of accelerated cytopathic effects (cpe). at high multiplicity of infection, cpe appeared after a lag period of 2 to 3 hr and increased progressively, until by 12 hr the entire monolayer had rounded and sloughed off. during this same period, both the uninfected cycloheximide-treated and untreated virus-infected con ...197016557903
features of the mammalian orthoreovirus 3 dearing l1 single-stranded rna that direct packaging and serotype restriction.a series of recombinant mammalian orthoreoviruses (mammalian orthoreovirus 3 dearing, mrv-3de) were generated that express an mrv-3de lambda3-cat fusion protein. individual viruses contain l1cat double-stranded (ds) rnas that range in length from a minimum of 1020 bp to 4616 bp. the engineered dsrnas were generated from in vitro-transcribed single-stranded (ss) rnas and incorporated into infectious virus particles by using reverse genetics. in addition to defining the sequences required for thes ...200718024910
adventitious viruses detected in biopharmaceutical bulk harvest samples over a 10 year period.while viral safety is a major concern for biologics manufactured using mammalian cells, the numbers of viral contamination events reported in the literature are quite low. during a 10-year period during which biologics derived from a variety of mammalian cell culture processes were evaluated using the in vitro virus screening assay, only reovirus type 2 and cache valley virus were detected, and these only in biologics manufactured in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells. from the literature, we kno ...201021502056
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