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development and application of protein g antibody assay for the detection of antibody to hantavirus.a new serodiagnostic method designated protein-g antibody assay (pga) was developed for detection of hantavirus infection in various species of animals. the assay procedure includes reacting the sera with hantavirus-infected cells on glass slides, followed by incubation of biotinylated protein g and amplification with the avidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex. specific antibody in rabbit, rat, mouse and mongolian gerbil serum was detected by this method. the pga titres were similar to those of ...19921634601
susceptibility of laboratory and wild rodents to rattus or apodemus-type hantaviruses.adult wistar rats (rattus norvegicus), apodemus agrarius, meriones unguiculatus, clethrionomys rufocanus, and apodemus argenteus were inoculated with rattus-type (sr-11, ki-262, and tb-314) or apodemus-type (hantaan 76-118) hantaviruses. production of serum antibody to the inoculated virus (iaha titres of 1:32 to 1:4 096) was obsersved in all rodent species 10 weeks after virus inoculation. rattus-type virus was detected in some organs of all the rodent species employed except of apodemus agrari ...19911683116
[hantaan virus serotypes circulating in foci of the far eastern region of the ussr].studies on serodifferentiation by indirect immunofluorescence antibody method and neutralization test of hantaan virus strains isolated from human patients and rodents revealed circulation on the maritime territory of 5 virus serotypes and demonstrated that rodents of one species could be virus carriers of different virus serotypes. on the basis of the antigenic similarity of strains isolated from human patients, field mice, and clethrionomys rufocanus it is concluded that the virus serotypes ci ...19901980045
experimental characteristics of viraemia caused by two strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus in small rodents.two strains of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus differing in virulence for subcutaneously (s.x.) inoculated adult white mice elicited different levels of viraemia in small rodents. strain skalica of a lowered virulence caused no detectable viraemia in adult clethrionomys glareolus and only negligible viraemia in adult apodemus sylvaticus, microtus arvalis and pitymys subterraneus species. the virulent strain 204 gave rise to higher levels of viraemia, sufficient for infection of tbe virus vec ...19816116416
developmental and morphological characteristics of taenia taeniaeformis (batsch, 1786) in clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae and rattus norvegicus from different geographical locations.developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of taenia taeniaeformis isolated from clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in abuta (70 km southwest of sapporo), japan (isolate acr), and from rattus norvegicus in sapporo, japan (isolate srn) and kuala lumpur, malaysia (isolate krn) were compared. eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. isolate acr infected c. rufocanus bedfordiae, apodemus speciosus, and apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas is ...19948195949
characterization of spirochetes isolated from ticks (ixodes tanuki, ixodes turdus, and ixodes columnae) and comparison of the sequences with those of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.ixodes persulcatus serves as a tick vector for borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in japan; however, unidentified spirochetes have been isolated from other species of ticks. in this study, 13 isolates from ticks (6 from ixodes tanuki, 6 from ixodes turdus, and 1 from ixodes columnae) and 3 isolates from voles (clethrionomys rufocanus) were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, partial sequencing of the o ...19968779571
epidemiological survey of small rodents for spotted fever rickettsial antibody in hokkaido, japan.the prevalence of antibody against spotted fever group rickettsia (sfgr) was investigated with rickettsia japonica antigen in small rodents captured in an area in hokkaido, where no human cases of sfgr infection had been reported. antibody against sfgr was found in apodemus speciosus and clethrionomys rufocanus but not in apodemus argenteus. none of these rodents had antibody against r. typhi. this is the first report of the antibody against sfgr in rodents in hokkaido.19968806039
developmental study of taenia mustelae in the intermediate and definitive hosts, with a note on the life cycle of t. mustelae in hokkaido, japan.the gray red-backed vole clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae and laboratory mice were fed eggs of taenia mustelae via a stomach tube. fully developed metacestodes were recovered from the voles fed the eggs at 25 days postinfection; voles were considered to be more suitable intermediate hosts for t. mustelae than laboratory mice. the prepatent period for the metacestodes from voles was shorter (16 days) in the mink than previously reported. a field survey was performed on hepatic cestodes of small ...19968885900
community structure and prevalence of hantavirus infection in rodents: a geographic division of the enzootic area in far eastern russia.the results of an extensive rodent trapping effort throughout the southern part of far eastern russia and hantavirus antigen screening of tissues were used to develop a multifaceted approach for the geographic division of the enzootic territory of hantavirus. four species of rodents (apodemus agrarius, apodemus peninsulae, microtus fortis, and clethrionomys rufocanus) comprised 88.5 percent of 10,595 captured rodents and 94.1 percent of 996 antigen-positive animals. rodent fauna and the prevalen ...19979221739
detection of rickettsia sibirica in ticks and small mammals collected in three different regions of china.the primers rr 190.70p and rr 190.602n were used to detect spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in ticks and small mammals collected in three different regions of china. the obtained results indicated that specific dna fragments of sfg rickettsiae were amplified from dermacentor silvarum, d. sinicus, d. auratus, haemaphysalis concinna, h. wellingtoni, h. yeni, apodemus agrarius, microtus fortis. clethrionomys rufocanus, ondatra zibethica, rattus flavipectus an ...19989645245
naturally occurring orthopoxviruses: potential for recombination with vaccine vectors.orthopoxviruses are being increasingly used as live recombinant vectors for vaccination against numerous infectious diseases in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. for risk assessments and surveillance, information about the occurrence, distribution and ecology of orthopoxviruses in western europe is important but has mainly been based on serological investigations. we have examined kidneys, lungs, spleens, and livers of norwegian small rodents and common shrews (sorex araneus) for the prese ...19989705389
[detection of north-asia tick-borne spotted fever in ticks and rodents along the heilongjiang river-side by restriction fragment length polymorphism of pcr products].in order to elucidate the natural foci of north-asia tick-borne spotted fever along the bank of heilongjiang river, we used pcr/rflp to detect spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and rodents. the results showed that the wild samples of dermacentor silvarum, haemaphysalis concinna and apodemus agrarius, microtus fortis, clethrionomys rufocanus and ondatra zibethica were all positive with amplification, but typhus rickettsiae, tsutsugamushi fever rickettsiae and q fever rickettsiae were all n ...19979812471
isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in hokkaido, japan.to determine the vertebrate host of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus in the southern part of hokkaido, japan, virus isolation was performed using spleens from small mammals captured in the area. two virus strains were isolated, one strain from apodemus speciosus and another from clethrionomys rufocanus. virus isolates were inoculated onto baby hamster kidney cell monolayers and antigen slides were prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. two isolates were identified as tbe v ...199910072153
genetic diversities of hantaviruses among rodents in hokkaido, japan and far east russia.seroepizootiologic surveys among wild rodents were carried out in japan and far east russia in 1995 and 1996. seropositive animals were only identified in clethrionomys rufocanus (23/134) in hokkaido, japan. on the other hand, seropositives were identified in c. rufocanus (1/8), apodemus agrarius (2/66), apodemus spp. (2/26) and microtus fortis (3/22) in vladivostok, far east russia. total rna was isolated from lungs of seropositive animals and the s genome segments were amplified by pcr, cloned ...199910082393
reservoir competence of the vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, for borrelia garinii or borrelia afzelii.in autumn of 1994 and spring of 1995, we examined borrelia infection among microtinae voles, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, in hokkaido, japan. in bsk culturing of the earlobe tissues of 45 c. rufocanus bedfordiae captured, twelve rodents were positive for borrelia. eight isolates were used for the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and the restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. according to the results, these isolates were classified into b. garinii or b. afzelii. it is con ...19968871531
a new clethrionomys-derived hantavirus from germany: evidence for distinct genetic sublineages of puumala viruses in western europe.puumala (puu) viruses are the predominant etiologic agents of hantavirus infections in europe. the most important reservoir is the bank vole, clethrionomys glareolus (cg), belonging to the subfamily arvicolinae of the muridae family. here we report on the molecular characterization of the first rodent-derived sequence (puu/cg-erft) from germany. comparison of the s and m segment coding regions revealed 92.5 and 92.8% identity, respectively, with puu/h-9013, a human isolate from france. however, ...199910475080
occurrence of yersinia enterocolitica in wild animals.yersinia species were isolated from 16 of 495 small wild animals and from 1 of 38 foxes. the animals were trapped in seven regions of hokkaido, japan. of the 17 strains isolated, 9 were yersinia enterocolitica o6; 2 were y. enterocolitica o5a; 1 was y. enterocolitica, o4; 1 was y. enterocolitica o9; 1 was yersinia pseudotuberculosis ivb; and 3 were sucrose-negative strains. yersinia pestis was not isolated. the o6 organism was most prevalent in large red-back mice (clethrionomys rufocanus bedfor ...19817224628
ultrastructural features of borrelia garinii in naturally infected voles, clethrionomys rufocanus, with special reference to the relationship with peripheral nerves.the ultrastructural features of borrelia garinii found in the ear tissues of the vole, clethrionomys rufocanus, are described. the spirochetes were observed in the interstitium of connective tissue or in contact with fibroblasts and were occasionally situated in the endoneurium of the peripheral nerves. the spirochetes did not injure or enter into the fibroblasts or schwann cells. the cytotoxicity and migration of the spirochetes are also discussed.200111838902
complete life cycle of the canid tapeworm, echinococcus multilocularis, in laboratory rodents.mongolian gerbils, meriones unguiculatus, when treated at intervals of 2-6 days with prednisolone tertiary butyl acetate, sustained infection with adult echinococcus multilocularis in the small intestine, with the tapeworm exhibiting normal strobilation and egg production as in the natural canid host. host age is critical for the survival of the tapeworm in normal gerbils; parasites survive for only 2 days in 20-wk-old animals, 4 days in 4-wk-old animals, but at least 7 days in 3-wk-old animals. ...19902253847
mechanical advantage of area of origin for the external pterygoid muscle in two murid rodents, apodemus speciosus and clethrionomys rufocanus.the actions of masticatory muscles in relation to transverse grinding, associated with forward masticatory movement of the mandible, were investigated by using a mechanical model in the two murid rodents, the japanese field mouse (apodemus speciosus: subfamily murinae) and the gray red-backed vole (clethrionomys rufocanus: subfamily arvicolinae). furthermore, statics of the masticatory system on a sagittal plane while chewing is taking place were also analyzed in these rodents. the inward grindi ...199910201116
[preliminary investigation on reservoir hosts of borrelia burgdorferi in china].from 1987 to 1997, the reservoir hosts of borrelia burdorferi(b.b.) were investigated in 16 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of china. seroepidemiological findings indicated that cattle, sheep, dogs and rats from forest areas had a high antibody titer for b.b. (b31) with positive rates of 18.18%-32.61%, 17.12%-61.21%, 38.50-60.00% and 41.18%-86.05% respectively. using bsk medium, 20 strains of b.b. were isolated from apodemus agrarius, clethrionomys rufocanus, eutamias sibiricus, ...199912712735
debrisoquine/sparteine-type polymorphic drug metabolism in wild clethrionomys rufocanus. 19958591735
epidemiology and epizootiology of hantavirus infection in japan.hantaviruses cause two severe human diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). various rodent species act as animal reservoirs for hantavirus. in japan, urban rat- (rattus norvegicus) and laboratory rat-derived human infections were reported during the 1960s and 1970s-1984, respectively. although no human cases of infection have been reported since 1984, infected urban rats have been found throughout japan, and infected grey red-backed voles ( ...200111544398
genetic similarity of puumala viruses found in finland and western siberia and of the mitochondrial dna of their rodent hosts suggests a common evolutionary origin.a total of 678 small mammals representing eight species were trapped in western siberia in 1999-2000 and assayed for the presence of hantaviruses. eighteen animals, all clethrionomys species, were antigen positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). small and medium genome segments were recovered by rt-pcr from six samples from clethrionomys glareolus and three from clethrionomys rufocanus. sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these hantaviruses were puumala viru ...200314636686
modes of hantavirus transmission in a population of clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite dna analyses.to elucidate the mode of transmission of puumala-related hantavirus in a population of gray red-backed voles, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, in hokkaido, japan, we analyzed the kin structure and dispersal patterns of individual voles using microsatellite and mitochondrial dna markers. siblings or dam/offsprings was identified within the population based on the relatedness calculation with the microsatellite data. the pairwise relatedness values obtained could reveal kinship among all vole i ...200415098108
breeding suppression in free-ranging grey-sided voles under the influence of predator odour.the breeding suppression hypothesis predicts that females of certain small mammal species will reduce reproduction as a response to the odour of a specialised mammalian predator. this was tested in a field experiment with grey-sided voles (clethrionomys rufocanus) during three summer seasons (1997-1999) in the subalpine tundra of northern norway, which is a natural habitat of this species. in a first phase free-ranging voles in six unfenced 1-ha plots were monitored by live-trapping from june to ...200414576932
interspecific and intraspecific competition as causes of direct and delayed density dependence in a fluctuating vole population.a 3- to 5-year cycle of vole abundances is a characteristic phenomenon in the ecology of northern regions, and their explanation stands as a central theoretical challenge in population ecology. although many species of voles usually coexist and are in severe competition for food and breeding space, the role of interspecific competition in vole cycles has never been evaluated statistically. after studying community effects on the population dynamics of the gray-sided vole (clethrionomys rufocanus ...19999927680
phylogenetic relationships within taenia taeniaeformis variants and other taeniid cestodes inferred from the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene.nucleotide sequence variations in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) gene (391 bp) were examined within seven species of the genus taenia and two species of the genus echinococcus, including ten isolates of t. taeniaeformis and six isolates of e. multilocularis. more than a 12% rate of nucleotide differences between taeniid species was found, allowing the species to be distinguished. in e. multilocularis, no sequence variation was observed among isolates, regardle ...19957567901
[chromosome variation and anomalous karyotypes in the red-backed mouse clethrionomys rufocanus (rodentia, microtinae)].g-banding and c-banding of chromosomes were studied in populations of the red-backed mouse clethrionomys rufocanus from 11 localities of eastern russia. intrapopulation polymorphism of autosome 3 caused by the deletion-duplication of the short-arm heterochromatin (2n = 56; nfa = 56-58) was demonstrated. the karyotype of cl. rufocanus from continental populations and sakhalin island was shown to have a large subtelocentric chromosome of pair 3 (nfa = 58), whereas in the population from kunashir i ...19989777356
genetic characterization of hantaviruses transmitted by the korean field mouse (apodemus peninsulae), far east russia.in an epizootiologic survey of 122 rodents captured in vladivostok, russia, antibodies positive for hantavirus were found in apodemus peninsulae (4/70), a. agrarius (1/39), and clethrionomys rufocanus (1/8). the hantavirus sequences identified in two seropositive a. peninsulae and two patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) from the primorye region of far east russia were designated as solovey and primorye, respectively. the nucleotide sequences of the solovey, primorye, and a ...200212141960
[investigation on borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents collected in da xing-an mountains forest areas of china].to detect and study the types of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents from da xing-an mountains forest areas of china.200617172108
molecular screening of bartonella species in rodents from the russian far east.a potentially broad-range pcr system for glta gene amplification has been designed. a nearly full (992 bp) sequence of the glta gene was amplified in two steps. dna was extracted from organs (spleen and liver) of four mostly spread species of rodents: apodemus agrarius and apodemus peninsulae mice; clethrionomys rufocanus and microtus fortis voles. all amplicons have been sequenced. the incidence of bartonella species in rodents was 73%, 60%, 60%, and 83% for the above-mentioned rodents, respect ...200516481532
balancing function of the masticatory muscles during incisal biting in two murid rodents, apodemus speciosus and clethrionomys rufocanus.the functional significance of masticatory muscle direction was estimated using a mechanical model in two murid rodents: the japanese field mouse (apodemus speciosus) and the gray red-backed vole (clethrionomys rufocanus). theoretical analyses of the data suggest that a balancing mechanism among the muscle forces occurs during incisal power stroke. the activation of the large deep masseter in both murids results in marked tensile separation of two hemimandibles at the flexible mandibular symphys ...19989503662
mode of infection of hokkaido virus (genus hantavirus) among grey red-backed voles, myodes rufocanus, in hokkaido, japan.hokkaido virus (hokv) is a member of the genus hantavirus, in the family bunyaviridae. to investigate hokv infection in the host myodes rufocanus, the grey red-backed vole, 199 animals were captured at tobetsu (october 2004 and july 2005) and nakagawa (october 2004) in hokkaido, japan, for detection of antibody, antigen, and viral rna. in the surveys in tobetsu (2004) and nakagawa (2004), seropositive animals were detected at a frequency of 6.0% (5/84) and 10.4% (5/48), respectively. no seroposi ...200718037785
genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by myodes and microtus rodents in buryatia.hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of myodes rufocanus, microtus fortis and microtus oeconomus captured in the baikal area of buryatia, russian federation. genetic analysis of s- and m-segment sequences of buryatian hantavirus strains showed that myodes-associated strains belong to hokkaido virus (hokv) type while microtus-associated strains belong to vladivostok virus (vlav) type. on phylogenetic trees buryatian hokv strains were clustered together with m. rufocanus- ...200818190679
an efficient in vivo method for the isolation of puumala virus in syrian hamsters and the characterization of the isolates from russia.puumala virus (puuv) and other arvicolinae-borne hantaviruses are difficult to cultivate in cell culture. to isolate these hantaviruses efficiently, hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (np)-positive but seronegative wild rodents were selected by np-detection elisa. three of 68 myodes glareolus captured in samara, russia, were np-positive and seronegative. syrian hamsters were inoculated with lung homogenates from np-positive rodents for virus propagation. virus isolation in vitro was carried out by ...201021192975
Interspecific Differences in Tannin Intakes of Forest-Dwelling Rodents in the Wild Revealed by a new Method Using Fecal Proline Content.Mammalian herbivores adopt various countermeasures against dietary tannins, which are among the most widespread plant secondary metabolites. The large Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus produces proline-rich salivary tannin-binding proteins in response to tannins. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) react with tannins to form stable complexes that are excreted in the feces. Here, we developed a new method for estimating the tannin intake of free-living small rodents, by measuring fecal proline cont ...201122161223
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in far eastern russia.one-hundred and fifty-seven borrelia isolated from adult ticks, ixodes persulcatus, and wild rodents, clethrionomys rufocanus and apodemus peninsulae, in the far eastern part of russia were characterized and identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of the 5s-23s rrna intergenic spacer. some isolates showed unique rflp patterns and were determined as borrelia garinii on the basis of a sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer amplicon and reactivity with species-specific mon ...19979310938
borrelia japonica in nature: genotypic identification of spirochetes isolated from japanese small mammals.spirochetes were isolated from earlobe tissues of shrews (sorex unguiculatus, sorex caecutiens, and crocidura dsienezumi), voles (clethrionomys rufocanus), and mice (apodemus argenteus and apodemus speciosus) captured in various localities in japan. the isolates were identified as borrelia japonica by rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. the data suggest that these small mammals are candidates of reservoir hosts for b. japonica.19947869959
molecular-genetic and ultrastructural characteristics of 'candidatus ehrlichia khabarensis', a new member of the ehrlichia genus.recently, a new ehrlichia genetic variant, ehrlichia sp. khabarovsk, was identified in tissue samples of small mammals captured in the russian far east. to further characterize ehrlichia sp. khabarovsk, tissue homogenate from a naturally infected gray red-backed vole (myodes rufocanus) was passaged three times in newborn laboratory mice. using nested pcr ehrlichia sp. khabarovsk dna was detected in tissue samples from infected mice at 1-4 weeks post inoculation. electron microscopic examination ...201526096852
intraspecific variation of taenia taeniaeformis as determined by various criteria.the intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of taenia taeniaformis the srn and krn isolates from norway rats, rattus norvegicus, captured in japan and malaysia, respectively; the bmm isolated from a house mouse, mus musculus, captured in belgium; and the acr isolate from a gray red-backed vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in japan was examined by various criteria. eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate hos ...19957731915
what is paranoplocephala macrocephala (douthitt, 1915) (cestoda: anoplocephalidae)?we present a redescription for paranoplocephala macrocephala (douthitt, 1915) in the type host, geomys bursarius (shaw) (hereafter pmg), and compare it with a p. macrocephala-like taxon in microtus pennsylvanicus (ord) (hereafter pmm) and p. kalelai (tenora, haukisalmi & henttonen, 1985) in clethrionomys rufocanus (sundevall) using uni- and multivariate (discriminant analysis) morphometric methods. p. kalelai was found to be most divergent among these three taxa using both uni- and multivariate ...200312567010
a comparative epidemiological study of hantavirus infection in japan and far east russia.hantaviruses are causative agents of some severe human illnesses, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the viruses are maintained by rodent hosts, and humans acquire infection by inhaling virus-contaminated excreta from infected animals. to examine the epidemiology of hantavirus infections in japan and far east russia, we conducted epidemiological surveys in these regions. in japan, anti-hantavirus antibodies were found in four rodent sp ...200717405352
isolation of hokkaido virus, genus hantavirus, using a newly established cell line derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (myodes rufocanus bedfordiae).hantaviruses belong to the family bunyaviridae and are maintained in wild rodents. although vero e6 cells, which originate from african green monkey kidney, are used widely in hantavirus research, isolation of hantaviruses from this cell line is difficult. to develop an efficient method of propagation and isolation of hantaviruses we established a novel cell line, mrk101, derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), the natural host of hokkaido virus (hokv). ...201222791608
hokkaido genotype of puumala virus in the grey red-backed vole (myodes rufocanus) and northern red-backed vole (myodes rutilus) in siberia.three species of myodes voles known to harbor hantaviruses include the bank vole (myodes glareolus), which serves as the reservoir host of puumala virus (puuv), the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in europe, and the grey red-backed vole (myodes rufocanus) and royal vole (myodes regulus) which carry two puuv-like hantaviruses, designated hokkaido virus (hokv) and muju virus (mujv), respectively. to ascertain the hantavirus harbored ...201526003760
molecular characterization and specific detection of anaplasma species (ap-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in hokkaido, japan.a previously undescribed anaplasma species (herein referred to as ap-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in japan. despite being highly similar to some strains of a. phagocytophilum, ap-sd has never been detected in humans. its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this anaplasma species. we developed a method for specific detection, and examined ap-sd prevalence in hokkaido wildlif ...201526431688
isolation of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica 1b/o:8 from apodemus mice in japan.yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in japan. prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in japanese field mice (apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small japanese field mice (apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of y. enterocolitica. although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1a, the pathogenic bi ...201525380368
[diurnal activity rhythm of clethrionomys rufocanus].the diurnal activity rhythm of clethrionomys rufocanus was studied under three different food conditions in a laboratory. the activity occurred both in the daytime and at night, but mainly at night (19:00-4:00). the mice fed with mouse food exhibited six small peaks in their daily activity, and those fed with grass or hay exhibited seven, but the peak of the out-nest night activity was 2-3 hours earlier. the activity amount of out-nest was 30,518.0 +/- 3,694.9 s for those fed with grass, the nex ...200312974019
potential remedy against echinococcus multilocularis in wild red foxes using baits with anthelmintic distributed around fox breeding dens in hokkaido, japan.the effect of bait-delivered anthelmintic to reduce the prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in wild red foxes was evaluated in koshimizu, in the eastern part of hokkaido, japan. the study area (200 km2) was divided into baited and non-baited sections. the anthelmintic baits were distributed around fox den sites in the baited section every month for 13 months. after 1 year of the anthelmintic bait distribution, the prevalence of e. multilocularis in foxes, evaluated either by the parasite e ...200212211605
characterization of borrelia spp. isolated from the tick, ixodes tanuki and small rodents in japan.spirochetes were isolated from the tick, ixodes tanuki, as well as wood mice (apodemus speciosus) and voles (clethrionomys rufocanus and eothenomys smithii), caught in fukui, tokushima, and hokkaido, japan, from 1991 to 1993. spirochetes were characterized on the basis of protein profiles, reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (mabs), outer surface protein a gene (ospa) and outer surface protein b gene (ospb) amplification analysis, rrna gene and flagellin gene restriction fragment length poly ...19969359053
antibody responses in the wild vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, naturally infected with echinococcus multilocularis by western blotting.antibody responses against crude antigens and the two (em18 and em16) epitopes of echinococcus multilocularis were analysed by western blotting using sera from the wild vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae (crb), which were captured in hokkaido, japan and found to have been naturally infected with eggs, and compared with those in patients of ahd and mice experimentally infected with protoscoleces of this parasite. antibody responses in the wild were demonstrated most clearly with anti-crb-ig ...19947530265
[metabolic and hematologic changes in the northern red-backed vole clethrionomys rutilus and the large-toothed red-backed vole clethrionomys rufocanus during short-term starvation and refeeding].the effect of starvation has been investigated on the content of glucose and lipids in the blood plasma, on the level of leucocytes in the peripheral blood and on the concentration of total lipids and glycogen in the liver. it was found that in both species of the voles, starvation within 20-22 hours sharply decreases glucose content and increases lipid content of the blood plasma. the liver glycogen becomes almost completely exhausted. these changes are more significant than those observed unde ...19827043959
host associations and seasonal abundance of immature ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) in a lyme-disease-endemic area in china.ticks of nine small mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, from 1 may to 10 october 1986. the bulk (93%) total small mammal captures were apodemus speciosus (45%), clethrionomys rufocanus (31%), a. agrarius (11%) and eutamias sibiricus; (5%): these host species accounted for 97% of the 162 ticks collected. ixodes persulcatus schulze were most abundant on e. sibiricus (0.64 larvae and 0.08 nymphs/squirrel), and less abundant on a. a ...19911773682
host substitution by ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) larvae in the years of deep depression in the abundance of small mammals.a phenomenon of host substitution by the taiga tick (ixodes persulcatus) larvae was observed by the authors in the western part of the soviet far east. in the mountain forests where the highest abundance of i. persulcatus was found, larvae usually fed on small mammals (primarily on clethrionomys rufocanus, c. rutilus and apodemus speciosus). numerous larvae were found, however, on the mountain hare (lepus timidus) in the years of deep depression in the abundance of small mammals. the host substi ...19921644364
infectivities of four isolates of taenia taeniaeformis to various rodents.taenia taeniaeformis were isolated from norway rats captured at sapporo (srn isolate) and kuala lumpur, malaysia (krn) and from bedford's gray red-backed voles at toubetsu (tcr) and abuta (acr). srn, krn and tcr isolates showed similar degree of infectivity to various rodents in which cysticerci with hooks were obtained in laboratory rats, white tuberous lesions in mice and no cysts or lesions in mongolian gerbils and voles. contrary to this, inoculation with acr isolate eggs resulted in strobil ...19947948394
seminiferous epithelium cycle and developmental stages of spermatids in the clethrionomys rufocanus.the seminiferous epithelium cycle and developmental stages of spermatids in clethrionomys rufocanus were observed under a light microscope. the seminiferous epithelium cycle was divided into 8 stages. type ad spermatogonia appeared through all stages. type ap, in, and b spermatogonia appeared in stages i, ii, iii, and iv. in the first meiosis prophase, the leptotene spermatocytes appeared from stage v, the zygotene spermatocytes in stages i, vi, vii, viii, the pachytene spermatocytes from stages ...201325949125
a hierarchical bayesian model to estimate the unobservable predation rate on sawfly cocoons by small mammals.predation by small mammals has been reported as an important mortality factor for the cocoons of sawfly species. however, it is difficult to provide an accurate estimate of newly spun cocoons and subsequent predation rates by small mammals for several reasons. first, all larvae do not spin cocoons at the same time. second, cocoons are exposed to small mammal predation immediately after being spun. third, the cocoons of the current generation are indistinguishable from those of the previous gener ...201525691994
detection of babesia microti-like parasite in filter paper-absorbed blood of wild rodents.the first case of human babesiosis was reported in japan. the epidemiology of this disease in japanese nature remains unclear. in this study, 97 common field mice captured in hokkaido, japan, were examined. blood specimens absorbed onto filter papers were eluted and tested by nested pcr using specific primers for the b. microti nuclear small subunit rrna genome. twenty-three percent (11/47) of apodemus speciosus and four percent (2/50) of clethrionomys rufocanus were positive. the 159-bp primary ...200211913551
comparative functional morphology of mandibular forward movement during mastication of two murid rodents, apodemus speciosus (murinae) and clethrionomys rufocanus (arvicolinae).the anatomy of the masticatory apparatus, the direction in which masticatory muscles act during mastication, and jaw muscle forces as estimated by muscle dry weight are compared between two murid rodents, the japanese field mouse (apodemus speciosus, subfamily murinae) and the gray red-backed vole (clethrionomys rufocanus; subfamily arvicolinae). the occlusal forces exerted by the deep masseter and the anterior temporalis are large in c. rufocanus. furthermore, in this species, the angle between ...19978989873
behaviour and resource use of two competing vole species under shared predation risk.indirect interaction between two competing species via a shared predator may be an important determinant of population and community dynamics. we studied the effect of predation risk imposed by the least weasel mustela nivalis nivalis on space use, foraging and activity of two competing vole species, the grey-sided vole myodes rufocanus, and the bank vole myodes glareolus. the experiment was conducted in a large indoor arena, consisting of microhabitat structures providing food, shelter, trees f ...200818612651
interaction between seasonal density-dependence structures and length of the seasons explain the geographical structure of the dynamics of voles in hokkaido: an example of seasonal forcing.the grey-sided vole (clethrionomys rufocanus) is distributed over the entire island of hokkaido, japan, across which it exhibits multi-annual density cycles in only parts of the island (the north-eastern part); in the remaining part of the island, only seasonal density changes occur. using annual sampling of 189 grey-sided vole populations, we deduced the geographical structure in their second-order density dependence. building upon our earlier suggestion, we deduce the seasonal density-dependen ...200212350246
short report: echinococcus multilocularis confirmed on kunashiri island, 15 kilometers from the eastern part of hokkaido, japan.there are two foci of alveolar echinococcosis (ae) caused by echinococcus multilocularis in japan. the first focus is on rebun island where ae patients were found from 1937, and the second is in eastern hokkaido where patients have been found since the 1960s. the origin of the second focus is unknown. to further investigate ae in eastern hokkaido, wild rodents (muridae) were captured and examined for infection on kunashiri island, which is located 15 km off the northeastern coast of hokkaido. me ...200515772322
detection of phylogenetically distinct puumala-like viruses from red-grey vole clethrionomys rufocanus in china.in order to investigate whether puumala virus (puuv) or puuv-like virus is present in china, clethrionomys rufocanus and c. rutilus were captured in the jilin province during the spring and autumn of 2002-2003 for detection of puuv viral rna by rt-pcr and confirmation of puuv-positive antigens by an immunofluorescence assay. puuv-positive rna was identified in six out of 121 c. rufocanus but not in any of the 41 c. rutilus. complete s and partial m sequences (nt 1,316-1,598 and 2,687-3,089) were ...200717596824
serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis: detection of antibody against em18 in patients and rodents.an international collaborative study on echinococcosis has been carried out for the establishment of a simple means for differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (ae) from other parasitic diseases including cystic echinococcosis (ce). the main candidate epitope is em18 (previously undescribed epitope of a low molecular weight protein of 18.5 kda). evaluation of the usefulness of em18 is introduced in this review paper. serum samples showing antibody response against em18 are exclusiv ...19979656361
dynamics, co-infections and characteristics of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in hokkaido small mammals, japan.many of the emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and many of them are caused by vector-borne pathogens. in japan, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (tbps) are frequently detected in both ticks and wildlife. here, we studied the infection rates of potentially zoonotic species, including anaplasma, ehrlichia, neoehrlichia and babesia spp., in hokkaido's most abundant small mammals as they relate to variable extrinsic factors that might affect the infection rates of these pathogens. a tot ...201627166277
human babesiosis in japan: epizootiologic survey of rodent reservoir and isolation of new type of babesia microti-like parasite.we have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. small mammals comprising six species, apodemus speciosus, apodemus argenteus, clethrionomys rufocanus, eothenomys smithii, crocidura dsinezumi, and sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including hokkaido, chiba, shiga, hyogo, shimane, and tokushima prefectures. animals harboring babesia microti-like parasites w ...200111724838
tick-borne encephalitis virus diversity in ixodid ticks and small mammals in south-western siberia, russia.the persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) in nature is maintained by numerous species of reservoir hosts, multiple transmissions between vertebrates and invertebrates, and the virus adaptation to its hosts. our aim: was to compare tbev isolates from ticks and small wild mammals to estimate their roles in the circulation of the viral subtypes.201627303915
[fauna and ecology of small mammal lice in priamur'e].lice occurring on small mammals of priamurje are represented by six species. of 6501 insects collected 91.2% fall on h. acanthopus. 99.8% of lice were collected from rodents of which the main hosts are clethrionomys rufocanus and microtus fortis. the active reproduction of insects takes place in a warm period. high abundance indices were registered from april to july: abundance indices were from 0.6 to 3.0; occurrence indices--from 10.1 to 24.9%.1977865884
u.s.-type babesia microti isolated from small wild mammals in eastern hokkaido, japan.our previous report demonstrated that small wild rodents in japan harbored two types of novel babesia microti-like parasites (kobe and hobetsu types), but not the type widely distributed throughout the temperate zones of north american and eurasian continents (u.s. type). in this study, we surveyed small wild mammals collected at various places in the northern part of japan, seeking for u.s.-type b. microti. a total of 197 small mammals comprising 10 species, apodemus speciosus, a. argenteus, cl ...200415353841
evidence for the existence of puumula-related virus among clethrionomys rufocanus in hokkaido, japan.we conducted field surveys of indigenous rodent species in hokkaido, japan from 1980 to 1993. serum samples were collected from 663 rodents, including clethrionomys rufocanus, apodemus speciosus, a. argenteus, and c. rutilus. antibody to hantavirus was determined by the protein g antibody assay. positive c. rufocanus were detected in seven of eight collection sites, but no antibody was detected in the remaining rodent species. to reveal the serotype of the circulating virus in c. rufocanus, anti ...19957573700
detection of ehrlichial dna in small rodents captured in a woodland area of hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan, where lyme disease is endemic.the ehrlichial gene was detected in small rodents trapped in a lyme disease-endemic area in hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan. primer pairs of 16s rdna targeting the genus ehrlichia and other regions of the 16s rdna specific for e. chaffeensis and e. muris were used for identification. the dna fragment specific for 16s rdna of ehrlichia spp. was detected in 4 of 94 apodemus speciosus mice (positive rate: 4.3%) and 5 of 73 clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae mice (positive rate: 6.8%). th ...200516249629
studies on babesia first found in murine in japan: epidemiology, morphology and experimental infection.during the period from november 1980 to september 1982, 314 small wild mammals were captured in 5 localities in japan. twenty-six out of 86 apodemus speciosus and one out of 6 a. argenteus both species captured in shiga prefecture (35 degrees 02'n, 135 degrees 50'e, 330 m elev .) were positive for babesia. the parasitemia in those animals was generally low. the infection rate did not show any significant difference between sexes of the host or between seasons, whereas it tended to go up with the ...19846730782
[a new genetic variant of the puuv virus from the maritime territory and its natural carrier red-grey vole clethrionomys rufocanus].pulmonary tissues of red-grey voles, clethrionomys rufocanus from shkotovo district and maritime territory were investigated. rt-pcr was used to detect the hantavirus nt-222 m-segment genome and nt-403 mitochondrial dna fragment. a new genetic variant of the puuv virus named as "shkotovo", that is different from other puuv strains by 18-23%, was shown to be circulating in red-grey voles. a phylogenetic analysis denoted 2 puuv subgroups with their rodent-host branching into c. graleolus and c. ru ...200415597959
seed caching and cache pilferage by three rodent species in a temperate forest in the xiaoxinganling mountains.although differences in food-hoarding tactics both reflect a behavioral response to cache pilferage among rodent species and may help explain their coexistence, differentiation in cache pilfering abilities among sympatric rodents with different hoarding strategies is seldom addressed. we carried out semi-natural enclosure experiments to investigate seed hoarding tactics among three sympatric rodent species (tamias sibiricus, apodemus peninsulae and clethrionomys rufocanus) and the relationship o ...201323389982
genetic distinctiveness of the korean red-backed vole (myodes regulus) from korea, revealed by mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences.to examine the taxonomic status of the korean red-backed vole (myodes regulus), the full cytochrome b sequences of 21 red-backed voles from korea and northeast china were compared with the corresponding haplotypes from 12 species of myodes and eothenomys from genbank. we identified five red-backed voles from mount changbai and harbin as myodes rufocanus and three from harbin as m. rutilus, and we confirmed that the red-backed voles from korea are m. regulus and not eothenomys regulus. we found t ...201121132562
[developmental instability of the organism as a result of pessimization of environment under anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes].the value of fluctuating asymmetry is considered to be an indicator of the developmental instability of the organism. the consequences of activities of the mining industry plants, which are characterized by alienation and transformation of large areas of natural landscapes, are analyzed as an anthropogenic factor. the objects of study were small mammals (northern red-backed (clethrionomys rutilus) and gray red-backed (clethrionomys rufocanus) voles, tundra vole (microtus oeconomus), laxmann's (s ...201525720274
intraspecific variation of isoenzymes in taenia taeniaeformis.the technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to japanese wild populations of taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (krn isolated from a malaysian norway rat, bmm from a belgian house mouse and acr from a japanese gray red-backed vole). the average heterozygosities of japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. the genetic make-up of t. taeniaeformis in norway rats was rather uniform in the whole o ...19957622329
parasitism by helminths in the grey-sided vole (clethrionomys rufocanus) in northern finland: influence of density, habitat and sex of the host.we have studied helminths from 532 grey-sided voles (clethrionomys rufocanus) in two localities in northern finland, representing different biogeographic zones, during 1978-1983. the helminth communities in the two study areas were similar, characterized by a small number of species (eight) compared to eastern siberia and japan, and by the dominance of a single anoplocephalid cestode andrya kalelai. the prevalence of this helminth varied significantly among habitats, possibly because of differen ...19873295309
epidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) related virus infection among urban rats in hokkaido, japan.seroepidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus infection were carried out among urban rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) and small field rodents in hokkaido, japan. an urban rat colony that was seropositive to sr-11 strain of hfrs virus (laboratory rat origin) was demonstrated in february 1983 at a dumping ground area of kami-iso town near hakodate port. an hfrs-related virus, named ki-262 strain, was isolated from the lung tissue of a seropositive rat ...19862871823
brachylaima ezohelicis sp. nov. (trematoda: brachylaimidae) found from the land snail ezohelix gainesi, with a note of an unidentified brachylaima species in hokkaido, japan.in the japanese archipelago, ezohelix gainesi, a member of bradybaenid land snails, is endemic mainly to the island of hokkaido. during july to august of 2016, a survey to detect trematode infections from e. gainesi was carried out at a forest city park in asahikawa, hokkaido. systemic infections of the snails with sporocysts containing short-tailed cercariae were found in 5.3% of 94 individuals examined. furthermore, most of them (90.4%) harbored non-encysted metacercariae within their kidneys. ...201728131768
functional responses of the rough-legged buzzard in a multi-prey system.the functional response is a key element of predator-prey interactions. basic functional response theory explains foraging behavior of individual predators, but many empirical studies of free-ranging predators have estimated functional responses by using population-averaged data. we used a novel approach to investigate functional responses of an avian predator (the rough legged-buzzard buteo lagopus pontoppidan, 1763) to intra-annual spatial variation in rodent density in subarctic sweden, using ...201424448699
p450 in wild animals as a biomarker of environmental impact.the impact of environmental pollution on selected animals was tested by monitoring the hepatic content of cytochromes p450 and their enzyme activities or by calculating teq values from the concentration of pollutants in the body. fish-eating stellars sea eagles, haliaeetus pelagicus, found dead in the northern part of hokkaido island accumulated high levels of pcbs and ddt and metabolites. the teq values calculated from the pcb concentration in the eagles were high enough to cause a significant ...200123886053
pattern of x-y chromosome pairing in microtine rodents.pairing of x and y chromosomes at meiotic prophase in 14 species of the subfamily microtinae (clethrionomys rufocanus, c. rutilus, c. glareolus, arvicola terrestris, microtus guentheri, m. socialis, m. afghanus, m. bucharicus, m. oeconomus, m. arvalis, m. rossiaemeridionalis, m. kirgisorum, m. transcaspicus, m. (pitymys) majori) was analysed in relation to their taxonomic position and variation in the morphology of their sex chromosomes. the sex chromosomes formed a synaptonemal complex (sc) at ...19958598341
environmental dna enables detection of terrestrial mammals from forest pond water.terrestrial animals must have frequent contact with water to survive, implying that environmental dna (edna) originating from those animals should be detectable from places containing water in terrestrial ecosystems. aiming to detect the presence of terrestrial mammals using forest water samples, we applied a set of universal pcr primers (mimammal, a modified version of fish universal primers) for metabarcoding mammalian edna. the versatility of mimammal primers was tested in silico and by ampli ...201728603873
indirect food web interactions mediated by predator-rodent dynamics: relative roles of lemmings and voles.production cycles in birds are proposed as prime cases of indirect interactions in food webs. they are thought to be driven by predators switching from rodents to bird nests in the crash phase of rodent population cycles. although rodent cycles are geographically widespread and found in different rodent taxa, bird production cycles appear to be most profound in the high arctic where lemmings dominate. we hypothesized that this may be due to arctic lemmings inducing stronger predator responses th ...201324173526
frenkelia sp. from the red-backed vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, in hokkaido, japan. 19883286944
parasite diversity at the holarctic nexus: species of arostrilepis (eucestoda: hymenolepididae) in voles and lemmings (cricetidae: arvicolinae) from greater beringia.previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestodes attributable to arostrilepis mas-coma & tenora, 1997 in arvicoline rodents from the greater beringian region and western north america are described. discovery and characterization of these tapeworms contributes to the recognition of a complex of cryptic species distributed across the holarctic region. three species are proposed: arostrilepis gulyaevi sp. n. is named for cestodes in myodes rufocanus from the republic of buryatia, southeas ...201324614481
densities of microtime rodents along a pollution gradient from a copper-nickel smelter.population densities of microtine rodents were studied along an air pollution gradient in the kola peninsula, russia, by long-term and short-term trapping. the study area is affected by high sulphur dioxide and heavy metal emissions from the severonikel copper-nickel smelter in monchegorsk. the density of clethrionomys rufocanus, the most abundant vole species in the area, was lowest close to the smelter and increased with distance up to the farthest, less polluted trapping sites. clethrionomys ...199428313738
first molecular detection and characterization of hepatozoon and sarcocystis spp. in field mice and voles from japan.sarcocystis and hepatozoon species are protozoan parasites that are frequently detected in domestic and wild animals. rodents are considered common intermediate and paratenic hosts for several sarcocystis and hepatozoon species. here, blood dna samples from a total of six rodents, including one myodes rutilus, one myodes rufocanus, and four apodemus speciosus, collected from hokkaido, japan, were shown by conventional pcr of the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene to contain sarcocystis and hepatozoon ...201728526989
a new species of aspiculuris schulz, 1924 (nematoda, heteroxynematidae) from the gray-sided vole, clethrionomys rufocanus (rodentia, cricetidae), from tianjin, china.aspiculuris tianjinensis sp. nov. recovered from the intestine of clethrionomys rufocanus from tianjin, china is described and illustrated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. the new species differs from congeners in the shape of the cervical alae, and the number and arrangement of caudal papillae.201222875680
morphological and molecular characterisation of paranoplocephala buryatiensis n. sp. and p. longivaginata chechulin & gulyaev, 1998 (cestoda: anoplocephalidae) in voles of the genus clethrionomys.a new species, paranoplocephala buryatiensis n. sp. (cestoda:anoplocephalidae), is described from the grey-sided vole clethrionomys rufocanus (sundevall) in the republic of buryatia (russian federation) and compared with p. longivaginata chechulin & gulyaev, 1998, a parasite of the red vole c. rutilus (pallas) in the same region. p. buryatiensis n. sp. and p. longivaginata both have an exceptionally long vagina and cirrus, unique features among known species of paranoplocephala lühe, 1910. the n ...200716977425
protein polymorphisms and their genetic control in the red-backed vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae.twenty enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins in a wild population of red-backed voles, cletrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, were investigated by electrophoresis. seven enzymatic and non-enzymatic protein systems were found to be polymorphic. breeding data indicated that the mode of inheritance of the enzyme systems me-1, me-2, gpd and est were consistent with a mendelian law. two systems, 6 pgd and sod, were estimated to be genetically controlled from the electrophoretic patterns and mother-offspri ...19846388427
polymorphic microsatellite dna markers in the grey red-backed vole clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae. 19957711951
on the breeding of cage reared red-backed vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae (thomas). 19734807735
arctic small rodents have diverse diets and flexible food selection.the ecology of small rodent food selection is poorly understood, as mammalian herbivore food selection theory has mainly been developed by studying ungulates. especially, the effect of food availability on food selection in natural habitats where a range of food items are available is unknown. we studied diets and selectivity of grey-sided voles (myodes rufocanus) and tundra voles (microtus oeconomus), key herbivores in european tundra ecosystems, using dna metabarcoding, a novel method enabling ...201323826371
seasonality, density dependence, and population cycles in hokkaido voles.voles and lemmings show extensive variation in population dynamics regulated across and within species. in an attempt to develop and test generic hypotheses explaining these differences, we studied 84 populations of the gray-sided vole (clethrionomys rufocanus) in hokkaido, japan. we show that these populations are limited by a combination of density-independent factors (such as climate) and density-dependent processes (such as specialist predators). we show that density-dependent regulation pri ...200314504382
[laboratory breeding of the red-backed vole (clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae)].laboratory matings were attempted to establish breeding colonies of red-backed voles (clethrionomys rufocanus bedformidae) as experimental animals. for these mating, 10 pairs of red-backed voles which were captured in the tohbetsu region of hokkaido, japan and their litters were used. in the results for two years, 1987 to 1988, the rates of pregnancy, birth and weaning were 35.4%, 94.5% and 79.5%, respectively. the mean litter size was 5:1 +/- 1.6 with a range of 1 to 9. the mean gestation perio ...19921315690
analysing diet of small herbivores: the efficiency of dna barcoding coupled with high-throughput pyrosequencing for deciphering the composition of complex plant mixtures.in order to understand the role of herbivores in trophic webs, it is essential to know what they feed on. diet analysis is, however, a challenge in many small herbivores with a secretive life style. in this paper, we compare novel (high-throughput pyrosequencing) dna barcoding technology for plant mixture with traditional microhistological method. we analysed stomach contents of two ecologically important subarctic vole species, microtus oeconomus and myodes rufocanus, with the two methods. dna ...200919695081
sex-related spatial kin structure in a spring population of grey-sided voles clethrionomys rufocanus as revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite dna analyses.polymerase chain reaction-directed mitochondria (mt) and microsatellite dna analyses were performed to examine the kin structure in a spring population of grey-sided voles clethrionomys rufocanus in hokkaido, japan. the spatial distribution of 81 voles in a trapping grid (about 1 ha) was estimated by using the catch-mark-release method. dna samples were extracted from the toes clipped for individual identification. maternal lineages of voles were unequivocally determined by the mtdna haplotypes, ...19979004519
refugia in glacial ages led to the current discontinuous distribution patterns of the dark red-backed vole myodes rex on hokkaido, japan.the terrestrial mammalian fauna of the north japanese island, hokkaido, is more similar to that of southern siberia than to the main island of japan, honshu. three species of the genus myodes (muridae, rodentia) are found on hokkaido, but not on honshu. while myodes rufocanus and m. rutilus are widely distributed across hokkaido as well as the eurasian continent, m. rex, which is endemic to hokkaido and its adjacent islands, shows a discontinuous distribution pattern. we analyzed the phylogeogra ...201323915157
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