[haemaphysalis concinna koch, 1844 in italy].the authors provide here the data concerning the first italian finding of tick hemaphysalis concinna (ixodidae). two males of this species--which has a large geographic diffusion--were actually caught for the first time in italy, in july 1977. they were found on the ground of the castel porziano estate (rome) at sealevel, in two different grassy places. the authors describe their morphological characters and provide some essential data on the environment of castel porziano.1978553272
[feeding of imago haemaphysalis japonica douglasi nutt. et warb. and haemaphysalis concinna koch under laboratory conditions]. 1977562974
[ability of female ixodid ticks to recover from poisoning with ddt in the process of feeding].ability of hungary females of ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor silvarum to feed and lay eggs after having been exposed to different ddt doses (ld100) has been studied. the ticks heavily injuried but still mobile can feed on the host and lay eggs, i.e. to overcome the poisoning. clutches laid by these females do not differ from control ones. loss of mobility deprives the ticks of the ability to fed. an increase in ddt dose (ld100 x 100, experiment with i. persulcatus) do ...19751187171
[the tick fauna of eastern germany].the occurrence of several tick species in selected areas of eastern germany is described. from may 1987 till december 1989 8,472 ticks from 430 places were examined. ixodidae of the genus ixodes, dermacentor and haemaphysalis as well as argasidae of the genus argas were identified. the most common species was ixodes ricinus. furthermore, an endemic area of dermacentor reticulatus was detected in the düben-dahlen and annaburg health. two other species of ticks, which were found frequently and som ...19921416225
tick infection rates with borrelia: ixodes ricinus versus haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus in two locations in eastern germany.unfed nymphal ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis concinna, and adult dermacentor reticulatus were collected in two locations of saxony in july and september 1991 by flagging. in july, the abundance of nymphal i. ricinus was about 2-3 times higher than that of nymphal h. concinna, a time of the year when nymphs of both species are reported to have a seasonal peak of activity. no d. reticulatus were flagged concurrently. in september, host-seeking activity of nymphal i. ricinus was again quite high as ...19921463902
extensive examination of different tick species for infestation with coxiella burnetii in slovakia.between 1987-1989 almost 7000 adult ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis concinna, haemaphysalis punctata and haemaphysalis inermis ticks collected in all 38 districts of slovakia were screened for the presence of coxiella burnettii. the proportion of ticks containing c. burnetii as indicated by the haemocyte test was less than 3%. attempts to recover c. burnetii by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs from pools of 1-6 specimens of haemocyte ...19911884784
[ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus (ixodida, ixodidae) in the east german district of leipzig].haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus mostly occur in narrow-limited humid biotopes of certain landscapes, whereas ixodes ricinus--as wellknown--occurs more or less occupying the whole territory in kind of a mosaic; in regard of epidemiological questions at least, such a distribution may be resumed for ixodes ricinus. haemaphysalis concinna nearly regularly may be found in certain biotopes. considering the possible role of haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus as vector ...19902389828
[haemaphysalis concinna ticks and tularemia natural foci in the pavlodar region (north east of kazakhstan)].haemophysalis concinna koch. ticks, found in the pavlodar region adjacent to the altay and situated in the north-east of kazakhstan, play an important role in tularemia infection circulation. 58.5% of 212 strains of the tularemia infection agent, isolated from three pastural ticks species for the last 10 years, belong to the abovementioned species. all h. concinna habitats were enzootic with regard to tularemia.19892526920
[ixodid ticks of pavlodar province and their participation in the circulation of tularemia infection].investigations carried out in pavlodar province have shown that 7 species of ixodid ticks, ixodes crenulatus, i. lividus, i. persulcatus, i. laguri laguri, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis concinna, and one brought species, hyalomma asiaticum, parasitize domestic animals and wild mammals. maximum activity of pasture ticks of the genus dermacentor falls on the end of april--beginning of may, that of h. concinna on the beginning of june. the growth in the abundance of pasture ...19892528108
[development of a lesion in ixodid ticks (ixodes persulcatus, dermacentor silvarum, haemaphysalis concinna) following the action of ddt]. 19744419643
[experimental study of the seasonal adaptation of the ticks haemaphysalis concinna koch. from various regions of the fast east]. 19744477632
[scanning electron microscope investigations of ticks: mouth parts of haemaphysalis concinna koch]. 19725055840
[isolation of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbe-virus) from the tick haemaphysalis concinna koch]. 19715109637
[establishment of spontaneous infection of haemaphysalis concinna koch ticks with d. sibiricus rickettsia in the altay region]. 19695371102
the ecology, bionomics and behaviour of haemaphysalis (haemaphysalis) concinna tick. 19715578479
experimental transmission of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus by haemaphysalis concinna ticks. 19806108070
borreliae in immature ixodes ricinus (acari:ixodidae) ticks parasitizing birds in the czech republic.of 411 forest birds of 33 species examined near valtice, czech republic, 29% were infested with ixodes ricinus (l.); 2.2% were parasitized by haemaphysalis concinna koch. borreliae were detected in 5.1 and 11.7% of larval and nymphal i. ricinus, respectively. none of the 13 h. concinna tested was infected. in total, 3.2% of the birds examined were parasitized by i. ricinus immatures infected by borreliae. borreliae-containing ticks parasitized european robin, erithacus rubecula (l.); eurasian bl ...19968840682
frequent isolation of francisella tularensis from dermacentor reticulatus ticks in an enzootic focus of tularaemia.a total of 924 questing dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius), 504 ixodes ricinus (l.), sixty haemaphysalis concinna koch and 718 mosquitoes (aedes spp.) were examined in a floodplain forest ecosystem during the 1994-95 outbreak of tularaemia in south moravia, czech republic. francisella tularensis was not isolated from h.concinna ticks or aedes spp. mosquitoes, whereas twenty-one isolates were recovered from the other haematophagous arthropods. dermacentor reticulatus revealed a significantly hig ...19968887334
genotypic identification of three new strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in china.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis were used to characterize the genotypic diversity of three isolates of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae isolated from ticks in china. a primer pair designed from dna sequence encoding 190 k protein antigen of r. rickettsii and genomic dnas obtained from the isolates were used in pcr. the pcr products were cleaved with restriction endonucleases psti and rsai, and the digestion patterns w ...19969014012
mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae), in contrast to ticks (acari: ixodidae), do not carry francisella tularensis in a natural focus of tularemia in the czech total, 9,167 mosquitoes (aedes spp.) and 1,987 ixodid ticks--1,423 dermacentor reticulatus (f.), 504 ixodes ricinus (l.), and 60 haemaphysalis concinna koch--were examined in an active enzootic focus (floodplain forest-meadow ecosystem) of tularemia in south moravia. czech republic. although no f. tularensis was detected in mosquitoes or h. concinna, 30 isolates were recovered from d. reticulatus (infection rate, 2.1%) and 1 isolate from i. ricinus (infection rate, 0.2%). ixodid ticks, especi ...19979439120
detection of rickettsia sibirica in ticks and small mammals collected in three different regions of china.the primers rr 190.70p and rr 190.602n were used to detect spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in ticks and small mammals collected in three different regions of china. the obtained results indicated that specific dna fragments of sfg rickettsiae were amplified from dermacentor silvarum, d. sinicus, d. auratus, haemaphysalis concinna, h. wellingtoni, h. yeni, apodemus agrarius, microtus fortis. clethrionomys rufocanus, ondatra zibethica, rattus flavipectus an ...19989645245
[detection of north-asia tick-borne spotted fever in ticks and rodents along the heilongjiang river-side by restriction fragment length polymorphism of pcr products].in order to elucidate the natural foci of north-asia tick-borne spotted fever along the bank of heilongjiang river, we used pcr/rflp to detect spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and rodents. the results showed that the wild samples of dermacentor silvarum, haemaphysalis concinna and apodemus agrarius, microtus fortis, clethrionomys rufocanus and ondatra zibethica were all positive with amplification, but typhus rickettsiae, tsutsugamushi fever rickettsiae and q fever rickettsiae were all n ...19979812471
[investigation on primary vectors of borrelia burgdorferi in china].from 1987 to 1997, primary vectors of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (b.b.s.l.) were investigated in china. a total number of 17,000 ticks collected from 20 provinces, city and autonomous region were classified, including 2 families 8 genus 23 species. there were 108 isolates of b.b.s.l. discovered from 8 species of ticks, including ixodes persulcatus, i. granulatus, i. acutitarsus, haemaphysalis concinna, h. longicornis, h. bispinosis, h. cornigera taiwana and dermacentor silvarum. ixodes pers ...199810322682
genetic classification of "rickettsia heilongjiangii" and "rickettsia hulinii," two chinese spotted fever group determine the phylogenetic position of two new rickettsial strains isolated from ticks in china, 16s ribosomal dna, glta, and ompa (apart from the tandem repeat units) genes were amplified by pcr and sequenced. the phylogenetic relationships between these strains and other rickettsiae were inferred from the comparison of sequences of the three genes by the parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum-likelihood methods. the results demonstrated that the 054 strain, a rickettsia pathogenic in huma ...200010970415
acarological studies in two protected areas of central the present note are reported the results of preliminary studies on tick distribution in two wildlife areas of abruzzo (national park of abruzzo, a mountainous area, approximately 40,000 ha, in central apennines, interesting abruzzo, latium and molise regions) and latium (capocotta-castel porziano presidential reserve, on the tyrrhenian coast, 30 km from rome). sampling of ticks from domestic and wild mammals as well as from vegetation, was performed in three different areas of the national p ...199911071544
[combined focus of tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne rickettsiosis and tularemia in the habitat of haemaphysalis concinna in south central siberia].for the first time in the krasnoyarsk region the population haemaphysalis concinna ticks were found to be infected with the causative agents of three natural focal tick-borne infections--tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne rickettsiosis and tularemia. the existence of the combined natural focus of these three infections has been confirmed by epidemiological data. ticks dermacentor nuttalli also play a similar role in combined foci of tick-borne encephalitis and tick-borne rickettsiosis in these ...200111236514
distinct combinations of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies found in individual questing ticks from europe.the genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was assessed in individual adult ixodes ricinus ticks from europe by direct pcr amplification of spirochetal dna followed by genospecies-specific hybridization. analysis of mixed infections in the ticks showed that b. garinii and b. valaisiana segregate from b. afzelii. this and previous findings suggest that host complement interacts with spirochetes in the tick, thereby playing an important role in the ecology of lyme borreliosis.200111571205
genetic identification of rickettsiae isolated from ticks in japan.following the description in japan of japanese spotted fever, caused by rickettsia japonica, a search for the vector of this disease led to the isolation of several rickettsiae from various tick species. sixty-three rickettsial isolates were obtained from six different tick species, and six type strains were described by pcr and monoclonal antibody testing. we identified these six strains by amplification and sequencing of the genes encoding 16s rrna and citrate synthase. we confirmed that the i ...200212037083
prevalence of borreliae in ixodid ticks from a floodplain forest ixodid ticks were sampled in a floodplain forest ecosystem along the lower reaches of the thaya (dyje) river in south moravia (czech republic) and lower austria during the period 1989-2002. the ticks were examined by dark-field microscopy for borreliae (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of lyme borreliosis), and attempts were made to culture the spirochetes in bsk-h medium from preparations containing their high numbers. isolated borreliae were identified by pcr-rflp analys ...200312674689
detection of coxiella burnetii in ticks collected in slovakia and hungary.a total of 235 adult ticks collected from vegetation in slovakia and hungary in 1998-2000 were tested for coxiella burnetii by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp). c. burnetii was identified in six ticks of ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, and haemaphysalis concinna species.200312800953
ability of ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor silvarum ticks to acquire and transstadially transmit borrelia china, the ability of ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor silvarum to transmit borrelia spirochetes was determined under laboratory conditions. results showed that all three tick species can acquire spirochetes by feeding on infected mice. however, the capability of the three species to maintain spirochetes was different. only i. persulcatus is able to maintain spirochetes alive during molting, and subsequent tick stages transmitted the infection to naive mice. in h. co ...200314756409
[a new type of spotted fever group rickttsiaes detected in the area of changbai mountain, jilin province].in order to find out the current situation of tick-borne spotted fever in the area of changbai mountain, jilin province.200314761631
detection of a rickettsia closely related to rickettsia aeschlimannii, "rickettsia heilongjiangensis," rickettsia sp. strain rpa4, and ehrlichia muris in ticks collected in russia and kazakhstan.using pcr, we screened 411 ticks from four genera collected in russia and kazakhstan for the presence of rickettsiae and ehrlichiae. in russia, we detected "rickettsia heilongjiangensis," rickettsia sp. strain rpa4, and ehrlichia muris. in kazakhstan, we detected rickettsia sp. strain rpa4 and a rickettsia closely related to rickettsia aeschlimannii. these agents should be considered in a differential diagnosis of tick-borne infections in these areas.200415131195
[detection of rickettsia hulinii in ticks of the haemaphysalis concinna species in russia].the presence of rickettsia hulinii was detected in ticks of the haemaphysalis concinna species in the asiatic part of russia. it was the first detection of these rickettsiae outside the territory of the chinese people's republic. this tick is spread over a broken area and may occur in different regions of eurasia. at present at least 3 rickettsial species of the tick-borne spotted fever group were found in ixodes ticks on the territory of eastern siberia: r. sibirica, known to be the etiological ...200415188554
[new evidence for the detection of ehrlichia and anaplasma in ixodes ticks in russia and kazakhstan].polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis were used to screen ehrlichia and anaplasma dna in 900 specimens of ixodes ticks of four genera (dermacetor, haemaphysalis, ixodes, and hyalomma) collected on 14 administrative territories of russia and kazakhstan. anaplasma phagocytophilia dna was detected and identified in ixodes persulcatus ticks gathered in the altai and primorye territories. ehrlichia muris dna was genotyped in the i. persulcatus ticks collected in the tyumen, omsk, and novosi ...200415193042
acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia heilongjiangensis in russian far acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia heilongjiangensis was diagnosed in 13 patients from the russian far east in 2002. we amplified and sequenced four portions of three rickettsial genes from the patients' skin biopsy results and blood samples and showed that the amplified rickettsial genes belong to r. heilongjiangensis, which was recently isolated from dermacentor sylvarum ticks in nearby regions of china. this rickettsia, belonging to subgroup of r. japonica, was previously ...200415200813
[genetic identification of rickettsiae of the tick-borne spotted fever group, isolated in the foci of tick-borne rickettsiosis].a total of 25 rickettsial cultures of the tick-borne spotted fever (tbsf) group from the collection of the research institute of infections in omsk, isolated from different sources in the territory of the russian federation (from the urals to the far east) during the period of 1954-2001) were studied by the methods of genetic analysis. the fragments of the gene coding the outer-membrane protein of 190 kd (ompa) and synthetase citrate (glta) of the rickettsiae under the study were sequenced. 23 i ...200415554312
ixodid tick species attaching to dogs in hungary.a survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) infesting domestic dogs in hungary. forty veterinary clinics from a wide geographical area were asked to collect hard ticks from dogs and to complete a questionnaire. in total, 25 veterinary clinics submitted 900 ticks from 310 dogs. intensity of infestation ranged from one to 78 per dog. the most preferred sites of tick attachment in decreasing order were head, neck and legs. the majority of ticks (91. ...200515817212
tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts.during most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. an element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. in this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. this concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identif ...200516223955
rickettsiae of the spotted-fever group in ixodid ticks from hungary: identification of a new genotype ('candidatus rickettsia kotlanii').three common european 'anthrophilic' ticks, ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus, were collected in hungary and tested, in assays based on nested pcr, for rickettsiae of the spotted-fever group. low percentages of i. ricinus (2.7%) and h. concinna (1.0%) and a high percentage of d. reticulatus (26.8%) were found to be infected. the rickettsiae in the ticks were then identified, by sequencing of the genes coding for 16s ribosomal rna (16s rdna), citrate synthase (glt ...200616630380
risk factors associated with ixodid tick species distributions in the basque region in spain.ixodid tick abundance was investigated in the basque region in spain in two 1-year longitudinal studies, in 1992-1993 and 2003-2004. forty zones were visited monthly and 162 672 ticks (87% larvae, 12% nymphs and 1% adults) were collected by blanket dragging. eleven tick species belonging to the genera ixodes, haemaphysalis, rhipicephalus and dermacentor were identified including haemaphysalis concinna koch, which had not previously been reported in spain. tick species abundance differed between ...200616796614
genetic differentiation of chinese isolates of rickettsia sibirica by partial ompa gene sequencing and multispacer typing.current data on rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases in china remain limited. using partial ompa gene sequencing and multispacer typing, we identified 15 rickettsial isolates from china. all isolates were found to belong to rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica. four isolates from dermacentor sinicus collected in beijing, china, were fully identical to strain bj-90, previously demonstrated to belong to r. sibirica subsp. sibirica despite antigenic and genotypic specificities. all 11 remaining isol ...200616825365
rickettsia sibirica isolation from a patient and detection in ticks, portugal.we report the first isolation of rickettsia sibirica (strain mongolotimonae) from the blood of a patient and detection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of the rickettsia in a rhipicephalus pusillus tick collected from a dead mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) in the alentejo region, portugal. we describe also the first pcr detection of a new rickettsia strain that is related to r. sibirica.200616836827
[determination of tick species and treatment of cows, sheep and goats in the sivas-zara region].the purpose of this study was to examine tick infestation in cattle, sheep and goats in the zara-sivas region for one year and to determine the epizootiology of the tick species as well as to investigate treatment of the infested animals. tick infestation was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 cattle, 66 (24.0%) out of 275 sheep and 50 (19.9%) out of 252 goats in the zara region. it has been shown that the tick infestation on cattle included haemaphysalis parva (33.8%), dermacentor marginatus (2. ...200617160854
[investigation on borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents collected in da xing-an mountains forest areas of china].to detect and study the types of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents from da xing-an mountains forest areas of china.200617172108
bartonella infections in fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) and lack of bartonellae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from hungary.fleas (95 pulex irritans, 50 ctenocephalides felis, 45 ctenocephalides canis) and ixodid ticks (223 ixodes ricinus, 231 dermacentor reticulatus, 204 haemaphysalis concinna) were collected in hungary and tested, in assays based on pcr, for bartonella infection. low percentages of p. irritans (4.2%) and c. felis (4.0%) were found to be infected. the groel sequences of the four isolates from p. irritans were different from all the homologous sequences for bartonellae previously stored in genbank bu ...200617252927
status of haemaphysalis tick infestation in domestic ruminants in iran.the geographical distribution and ecological preferences of haemaphysalis in domestic animals in iran were studied 4 times a year from april 2003 to march 2005. a total of 1,622 ixodid tick specimens were collected from 3 different zones. among them, 108 (6.7%) haemaphysalis ticks, consisting of 6 species, were identified; h. punctata (3.4%), h. parva (0.5%), h. sulcata (0.6%), h. choldokovskyi (1.7%), h. concinna (0.06%) and haemaphysalis sp. (0.6%). h. punctata was the most abundant species, w ...200717570976
tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in wild and domestic small mammals in northern spain.the prevalence and diversity of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria (borrelia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, coxiella burnetii, and spotted fever group rickettsiae) infecting 253 small mammals captured in the basque country (spain) were assessed using pcr and reverse line blot hybridization. trapping sites were selected around sheep farms (study 1, 2000 to 2002) and recreational parks (study 2, 2003 to 2005). the majority of the studied mammals (162) were wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus), but six othe ...200717693556
presence of pathogenic borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents in zhejiang, south-east china.a molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the presence of pathogenic borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species in the forest areas of zhejiang province, south-east china. a total of 182 ticks of 6 species and 200 rodents of 8 species were collected and individually examined for the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. dna by nested pcr targeting the 5s-23s rrna intergenic spacer. forty-one ticks of four species, haemaphysalis concinna, haemaphysalis longicornis, rhipicephal ...200818628499
16s rrna gene-based identification of cultured bacterial flora from host-seeking ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus and haemaphysalis concinna ticks, vectors of vertebrate pathogens.a total of 151 bacterial isolates were recovered from different developmental stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) of field-collected ticks (67 strains from ixodes ricinus, 38 from dermacentor reticulatus, 46 from haemaphysalis concinna). microorganisms were identified by means of 16s rrna gene sequencing. almost 87 % of the strains belonged to g(+) bacteria with predominantly occurring genera bacillus and paenibacillus. other g(+) strains included arthrobacter, corynebacterium, frigoribacterium, ...200919937215
tick-borne agents in rodents, china, 2004-2006.a total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland people's republic of china were tested by pcrs for tick-borne agents (anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and francisella tularensis). infection rates were 5.5%, 6.7%, 9.1% and 5.0%, respectively. eighteen (2.6%) rodents of 10 species were positive for 2 or 3 agents. sequence analysis of pcr products confirmed the presence and genotypes of detected agents. these fin ...200919961668
diagnostic assay for rickettsia japonica.we developed a specific and rapid detection system for rickettsia japonica and r. heilongjiangensis, the causative agents of spotted fever, using a taqman minor groove binder probe for a particular open reading frame (orf) identified by the r. japonica genome project. the target orf was present only in r. japonica-related strains.200919961684
[abundance of ixodid ticks (ixodidae) in pastures situated near villages of east kazakhstan province].abudance of adult ixodid ticks on pastures situated near villages of east kazakhstan province has been festinated using the method or exhaustive capture. the number of adult ticks collected by flagging in the pastures with different ecological conditions varied in spring and autumm periods from 513 to 1036 per hectare. dermacentor marginatus was found to be absolutely dominating species; d. reticulatus showed small abundance; ixodes pavlovskyi, i. persulcatus and haemaphysalis concinna occurred ...201020536009
human rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection, japan.a case of rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection in japan was identified in a 35-year-old man who had rash, fever, and eschars. serum contained r. heilongjiangensis antibodies, and eschars contained r. heilongjiangensis dna. r. heilongjiangensis was also isolated from ticks in the suspected geographic area of infection.201020678332
anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks in slovenia.abstract: ticks act as vectors of many pathogens of domestic animals and humans. anaplasma phagocytophilum in europe is transmitted by the ixodid tick vector ixodes ricinus. a. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts. a great genetic diversity of the groesl operon of a. phagocytophilum has been found in ticks elsewhere. in slovenia, the variety of the groesl operon was conducted only on deer samples. in this study, the prevalence of infected ticks was estima ...201021050436
cloning, expression and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant haemaphysalis concinna hc-23 antigen in rabbits.haemaphysalis concinna is wide spread in china, and negatively impacted on husbandry production and then resulted in severe economic losses. methods available for the control of ticks are mainly based on chemotherapy. however, this approach is associated with a number of disadvantages; searching for alternative tick control measures is necessary and vaccination is one of the best control strategies. through h. concinna hc-23 gene pcr amplification, cloning and sequencing, sequence analysis showe ...201021130192
first detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in serbia.ticks can transmit multiple pathogenic bacteria responsible for diseases in animals and humans such as borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and spotted fever group rickettsia sp. the current study aimed to investigate the presence of rickettsiae in ticks collected from seven localities in serbia. one hundred thirty-one (131) questing ticks belonging to 5 tick species (dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, haemaphysalis concinna, and ixode ...201021142961
investigation of the ecology of francisella tularensis during an inter-epizootic period.abstract a 1-year study of the ecological cycle of francisella tularensis was performed in an enzootic area during an inter-epizootic period. the study was based on multiple sampling of all major constituents of the disease cycle. seroprevalence of tularemia in the european brown hare (lepus europaeus) population was 5.1% (10/197) with low antibody titers (1/10 and 1/20), and f. tularensis ssp. holarctica was isolated from four hares. f. tularensis was not detected in the 38 common voles (microt ...201021142970
synanthropic birds influence the distribution of borrelia species: analysis of ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds.ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the czech republic were analyzed. host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by borrelia afzelii (25%). ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (passeriformes) were infected commonly by borrelia garinii (12.1%) and borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). juveniles of synanthropic birds, eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula) and song thrushes (turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of b. garinii.201021148704
anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks, china-russia the editor: anaplasma phagocytophilum, an emerging human pathogen of public health importance, is transmitted to humans most commonly by tick bites (1). the agent has been detected in various species of ixodes ticks around the world (2) and in dermacentor silvarum ticks in northeastern people's republic of china (3), where 3 a. phagocytophilum strains were isolated from wild and domestic animals (4). in the asiatic region of russia adjacent to china, a. phagocytophilum was identified in ixode ...201121529418
the importance of ixodes arboricola in transmission of rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the czech republic, central europe.abstract wild birds are known to be a reservoir of infectious disease agents and disseminatory hosts of ticks. the purpose of this work was to obtain information about the occurrence of rickettsial, anaplasmal, and borrelial infections in some ticks that parasitize wild birds in the czech republic. a total of 549 subadult ticks of three species ixodes arboricola (75.0%), ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and haemaphysalis concinna (1.8%) were collected from 20 species of birds (passeriformes). rickettsiae ...201121612531
genetic diversity of anaplasma and ehrlichia in the asian part of russia.totally, 2590 questing adult ixodes persulcatus ticks and 1458 small mammals from ural, siberia, and the far east as well as 53 haemaphysalis concinna, 136 haem. japonica, and 43 dermacentor silvarum ticks--exclusively adults--from the far east were examined for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma by nested pcr based on the 16s rrna gene. both anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia muris were found in i. persulcatus and small mammals from all the studied regions. myodes spp., microtus spp., ...201021771512
exploratory study on pathogenesis of far-eastern spotted fever.far-eastern spotted fever is an emerging disease caused by rickettsia heilongjiangensis, a tick-borne obligate intracellular bacterium. in this study, r. heilongjiangensis was used to infect balb/c mice by inoculation of retro-orbital venous plexus to imitate a blood infection caused by tick biting. we found that r. heilongjiangensis rapidly entered the circulation for systemic dissemination and the pathogen existed in liver, spleen, lungs, and brain of the mice at least 9 days post-infection (p ...201121896812
first report on the occurrence of rickettsia slovaca and rickettsia raoultii in dermacentor silvarum in china.abstract: background: rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including china, little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsia pathogens in ticks from xinjiang autonomous region of china. methods: in an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in xinjiang uygur autonomous region of china, a total of ...201222257726
pcr-detection of coxiella burnetii in ticks collected from sheep and goats in southeast iran.there is a little data on coxiella burnetii (q fever agent) in iran. ticks may play a significant role in the transmission of c. burnetii among animals. the aim of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction for the detection of c. burnetii in ticks collected in southeast iran.201122808404
ticks of poland. review of contemporary issues and latest research.the paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. in the polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: argas reflexus, argas polonicus, carios vespertilionis, ixodes trianguliceps, ixodes arboricola, ixodes crenulatus, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes li ...201223444797
first survey of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in boeen zahra and takistan counties, carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in boeen zahra and takistan counties of qazvin province from april 2010 to september 2010.201223569956
prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ixodid ticks collected from the republic of korea during this study, we demonstrated that tbev-infected ticks have been distributed in the rok, combined with our previous results. these results suggest that tbev may exist in the rok, and h. longicornis, h. flava, and i. nipponensis may be potential vectors of tbev. in addition, these results emphasize the need for further epidemiological research of tbev.201224159517
human infection with candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis, identify candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis infection in northeastern china, we tested blood samples from 622 febrile patients. we identified in 7 infected patients and natural foci for this bacterium. field surveys showed that 1.6% of ticks and 3.8% of rodents collected from residences of patients were also infected.201223017728
distribution of tick-borne diseases in an important contributor to vector-borne diseases in china, in recent years, tick-borne diseases have attracted much attention because of their increasing incidence and consequent significant harm to livestock and human health. the most commonly observed human tick-borne diseases in china include lyme borreliosis (known as lyme disease in china), tick-borne encephalitis (known as forest encephalitis in china), crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever in china), q-f ...201323617899
seasonal and spatial distribution of ixodid tick species feeding on naturally infested dogs from eastern austria and the influence of acaricides/repellents on these parameters.effective control of tick infestation and pathogen transmission requires profound knowledge of tick biology in view of their vector function. the particular time of the year when the different tick species start to quest and the favoured sites on the canine host are of major interest. the efficacy of acaricides/repellents to control ticks in the field requires observation.201323510263
survey on cattle ticks in nur, north of survey the prevalence of cattle ticks in nur county and prepare a list of tick fauna in this district.201425182439
emerging tick-borne infections in mainland china: an increasing public health threat.since the beginning of the 1980s, 33 emerging tick-borne agents have been identified in mainland china, including eight species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, seven species in the family anaplasmataceae, six genospecies in the complex borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, 11 species of babesia, and the virus causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. in this review we have mapped the geographical distributions of human cases of infection. 15 of the 33 emerging tick-borne agents have be ...201526453241
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
ability to cause erythema migrans differs between borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates.lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. the variety of characteristic and non-specific clinical manifestations is partially explained by its genetic diversity. we investigated the ability of b. burgdorferi sl isolates to cause erythema migrans.201323339549
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of tick vectors.a method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. we aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: amblyomma variegatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ix ...201323224087
allochronic seasonal peak activities of dermacentor and haemaphysalis spp. under continental climate in hungary.hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) were collected from the vegetation at monthly intervals in 2008 on six places of three different biotopes in hungary. except for haemaphysalis concinna and h. punctata, predominance of females was observed in the questing population. from among the species with biphasic activity period, metastriate ticks (dermacentor spp. and h. inermis) had higher prevalence of host-seeking males in the autumn than in the spring, as opposed to prostriate ixodes ricinus. in compariso ...200919410373
influence of biotope on the distribution and peak activity of questing ixodid ticks in order to update the occurrence of hard tick species in hungary, 3442 questing ticks were collected from the vegetation by the dragging/flagging method in 37 different places in the country, between march and june of 2007. ixodes ricinus (l.) turned out to be ubiquitous. dermacentor marginatus (schulzer) was absent from sampling sites in the southwestern part of the country, but in most places was concomitant and contemporaneous with dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius). these two species, as w ...200919239612
spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in belgium.the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in europe. sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. however, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control.201323800283
molecular detection of anaplasma spp. and ehrlichia spp. in ruminants from twelve provinces of china.anaplasma spp. and ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. there is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in china. 16s rrna fret-qpcrs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of china for anaplasma spp. and ehrlichia spp. positive samples were further analyzed with a standard pcr for the glta. anaplasm ...201628096822
molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic and veterinary pathogens in ticks from northeastern china.tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in china. in this study, ixodes persulcatus (n = 1699), haemaphysalis concinna (n = 412), haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 390), dermacentor nuttalli (n = 253), and dermacentor silvarum (n = 204) ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern china, and detected for infection with anaplasma, ehrlichia, babesia, and hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. an ...201627965644
characterization of rickettsiae in ticks in northeastern china.tick-borne rickettsioses are considered important emerging zoonoses worldwide, but their etiological agents, rickettsiae, remain poorly characterized in northeastern china, where many human cases have been reported during the past several years. here, we determined the characteristics of rickettsia spp. infections in ticks in this area.201627623998
rural residents in china are at increased risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by a. phagocytophilum and e. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. in particular, in china, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in anhui province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of a. phagocytophilum and e. chaffeensis was documented in shandong province. although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic ...201424877080
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
ecology of the tick-borne phlebovirus causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in an endemic area of china.severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (sfts) is caused by sfts virus (sftsv), a tick-borne phlebovirus in family bunyaviridae. studies have found that humans, domestic and wildlife animals can be infected by sftsv. however, the viral ecology, circulation, and transmission remain largely unknown.201627035712
hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) of croatia.the present paper is based on original and literature data. in croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. the number of tick species recorded in croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. a total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in croatia. ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by rhipice ...201223372407
isolation of the rickettsial agent genetically similar to candidatus rickettsia kotlanii, from haemaphysalis megaspinosa in japan.two rickettsial isolates, hm-1 and hm-2, were isolated from haemaphysalis megaspinosa collected in japan in 2006 and 2011, respectively. the isolates were analyzed by dna sequences of the outer membrane protein a gene, the outer membrane protein b gene, the citrate synthase gene, the genus rickettsia-specific outer membrane protein 17-kda gene, the 16s ribosome rna gene, and the ps120 protein gene ("gened"). hm-1 was identified as rickettsia tamurae. hm-2 matched most closely with 'candidatus ri ...025229707
anaplasma phagocytophilum--a widespread multi-host pathogen with highly adaptive strategies.the bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (tbf) in domestic ruminants in ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern europe. in recent years, the bacterium has been found associated with ixodes-tick species more or less worldwide on the northern hemisphere. a. phagocytophilum has a broad host range and may cause severe disease in several mammalian species, including humans. however, the clinical symptoms vary from subclinical to fatal ...201323885337
mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern romania.although cases of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) have been reported for decades in southeastern romania, there are few published data. we retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with msf at the national institute of infectious diseases "prof. dr. matei bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about msf in certain regions of romania. according to the raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. mean age was 52.5 years. one hundred and fifty-five (90.6% ...201324024190
detection of a novel francisella in dermacentor reticulatus: a need for careful evaluation of pcr-based identification of francisella tularensis in eurasian ticks.francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has been detected in ixodid ticks in some regions of north america, europe, and asia. in the present study, 245 dermacentor reticulatus, 211 ixodes ricinus, and 194 haemaphysalis concinna adults from hungary were tested for the presence of f. tularensis by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays based on 16s ribosomal rna (16s rdna) and t-cell epitope of a francisella membrane protein (tul4). no francisella-specific amplification products ...200818945184
first molecular evidence of hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from hungary.recently, hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of hungary, which is considered to be free of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with croatia. the aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of h. canis in hungary.201424985073
bird ticks in hungary reflect western, southern, eastern flyway connections and two genetic lineages of ixodes frontalis and haemaphysalis concinna.birds play an important role in short- and long-distance transportation of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. the aim of the present study was to provide comprehensive information on the species and genetic diversity of ixodid ticks transported by migratory and non-migratory bird species in central europe, and to evaluate relevant data in a geographical, as well as in an ecological context.201626912331
the first german map of georeferenced ixodid tick locations.georeferenced locations of ixodid ticks are required to depict the observed distribution of species. further, they are used as input data for species distribution models also known as niche models. the latter were applied to describe current and future (projected) tick distributions. beside model assumptions and selected climate parameters, the number of georeferenced tick locations available as a digital dataset is of fundamental importance for the reliability of such models. for germany, howev ...201425301245
experimental transmission of babesia microti by rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides.human babesiosis is considered an emerging threat in china. dozens of human infections with babesia microti have been reported recently, especially in southern china. however, the transmission vectors of this parasite in these areas are not well understood. rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, which is one of the dominant tick species in southern china, is a major vector of bovine babesiosis in china. however, whether this tick has the potential to transmit b. microti has not been tested. the present ...201627112141
evaluation of different nested pcrs for detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants and ticks.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in mammals, which has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of clinical diversity. currently, numerous pcr assays have been developed and used for the detection of a. phagocytophilum in various specimens. however, their performance varies. the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of five nested pcr assays by detection of 363 ruminant and tick samples, and to select the most appropriate methods ...201626911835
sensitivity to permethrin in a dermacentor reticulatus population from eastern poland in laboratory study.the action of chemical compounds on the palaearctic tick d. reticulatus (fabricius) (acari: amblyomminae) has been poorly investigated so far. therefore, the effects of application of permethrin on engorged d. reticulatus females have been assessed, and the survival rate for the different developmental stages of the tick species in its non-parasitic phase of the life cycle was determined upon application of the pyrethroid.201424405550
arsenophonus nasoniae and rickettsiae infection of ixodes ricinus due to parasitic wasp ixodiphagus hookeri.arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified a. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. we confirmed that 28.1% of ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by a. nasoniae. moreover, in examined i. ricinus nymphs, a. nasoniae was detected on ...201626901622
anaplasma phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks and rodents in an urban and natural habitat in south-western slovakia.ixodes ricinus is the principal vector of anaplasma phagocytophilum, the ethiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in europe. anaplasmosis is an emerging zoonotic disease with a natural enzootic cycle. the reservoir competence of rodents is unclear. monitoring of a. phagocytophilum prevalence in i. ricinus and rodents in various habitat types of slovakia may contribute to the knowledge about the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in central europe.201525980768
scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.the resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. scabies mites (sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite ...201424875186
birds as potential reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens: first evidence of bacteraemia with rickettsia helvetica.birds have long been known as carriers of ticks, but data from the literature are lacking on their role as a reservoir in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne disease-causing agents. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of three emerging, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in blood samples and ticks of birds and to assess the impact of feeding location preference and migration distance of bird species on their tick infestation.201424679245
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