laboratory studies on the transmission of yellow fever virus by aedes (finlaya) notoscriptus (dipt., culicidae).aedes (finlaya) notoscriptus (skuse), a mosquito which occupies a similar ecological niche to aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l), the urban vector of yellow fever virus, was screened as a possible vector of this disease. the results indicate that almost certainly ae. notoscriptus is refractory to the virus and could not act as a vector if yellow fever were introduced to australia.197796783
the susceptibility of the mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus and culex annulirostris to infection with dog heartworm dirofilaria immitis and their vector efficiency.the mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus (skuse) and culex annulirostris skuse were fed on a dog infected with dirofilaria immitis (leidy) and a blood parasite count of approximately 5000 microfilaria per ml. cx annulirostris ingested almost 4 times as much blood and almost 4 times as many microfilariae as ae.notoscriptus (mean 26.0 compared to 6.6). attrition of the filarial numbers occurred primarily within the midgut during the first 24 h following ingestion and was greater in cx annulirostris than ...19921358267
do ross river and dengue viruses pose a threat to new zealand?to determine the prevalence of antibodies to ross river and dengue viruses in sera from new zealand residents and travellers and to assess the potential of local mosquitoes to act as vectors of these viruses.19947970354
the influence of microfilarial density of dog heartworm dirofilaria immitis on infection rate and survival of aedes notoscriptus and culex annulirostris from australia.the mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus and culex annulirostris, previously shown to be competent vectors of dirofilaria immitis, were allowed to feed on dogs with densities of microfilariae ranging from 2665 to 33,055 microfilariae/ml. filaria developed in both species at a similar rate independent of the initial microfilarial density. cx annulirostris ingested more microfilariae although the number of developing larvae was consistently greater in ae.notoscriptus; one female ae.notoscriptus carried s ...19968834739
evaluation of mesocyclops aspericornis (cyclopoida:cyclopidae) and toxorhynchites speciosus as integrated predators of mosquitoes in tire habitats in queensland.this study addressed biological control of peridomestic aedes notoscriptus, known to be a highly effective colonizer of tire habitats and a possible vector of ross river virus. a laboratory trial of the compatibility of the predators mesocyclops aspericornis and toxorhynchites speciosus in small container habitats showed that 4th-instar tx. speciosus did not significantly affect m. aspericornis mortality. introduced m. aspericornis and naturally occurring tx. speciosus were found to form a compa ...19968887220
ross river virus in mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) during the 1994 epidemic around brisbane, australia.during the summer 1994 outbreak of epidemic polyarthritis in suburban brisbane, 29,931 adult female mosquitoes were collected by octenol-co2 light traps and tested for virus by species in pools of approximately 20 using an in situ enzyme-linked immunoassay. overall, 63 isolations of ross river (rr) virus were made from 7 different mosquito species, including 23 from freshwater-breeding culex annulirostris skuse, 13 from peridomestic aedes notoscriptus (skuse), 4 from aedes procax (skuse), 12 fro ...19979103757
vector competence of aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) for ross river virus in queensland, australia.aedes notoscriptus (skuse) mosquitoes colonized from brisbane, queensland, australia, were fed on blood containing ross river (rr) virus isolated from brisbane, queensland, australia. this colony was highly susceptible to infection, id50 = 10(3.2) ccid50 per mosquito, with titers in infected mosquitoes peaking 9 d after infection. transmission occurred between days 9 and 14, with a maximum rate of 13% between days 12 and 14 after infection. considering the peridomestic abundance and human blood ...19989538569
vector competence of aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) for barmah forest virus and of this species and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) for dengue 1-4 viruses in queensland, australia.aedes notoscriptus (skuse) mosquitoes colonized from brisbane, queensland, australia, were fed on blood suspensions containing either barmah forest (bf) virus, dengue virus type 1 (den-1), dengue virus type 2 (den-2), dengue virus type 3 (den-3), or dengue virus type 4 (den-4). ae. notoscriptus was shown to be moderately susceptible to oral infection with bf virus, id50 = 10(3.3) ccid50 per mosquito, with titers in infected mosquitoes peaking 10 d after infection. bf virus transmission occurred ...199910467781
mosquito isolates of ross river virus from cairns, queensland, australia.during 1996-1998 60,619 mosquitoes were collected around cairns, australia and processed for alphavirus isolation. thirty-three isolates of ross river (rr) virus were made from 9 species, aedes imprimens, aedes kochi, aedes notoscriptus, aedes vigilax, culex annulirostris, culex gelidus, mansonia septempunctata, verrallina (formerly aedes) carmenti, and verrallina lineatus. attempts to isolate rr virus from 121 aedes aegypti were unsuccessful. twenty-six (79%) of the isolates came from within 1 ...200011289664
evaluation of liquid bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products for control of australian aedes arbovirus vectors.laboratory bioassay studies were conducted in southeast queensland, australia, on the efficacy of teknar, vectobac 12as, and cybate (active ingredient: 1,200 international toxic units bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [bti]) against 3rd instars of the arbovirus vectors aedes aegypti, ae. notoscriptus, ae. vigilax, and ae. camptorhynchus. probit analyses were then used to determine ld50 (median lethal dose), ld50, and lethal dose ratios (ldr). aedes aegypti and ae. notoscriptus, both contai ...200111345425
ross river virus transmission, infection, and disease: a cross-disciplinary review.ross river virus (rrv) is a fascinating, important arbovirus that is endemic and enzootic in australia and papua new guinea and was epidemic in the south pacific in 1979 and 1980. infection with rrv may cause disease in humans, typically presenting as peripheral polyarthralgia or arthritis, sometimes with fever and rash. rrv disease notifications in australia average 5,000 per year. the first well-described outbreak occurred in 1928. during world war ii there were more outbreaks, and the name ep ...200111585790
definition of ross river virus vectors at maroochy shire, australia.evidence of ross river (rr) virus infection in field-collected mosquitoes and data from laboratory vector competence experiments incriminated a range of mosquito species as important vectors of rr virus in maroochy shire, queensland, australia. nine rr and 2 barmah forest virus isolates were recovered from 27,529 mosquitoes collected in light traps from maroochy shire during 1996. nine of the 10 most abundant mosquito species collected in light traps were fed on blood containing the b94/20 strai ...200015218919
aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) survival and dispersal estimated by mark-release-recapture in brisbane, queensland, australia.the survival and dispersal of adult aedes notoscriptus (skuse) were estimated in brisbane, queensland, australia, where this species has been identified as a vector of ross river and barmah forest viruses and shown to be orally susceptible to dengue virus types 1-4. standard mark-release-recapture methods were used. before the field study, laboratory trials showed that marking ae. notoscriptus with fluorescent powder had no effect on survivorship. female recapture rates of 10.6 and 2.3% over an ...200015535581
entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including dipterans. fungal pathogens such as lagenidium, coelomomyces and culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. there are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. the discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pa ...200415861235
use of carbon-13 as a population marker for anopheles arabiensis in a sterile insect technique (sit) context.monitoring of sterile to wild insect ratios in field populations can be useful to follow the progress in genetic control programmes such as the sterile insect technique (sit). of the numerous methods for marking insects most are not suitable for use in mass rearing and mass release. suitable ones include dye marking, genetic marking and chemical marking.200616445865
mosquito feeding patterns and natural infection of vertebrates with ross river and barmah forest viruses in brisbane, feeding patterns of mosquitoes were assessed through the identification of 865 blood meals collected from brisbane during 2000-2001. under natural conditions, mosquito feeding (including that of culex annulirostris, aedes vigilax, and aedes notoscriptus) was primarily on dogs (37.4%), but also on birds (18.4%), horses (16.8%), brushtail possums (13.3%), humans (11.6%), and cats, flying foxes, and macropods, depending on site. from 1997 to 1999, sera (n=1706) were collected from dogs, cats, ...200717360861
predictive indicators for ross river virus infection in the darwin area of tropical northern australia, using long-term mosquito trapping describe the epidemiology of ross river virus (rrv) infection in the endemic darwin region of tropical northern australia and to develop a predictive model for rrv infections.200818482196
vector competence of australian mosquito species for a north american strain of west nile virus.since the establishment of west nile virus (wnv) into the united states, concern has arisen that this virus may also pose a serious threat to australian biosecurity. the vector competence of 19 australian mosquito species for a north american strain of wnv was evaluated. mosquitoes collected from cairns, brisbane, and sydney were exposed to blood containing 10(4.0+/-0.3) cell culture infectious dose(50)/mosquito wnv that was isolated from a crow during the 1999 new york outbreak. mosquitoes were ...200818973445
vector competence of australian mosquitoes for chikungunya virus.chikungunya virus (chikv) is a globally emerging arbovirus responsible for unprecedented outbreaks in the western indian ocean, the indian subcontinent and italy. to assess the receptivity of australia to chikv, we exposed 10 australian mosquito species to a 2006 strain of chikv isolated from a viremic traveler from mauritius. in susceptibility trials, the infectious dose required to infect 50% of the mosquitoes was 10(0.6) cell culture infectious dose (ccid)(50)/mosquito for aedes procax, 10(1. ...201019877822
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
insects and allies associated with bromeliads: a review.bromeliads are a neotropical plant family (bromeliaceae) with about 2,900 described species. they vary considerably in architecture. many impound water in their inner leaf axils to form phytotelmata (plant pools), providing habitat for terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae, while their outer axils provide terraria for an assemblage of fully terrestrial arthropods. many bromeliads are epiphytic.dominant terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata are typicall ...200920209047
chikungunya virus: a novel and potentially serious threat to new zealand and the south pacific islands.there has never been a locally transmitted outbreak of mosquito-borne disease in new zealand, but the risk of an outbreak occurring is increasing with on-going interceptions of exotic mosquito vectors across its border, increasing traffic of goods and passengers, higher numbers of viremic travelers arriving, and local, regional, and global environmental change. the risk posed to new zealand by chikungunya virus is potentially high because of the transmissibility of this virus in subtropical clim ...201020889861
vector competence of new zealand mosquitoes for selected zealand (nz) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of whataroa virus (togaviridae: alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. this naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. to determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to nz, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. four alphaviruses (toga ...201121734146
surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne barmah forest virus infection.barmah forest virus (bfv) is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in australia. this study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected bfv notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.201223908926
mosquito communities and disease risk influenced by land use change and seasonality in the australian tropics.anthropogenic land use changes have contributed considerably to the rise of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. these diseases appear to be increasing as a result of the novel juxtapositions of habitats and species that can result in new interchanges of vectors, diseases and hosts. we studied whether the mosquito community structure varied between habitats and seasons and whether known disease vectors displayed habitat preferences in tropical australia.201627388293
development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (smack).although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (smack) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (flinders technology associates; fta®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light ...201526444264
surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in new zealand birds.given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. the objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in new zealand.201324478919
mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. however, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (fmr), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. this study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated w ...201324130851
ross river virus: many vectors and unusual hosts make for an unpredictable pathogen. 201526335937
the usual suspects: comparison of the relative roles of potential urban chikungunya virus vectors in australia.the global re-emergence of chikungunya virus (chikv) over the last decade presents a serious public health risk to australia. an increasing number of imported cases further underline the potential for local transmission to occur if local mosquitoes bite an infected traveller. laboratory experiments have identified a number of competent australian mosquito species, including the primary vectors of chikv abroad, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, and local endemic species aedes vigilax and aedes ...201526247366
chikungunya virus-vector interactions.chikungunya virus (chikv) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. since 2004, chikv has emerged in africa, indian ocean islands, asia, europe, and the americas, causing millions of human infections. central to understanding chikv emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. this review presents current understanding of chikv infection dynamics in mosquito v ...201425421891
highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record.dengue viruses (denvs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. they exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. in 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of brunei returned to australia displaying symptoms consistent with denv infection. a unique denv strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within denv serotype 1 (denv-1). bayesian evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putativ ...201626924208
assessment of local mosquito species incriminates aedes aegypti as the potential vector of zika virus in australia.within the last 10 years zika virus (zikv) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western pacific and south america, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. we evaluated the vector competence of australian mosquitoes for zikv to assess their potential role in virus transmission.201627643685
species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emerge ...019067629
molecular identification of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in southeastern australia.dna barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. in order to use dna barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. this study obtained cytochrome oxidase i (coi) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six trib ...201627217948
human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic.dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (dirofilaria immitis and d. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. at the same time, both d. immitis and d. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hos ...022763636
making mosquito taxonomy useful: a stable classification of tribe aedini that balances utility with current knowledge of evolutionary relationships.the tribe aedini (family culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. this tribe contains the genus aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. during the past decade, aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by reinert, harbach, and kitching (rh&k). those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from wha ...201526226613
comparative mt genomics of the tipuloidea (diptera: nematocera: tipulomorpha) and its implications for the phylogeny of the tipulomorpha.a traditionally controversial taxon, the tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other nematocera. the interpretation of internal relationships within the tipuloidea, which include the tipulidae sensu stricto, cylindrotomidae, pediciidae and limoniidae, is also problematic. we sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of symplecta hybrida (meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily chioneinae of family limoni ...201627341029
detection of theileria orientalis genotypes in haemaphysalis longicornis ticks from southern australia.theileria are blood-borne intracellular protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum apicomplexa. previously considered a benign parasite in australia, outbreaks of clinical disease resulting from theileria orientalis genotypes have been reported in australia since 2006. since this time, outbreaks have become widespread in south-eastern australia, resulting in significant adverse impacts on local dairy and beef industries. this paper provides the first investigation into the possible biological a ...201525889204
effects of co-habitation between anopheles gambiae s.s. and culex quinquefasciatus aquatic stages on life history traits.the effective measures for the control of malaria and filariasis vectors can be achieved by targeting immature stages of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in productive habitat. to design this strategy, the mechanisms (like biotic interactions with conspecifc and heterospecific larvae) regulating mosquito aquatic stages survivorship, development time and the size of emerging adults should be understood. this study explored the effect of co-habitation between an. gambiae s.s. and cx. quinquefasc ...201222321562
risky behaviors: effects of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. we need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. this research examined prey choices by toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. the results show that tx. splendens prefers to consume ae. ...201526386041
detection of wolbachia in aedes albopictus and their effects on chikungunya virus.wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. prior to utilizing wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the wolbachia-mosquito interactions. in this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of wolbachia in field-collected aedes albopictus the effects of wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemin ...201627920393
mosquito-borne heartworm dirofilaria immitis in dogs from australia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) in dogs is considered endemic in australia, but the clinical heartworm disease caused by the heartworm is rare and prevalence is low. the mainstream prevention of the heartworm is based on macrocyclic lactone (ml) administration. the aim of this study was to confirm endemism of the heartworm under current australian conditions using a cohort of recent microfilaria-positive dogs which were on variable heartworm prevention.201627717406
high-throughput pcr assays to monitor wolbachia infection in the dengue mosquito (aedes aegypti) and drosophila simulans.we have developed and validated two new fluorescence-based pcr assays to detect the wolbachia wmel strain in aedes aegypti and the wri and wau strains in drosophila simulans. the new assays are accurate, informative, and cost-efficient for large-scale wolbachia screening.201222522691
hydrodynamics of the double-wave structure of insect spermatozoa addition to conventional planar and helical flagellar waves, insect sperm flagella have also been observed to display a double-wave structure characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical waves. in this paper, we present a hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa exhibiting the double-wave structure, idealized here as superhelical waves. resolving the hydrodynamic interactions with a non-local slender body theory, we predict the swimming kinematics of the ...201222298815
a native wolbachia endosymbiont does not limit dengue virus infection in the mosquito aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae).the endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia pipientis infects many species of insects and has been transinfected into the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.), the primary vector of dengue virus (denv). recently, it has been shown that wolbachia blocks the replication and transmission of rna viruses, such as denv, in a number of mosquito species including ae. aegypti and aedes albopictus (skuse), which is naturally infected with wolbachia and considered a secondary vector for denv. the mosquito species aedes n ...201626721865
differentiation of aedes aegypti and aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) eggs using scanning electron microscopy.aedes notoscriptus and aedes aegypti are both peri-domestic, invasive container-breeding mosquitoes. while the two potential arboviral vectors are bionomically similar, their sympatric distribution in australia is limited. in this study, analyses of ae. aegypti and ae. notoscriptus eggs were enabled using scanning electron microscopy. significant variations in egg length to width ratio and outer chorionic cell field morphology between ae. aegypti and ae. notoscriptus enabled distinction of the t ...201626845557
developing exon-primed intron-crossing (epic) markers for population genetic studies in three aedes disease vectors.aedes aegypti, aedes notoscriptus, and aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 ribosome protein (rp) exon-p ...201524895297
increased container-breeding mosquito risk owing to drought-induced changes in water harvesting and storage in brisbane, australia.extended drought conditions in south-east queensland during the early 2000s have resulted in a culture of water harvesting and legislated water restrictions. aedes notoscriptus is a container-breeding mosquito vector of ross river and barmah forest viruses.201324225151
the importance of subterranean mosquito habitat to arbovirus vector control strategies in north queensland, north queensland, 14 localities were surveyed for mosquito larvae (third and fourth instar) during summer/autumn and winter from 1996 to 1999. absolute population numbers in subterranean habitats, mainly service manholes and pits (97%) but also some wells, septic tanks, storm drains, and sumps, were expressed as a proportion of total numbers in these sites plus surface sites within a 100-m radius. when correction factors were applied to subterranean samples, the 472,477 larvae mainly of aedes ...200011126539
effects of cohabitation on the population performance and survivorship of the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus and the resident mosquito aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) in australia.the presence of aedes albopictus (skuse) in the torres strait of northern australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. however, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in australia. cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic aedes notoscriptus (skuse), which has been found occupying the same lar ...201526334811
does the monomolecular film aquatain mosquito formula provide effective control of container-breeding mosquitoes in australia?the mosquito control potential of the silicone-based monomolecular film aquatain mosquito formula (amf) was investigated in field tests against the backyard mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus and culex quinquefasciatus. plastic tubs, with and without emergent aquatic vegetation (cyperus alternifolius), were sampled weekly for 2 wk prior to an application of aquatain and up to 6 wk postapplication. the mean abundance of mosquito larvae and pupae was compared between pre- and postapplication periods as ...201222533087
efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent aedes breeding in tires.the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in darwin, australia. insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. all mosquito larvae, pupae, ...201021290934
mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of buruli ulcer.addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease buruli ulcer (bu) is a world health organization priority. in australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, mycobacterium ulcerans, and bu. here we tested a contaminated skin model of bu transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, mycobacterium ulcerans. tails were exposed to mosquito (aedes notoscriptus and aedes aegypti) blood feeding or punctur ...201728410412
zika vector transmission risk in temperate australia: a vector competence study.zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. it has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the americas and in the pacific region. this study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in australia and included aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species.201728599659
ten years of the tiger: aedes albopictus presence in australia since its discovery in the torres strait in 2005.the "asian tiger mosquito", aedes albopictus, is highly invasive, an aggressive biter and a major arbovirus vector. it is not currently present on mainland australia despite being intercepted on numerous occasions at international ports and infesting the torres strait of australia since at least 2004. in the current paper, we describe the invasion and current status of ae. albopictus in the torres strait, as well as research conducted to assess the threat of this species becoming established in ...201628616473
metagenomic arbovirus detection using minion nanopore sequencing.with its small size and low cost, the hand-held minion sequencer is a powerful tool for in-field surveillance. using a metagenomic approach, it allows non-targeted detection of viruses in a sample within a few hours. this study aimed to determine the ability of the minion to metagenomically detect and characterise a virus from an infected mosquito. rna was extracted from an aedes notoscriptus mosquito infected with ross river virus (rrv), converted into cdna and sequenced on the minion. bioinfor ...201728855093
effectiveness of s-methoprene briquets and application method for mosquito control in urban road gullies/catch basins/gully pots in a mediterranean climate: implications for ross river virus transmission.floating emergence traps were used in 15 road gullies to determine the effectiveness and longevity of s-methoprene briquets over 124 days. samples were taken monthly from october 2014 to march 2015. two treatment methods were assessed: application of briquet using a float, and application without a float. these methods were compared with untreated control gullies. mosquito emergence peaked in early november, and decreased by february. effectiveness of the briquet was not impacted significantly b ...201627802404
"looking over the backyard fence": householders and mosquito control.(1) background: vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in western australia. mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. prevention efforts in the state are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. this is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. in australia's developed urban areas, breeding sites are, h ...201728257079
using next-generation sequencing for dna barcoding: capturing allelic variation in its2.internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) is a popular dna barcoding marker; however, in some animal species it is hypervariable and therefore difficult to sequence with traditional methods. with next-generation sequencing (ngs) it is possible to sequence all gene variants despite the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), insertions/deletions (indels), homopolymeric regions, and microsatellites. our aim was to compare the performance of sanger sequencing and ngs amplicon sequencing in c ...201727799340
reduced size and starvation resistance in adult mosquitoes, aedes notoscriptus, exposed to predation cues as larvae.1.ôçémany prey organisms exhibit adaptive phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits that facilitate a better chance of survival in the presence of predators. the evolution of such plastic traits requires that the defensive phenotype incurs a cost in the absence of predation. 2.ôçémodel systems that are used to examine predator-induced defences are often organisms with complex life histories that only induce defences during the larval stage. while many studies have detected costs of inducible ...201121714787
difference in mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) and the transmission of ross river virus between coastline and inland areas in brisbane, australia.this study examined the distribution of major mosquito species and their roles in the transmission of ross river virus (rrv) infection for coastline and inland areas in brisbane, australia (27 degrees 28' s, 153 degrees 2' e). we obtained data on the monthly counts of rrv cases in brisbane between november 1998 and december 2001 by statistical local areas from the queensland department of health and the monthly mosquito abundance from the brisbane city council. correlation analysis was used to a ...201020146843
association between habitat size, brushtail possum density, and the mosquito fauna of native forests in the auckland region, new zealand.human activities have been causing dramatic and unprecedented changes to the earth's ecosystems, and are a primary factor associated with biological invasions. disturbed and fragmented habitats allow some vector mosquitoes to thrive. the new zealand landscape has been extensively modified since the arrival of humans, and there is accumulating evidence that the distribution of mosquitoes is being altered as a result of anthropogenic environmental changes. this study aimed to assess whether forest ...200919444520
mosquitoes feeding on brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) and humans in a native forest fragment in the auckland region of new zealand.a study was carried out to identify the native and exotic mosquito species that feed on possums (and also humans) during daytime in a native forest fragment in the auckland region. twenty-two possums were handled in spring 2005, and 21 in the following summer. a total of 32 female mosquitoes were collected while handling the possums (22 mosquitoes were on humans--all introduced aedes notoscriptus; 10 on possums--9 ae. notoscriptus and 1 native coquillettidia iracunda). these results support prev ...200718264199
susceptibility of selected strains of australian mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) to rift valley fever virus.we evaluated the ability of selected strains of the australian mosquitoes, aedes notoscriptus (skuse), ae. vigilax (skuse), culex annulirostris skuse, and cx. quinquefasciatus say, to function as potential vectors of rift valley fever (rvf) virus, should that virus be introduced accidentally into australia. after feeding on a hamster with a viremia of 10(7) plaque-forming units/ml of blood, ae. notoscriptus and cx. annulirostris were the most susceptible, with infection rates of 86 and 55%, resp ...19989538572
evidence of cryptic genetic lineages within aedes notoscriptus (skuse).aedes notoscriptus (skuse), a mosquito from the southwest pacific region including australia, has been implicated as a vector of arboviruses, but its status as a species is unclear. to investigate the taxonomic situation, we assessed genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among ae. notoscriptus from the east coast of australia, western australia and new zealand. phylogenetic analyses of dna sequence data from mitochondrial markers indicate that ae. notoscriptus is a complex of divergen ...201323681021
mosquito communities with trap height and urban-rural gradient in adelaide, south australia: implications for disease vector surveillance.understanding the factors influencing mosquito distribution is important for effective surveillance and control of nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes. the goal of this study was to determine how trap height and distance to the city center influenced the abundance and species of mosquitoes collected in adelaide, south australia. mosquito communities were sampled at two heights (<2 m and ~10 m) along an urban-rural gradient. a total of 5,133 mosquitoes was identified over 176 trap nights. aede ...201424820555
the complete mitochondrial dna genomes for two lineages of aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae).the complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito aedes notoscriptus skuse (diptera: culicidae) in australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation illumina and traditional sanger sequencing. the 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. they both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published culicidae species with the one non-coding a + t rich cont ...201625350735
colonization and laboratory biology of aedes notoscriptus from brisbane, australia.methods are described for the laboratory colonization of aedes notoscriptus from brisbane, queensland, australia. to initiate colonization, efforts were made to duplicate the natural environment of this species, including the use of a bromeliad as a swarm marker and oviposition substrate. the colony stabilized after the f8 with eclosion rates >50%, and an average production of 5,220 adults since the f9. the fecundity of ae. notoscriptus averaged 29.4+/-10.5 eggs (range 14-57). the average develo ...200010901637
evaluation of bifenthrin applications in tires to prevent aedes mosquito breeding.the efficacy of maximum label rates of bifenthrin applications to dry tires to prevent aedes mosquito breeding was investigated by field colonization and bioassay trials in shaded and unshaded locations. aedes notoscriptus and culex quinquefasciatus larvae were the most abundant species present in the field colonization trial. colonization and survival of ae. notoscriptus larvae to the late instar occurred significantly earlier in treated tires in shaded compared with unshaded locations (p = 0.0 ...200919432071
melanotaenia duboulayi influence oviposition site selection by culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) and aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) but not culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).some species of mosquito can detect the presence of larvivorous fish and select against ovipositing in pools supporting them. the effect of kairomones released by the crimson-spotted rainbowfish melanotaenia duboulayi (castelnau) on the oviposition behavior of the freshwater mosquitoes culex annulirostris skuse, culex quinquefasciatus say, and aedes notoscriptus skuse was evaluated in both laboratory and outdoor artificial pool experiments. in the laboratory, colony-reared cx. annulirostris sele ...201020388286
spatial and temporal distribution, environmental drivers and community structure of mosquitoes in the kaipara harbour, new zealand.mosquito communities across the globe frequently comprise a mix of native and cosmopolitan species. new zealand's mosquito communities are no exception. here we describe the abundance, distribution and phenological patterns for a community of six mosquito taxa resident across the kaipara harbour region of northern new zealand. adult mosquitoes were sampled using baited light traps, serviced biweekly for 3½ years. seasonal fluctuations in abundance of adults were examined for correlations with te ...201728786372
the highs and lows of making a bucket list-quantifying potential mosquito breeding habitats in metropolitan backyards.while the development of land for residential housing along the swan and canning rivers in perth, wa, australia has reduced natural mosquito breeding sites, the role of backyard container breeding remains a relatively unknown factor. local governments responsible for these areas focus management and control efforts on low lying, tidally driven mosquito habitats to control aedes vigilax (skuse) and aedes camptorhynchus (thomson) mosquitoes in an effort to reduce both the nuisance and disease risk ...201729164098
global potential distribution of the mosquito aedes notoscriptus, a new alien species in the united states. 201526047202
mosquito communities and avian malaria prevalence in silvereyes (zosterops lateralis) within forest edge and interior habitats in a new zealand regional park.forest fragmentation and agricultural development are important anthropogenic landscape alterations affecting the disease dynamics of malarial parasites (plasmodium spp.), largely through their effects on vector communities. we compared vector abundance and species composition at two forest edge sites abutting pastureland and two forest interior sites in new zealand, while simultaneously assessing avian malaria prevalence in silvereyes (zosterops lateralis). twenty-two of 240 (9.2%) individual s ...201526065670
desiccation survival time for eggs of a widespread and invasive australian mosquito species, aedes (finlaya) notoscriptus (skuse).the australian native mosquito aedes (finlaya) notoscriptus (skuse) is closely associated with natural and artificial water holding receptacles. eggs are laid in habitats where they are exposed to drying conditions as water levels fluctuate. withstanding desiccation enables survival in challenging environments and increases the potential for establishment in non-native habitats. until now, the desiccation resistance of ae. notoscriptus eggs has been unknown despite the historical invasive succes ...201627232125
seasonal activity, vector relationships and genetic analysis of mosquito-borne stratford virus.there are many gaps to be filled in our understanding of mosquito-borne viruses, their relationships with vectors and reservoir hosts, and the environmental drivers of seasonal activity. stratford virus (strv) belongs to the genus flavivirus and has been isolated from mosquitoes and infected humans in australia but little is known of its vector and reservoir host associations. a total of 43 isolates of strv from mosquitoes collected in new south wales between 1995 and 2013 was examined to determ ...201728253306
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