biological control of container-breeding mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus, in a japanese island by release of toxorhynchites splendens control container-breeding mosquitoes in the small island of minnajima (0.56 km2), northern okinawa, japan, laboratory-reared adults (aged 7-10 days) of toxorhynchites splendens (palawan strain), a mosquito with predatory larvae, were released repeatedly during 1984, 1986 and 1987. thirteen species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) occurred in artificial containers, ground pools or crab-holes on the island, the predominant species being aedes (stegomyia) albopictus and culex (culex) quinquef ...19921358271
suppression of larval aedes aegypti populations in household water storage containers in jakarta, indonesia, through releases of first-instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae.weekly releases of first-instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae were made in household water storage containers in a neighborhood in jakarta, indonesia, between april 1987 and april 1988. a single larva was placed in each container surveyed. forty-one percent of all containers in the treatment area were treated each week and the average container was treated once every 2.4 weeks. aedes aegypti populations were suppressed but not controlled by treatment. it is hypothesized that first-instar toxor ...19892568397
breeding habitats of mosquitoes in goa.studies carried out in goa from 1986 to 1987 revealed immature stages of 43 species of mosquitoes. breeding habitats were divided into three categories, viz., (i) ground water habitats consisting of ground pools and tanks, rocky pools, paddy fields and stream beds, yielding 30 species; (ii) plant habitats consisting of tree holes and fallen coconut shells and leaf sheaths yielding 20 species; and (iii) domestic/peridomestic habitats consisting of cement tanks, glass, earthen, metallic containers ...19892572463
isolation of dengue viruses by intracerebral inoculation of mosquito larvae.the isolation of dengue viruses from clinical specimens has always posed a particularly difficult problem. the use of invertebrate cell cultures such as ap-61 and c6/36 has reduced the time required for definitive diagnosis to within a week. more recently, inoculation of adult mosquitoes has been used but it requires more than a week to reach a confirmed laboratory diagnosis. we describe a method using intracerebral inoculation of immobilized fourth instar of toxorhynchites splendens larvae for ...19862877004
multiplication and distribution of type 2 dengue and japanese encephalitis viruses in toxorhynchites splendens after intrathoracic inoculation.the nonhematophagous mosquito toxorhynchites (tx.) splendens was found to be the most susceptible to type 2 dengue (d-2) and japanese encephalitis (jev) viruses among three hosts examined by virus titration and replication assays. after inoculation with d-2, the number of viral antigen positive cells in the head, thorax and abdomen increased up to day 15 and d-2 reached the maximum titer of 8.4 log10 pfu/g in the head on day 15. hemocytes were the earliest cell type that could be detected as d-2 ...19872891346
trial of a quantified mass rearing method for toxorhynchites splendens. 19882904485
bionomics of toxorhynchites splendens in the larval habitats of aedes aegypti in bangkok, thailand. 19705313363
evaluation of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae) as a bioassay host for dengue viruses. 19826126591
the biological control of aedes aegypti on sa-med island, rayong province by means of toxorhynchites splendens, a predatory mosquito larva. 19836138386
laboratory observations on toxorhynchites splendens wiedemann in thailand.the biology of toxorhynchites splendens predaceous larvae which breed in domestic containers like aedes aegypti was studied. egg stage lasts 52.64 +/- 0.13 hours. there are four larval instars lasting 2.38 +/- 0.04, 1.24 +/- 0.26, 8.09 +/- 1.6 and 28.78 +/- 5.39 days respectively. pupal development lasts 5.18 +/- 1.06 days. the adult life span is 29.55 +/- 8.06 days. growth increment was by measuring the size of head capsule. number of second instar prey larvae consumed by 1 to 4 instars predace ...19846151745
transovarial transmission of dengue 2 virus by aedes aegypti in nature.dengue 2 virus was recovered from three of 123 pools of naturally infected aedes aegypti larvae (6,200 insects) collected from water containers in rangoon. the virus was also isolated from two of 76 pools (7,730 mosquitoes) of male ae. aegypti, collected as larvae and reared in the laboratory to adults. minimum field infection rates among these two groups of mosquitoes were 1:2,067 and 1:3,865, respectively. insect pools were inoculated into toxorhynchites splendens mosquitoes and dengue viral a ...19836859404
population interaction of toxorhynchites splendens and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in the laboratory.population interaction of toxorhynchites splendens and aedes aegypti in relation to the complexity of the breeding habitats and their initial number was studied in the laboratory. the predator and the prey were introduced in different ratios in the colony cages (1 m3) with different oviposition structures. predator-prey interaction lasted for 5-9 weeks without structural complexity of the oviposition containers. when there was a structural complexity, their interaction lasted for 18 weeks. durin ...19947667726
urbanization and its effects on the ecology of mosquitoes in macau, southeast asia.recent urbanization in macau has resulted in the precipitous decline to zero in populations of several anopheline vectors of malaria while providing optimal habitat for the population increase in culicines. of 18 species of mosquitoes reported in macau in recent years, 15 species are included here. culex quinquefasciatus, culex sitiens, and aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. notes are provided for anopheles sinensis, armigeres magnus, armigeres subalbatus, culex foliatus, culex fus ...19947707061
comparative evaluation of bioassay and elisa for detection of japanese encephalitis virus in field collected mosquitos.comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and bioassay (virus isolation in toxorhynchites splendens larvae and identification by immunofluorescence test using virus specific monoclonal antibody) was carried out in order to define a suitable strategy for monitoring japanese encephalitis virus infection in field mosquitos. a total of 8,850 adult female mosquitos in 177 pools (culex tritaeniorhynchus 91, cx. vishnui 59 and cx. fuscocephala 27) collected from an endemic are ...19958525426
virus isolation from wild-caught mosquitoes during a japanese encephalitis outbreak in kerala in 1996.out of 5357 wild-caught mosquitoes in 163 pools tested for virus using antigen capture elisa and an insect-bioassay (inoculation into toxorhynchites splendens larvae and identification by ifa using je virus-specific monoclonal antibody), 16 flavivirus isolations were made of which 12 (75%) were identified as je virus. of the 12 je virus isolations, 7 were from culex tritaeniorhynchus, 3 from mansonia uniformis and 1 each from ma. indiana and anopheles subpictus. four isolations from mansonia spe ...19979248207
an appraisal of some recent diagnostic assays for japanese encephalitis.a study was undertaken in south arcot district of tamil nadu, india to assess relative merits of selected diagnostic techniques for japanese encephalitis. during the transmission seasons of 1993-1995, a total of 85 patients (mostly pediatric) clinically diagnosed as acute encephalitis or other related central nervous system (cns) disorders were examined; in 53 (62.4%) a laboratory diagnosis of je was established. in terms of diagnostic value, immunoglobulin m (igm) antibody capture elisa (mac el ...19969253865
japanese encephalitis in south arcot district, tamil nadu, india: a three-year longitudinal study of vector abundance and infection the south arcot district, an area endemic for japanese encephalitis in tamil nadu, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, culex vishnui theobald, culex gelidus theobald and culex fuscocephala theobald constituted 93.6% of 422,621 adult females representing 27 culicine species collected between august 1991 and july 1994. vector abundance was lowest in the hot and dry season (april-june) and highest in the cool and wet season (october-december). overall, 285,531 adult female mosquitoes (5,710 pools) we ...19979439119
toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody system for the detection of bluetongue virus from culicoides midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae).a new system, the toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody (tfa) test in which the larvae of toxorhynchites splendens mosquitoes were used for the detection of bluetongue virus (btv) from culicoides midges, was developed. twenty-seven pools of culicoides midges were collected from bluetongue-prone areas of tamil nadu by use of the light-trap and suction-trap methods. a suspension of each pool was injected intrathoracically into t. splendens iv instar larvae and inoculated onto vero cell monolayers. a ...19979551482
predominance of hla-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte responses to serotype-cross-reactive epitopes on nonstructural proteins following natural secondary dengue virus infection.we examined the memory cytotoxic t-lymphocytic (ctl) responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) obtained from patients in thailand 12 months after natural symptomatic secondary dengue virus infection. in all four patients analyzed, ctls were detected in bulk culture pbmc against nonstructural dengue virus proteins. numerous cd4+ and cd8+ ctl lines were generated from the bulk cultures of two patients, kpp94-037 and kpp94-024, which were specific for ns1.2a (ns1 and ns2a collectively) ...19989557687
the use of toxorhynchites splendens for identification and quantitation of serotypes contained in the tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine.assurance of identity and quantity is an indispensable part of quality control in the manufacture of vaccines. dengue-1 pdk13, dengue-2 pdk53, dengue-3 pgmk30f3 and dengue-4 pdk48 in the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine were assayed by identification and quantitation in a mosquito system (toxorhynchites splendens). each serotype of dengue virus was identified by dengue specific monoclonal antibodies in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. virus content was estimated by calculating t ...199910075167
dengue virus structural differences that correlate with pathogenesis.the understanding of dengue virus pathogenesis has been hampered by the lack of in vitro and in vivo models of disease. the study of viral factors involved in the production of severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf), versus the more common dengue fever (df), have been limited to indirect clinical and epidemiologic associations. in an effort to identify viral determinants of dhf, we have developed a method for comparing dengue type 2 genomes (reverse transcriptase pcr in six fragments) dir ...199910233934
recombinant chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus is immunogenic and protective in nonhuman primates.a chimeric yellow fever (yf)-dengue type 2 (dengue-2) virus (chimerivax-d2) was constructed using a recombinant cdna infectious clone of a yf vaccine strain (yf 17d) as a backbone into which we inserted the premembrane (prm) and envelope (e) genes of dengue-2 virus (strain puo-218 from a case of dengue fever in bangkok, thailand). the chimeric virus was recovered from the supernatant of vero cells transfected with rna transcripts and amplified once in these cells to yield a titer of 6.3 log(10) ...200010823852
b cells are the principal circulating mononuclear cells infected by dengue virus.although dengue virus infects a variety of cells in vitro, little is known about cell types infected in vivo. since blood is a readily accessible tissue, we chose to determine which circulating blood cells are infected by dengue viruses. we collected blood mononuclear cells from acutely ill dengue patients and separated the cells by flow cytometry into subsets for virus isolation. cells were sorted into groups corresponding to the cluster designations cd3, cd14, cd16 and cd20. virus was isolated ...199910928366
tick-borne langat/mosquito-borne dengue flavivirus chimera, a candidate live attenuated vaccine for protection against disease caused by members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex: evaluation in rhesus monkeys and in mosquitoes.langat virus (lgt), strain tp21, a naturally avirulent tick-borne flavivirus, was used to construct a chimeric candidate virus vaccine which contained lgt genes for premembrane (prem) and envelope (e) glycoprotein and all other sequences derived from dengue type 4 virus (den4). the live virus vaccine was developed to provide resistance to the highly virulent, closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that share protective e epitopes among themselves and with lgt. toward that end the chimera, initi ...200111483771
a live attenuated recombinant dengue-4 virus vaccine candidate with restricted capacity for dissemination in mosquitoes and lack of transmission from vaccinees to mosquitoes.2adelta30 is a live dengue-4 virus vaccine candidate with a 30-nucleotide deletion in its 3'-untranslated region. to assess the transmissibility of 2adelta30 by mosquitoes, we compared its in vivo replication in mosquitoes with that of its wild type den-4 parent. both the vaccine candidate and wild type virus were equally able to infect the mosquito toxorhynchites splendens after intrathoracic inoculation. relative to its wild type parent, 2adelta30 was slightly restricted in its ability to infe ...200111716092
a live, attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine candidate with a 30-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region is highly attenuated and immunogenic in monkeys.the delta30 deletion mutation, which was originally created in dengue virus type 4 (den4) by the removal of nucleotides 172 to 143 from the 3' untranslated region (3' utr), was introduced into a homologous region of wild-type (wt) dengue virus type 1 (den1). the resulting virus, rden1delta30, was attenuated in rhesus monkeys to a level similar to that of the rden4delta30 vaccine candidate. rden1delta30 was more attenuated in rhesus monkeys than the previously described vaccine candidate, rden1mu ...200312502885
yellow fever virus/dengue-2 virus and yellow fever virus/dengue-4 virus chimeras: biological characterization, immunogenicity, and protection against dengue encephalitis in the mouse model.two yellow fever virus (yfv)/dengue virus chimeras which encode the prm and e proteins of either dengue virus serotype 2 (dengue-2 virus) or dengue-4 virus within the genome of the yfv 17d strain (yf5.2iv infectious clone) were constructed and characterized for their properties in cell culture and as experimental vaccines in mice. the prm and e proteins appeared to be properly processed and glycosylated, and in plaque reduction neutralization tests and other assays of antigenic specificity, the ...200312610141
biodiversity of mosquitoes in manipur state and their medical significance.entomological studies conducted during monsoon and post-monsoon season in manipur state revealed the presence of fifty-five species of mosquitoes under ten genera. out of the seventeen anopheles species recorded, anopheles aconitus, an. dirus and an. nivipes were recorded for the first time from the state. the present study has confirmed the existence of an. dirus, the major malaria vector in the northeast from a selected area of the state. among culicines, four species viz., aedes nigrostriatus ...200516334293
predatory activity of rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of toxorhynchites splendens on mosquito larvae in darjeeling, india.predation potential of the dytiscid beetle, rhantus sikkimensis regimbart 1899 and the larvae of toxorhynchites splendens wiedemann 1819 occurring along with the larval stages of the mosquitoes in the annual lentic water bodies of darjeeling was evaluated using the larvae of culex quinquefasciatus say 1823 as preys, in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions.200616967818
dengue virus detection using whole blood for reverse transcriptase pcr and virus isolation.dengue is one of the most important diseases in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with an estimated 2.5 billion people being at risk. detection of dengue virus infections has great importance for the clinical management of patients, surveillance, and clinical trial assessments. traditionally, blood samples are collected in serum separator tubes, processed for serum, and then taken to the laboratory for analysis. the use of whole blood has the potential advantages of requiring le ...200717522268
a new densovirus isolated from the mosquito toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) (diptera: culicidae).a new densovirus was isolated and characterized in laboratory strains of toxorhynchites splendens. the virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from mosquitoes reared in our laboratory. pcr fragments from each mosquito were compared by single strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) assay and found to be indistinguishable. thus, it is likely the densoviruses from these mosquitoes contain homologous nucleotide sequences. the pcr fragment corresponding to a 451 bp densovirus structural ...200717539278
microevolution of dengue viruses circulating among primary school children in kamphaeng phet, determine the extent and structure of genetic variation in dengue viruses (denv) on a restricted spatial and temporal scale, we sequenced the e (envelope) genes of denv-1, -2, and -3 isolates collected in 2001 from children enrolled in a prospective school-based study in kamphaeng phet, thailand, and diagnosed with dengue disease. our analysis revealed substantial viral genetic variation in both time and space, with multiple viral lineages circulating within individual schools, suggesting the ...200818367520
natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by aedes aegypti in chennai, tamil nadu, india.dengue viruses are spread and maintained in an aedes aegypti-human- ae. aegypti cycle in urban areas of the tropics. dengue viruses are also maintained in nature by vertical transmission by ae. aegypti. a study was undertaken in chennai, a known endemic city in south india, to comprehend the natural vertical transmission dynamics in ae. aegypti and to assess its epidemiological importance.200818577796
biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by acilius sulcatus (coleoptera: dytiscidae).problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. in this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. in the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of acilius sulcatus linnaeus 1758 (coleoptera: dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. its efficacy under fi ...200818922168
tnf and lta gene, allele, and extended hla haplotype associations with severe dengue virus infection in ethnic thais.severe dengue virus (denv) infection is characterized by a cascade of cytokine production, including the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (lt-alpha). we have analyzed a variety of polymorphisms in the tnf and lta genes of 435 ethnic thais who had subclinical denv infection, primary or secondary dengue fever (df), or primary or secondary dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf). the tnf -238a polymorphism marking the tnf-4,lta-3 haplotype occurred in a significant ...200919392621
comparative analysis of full-length genomic sequences of 10 dengue serotype 1 viruses associated with different genotypes, epidemics, and disease severity isolated in thailand over 22 years.comparative sequence analysis was performed on the full-length genomic sequences of 10 representative dengue virus serotype 1 (denv-1) strains sampled from patients at children's hospital, bangkok, thailand over a 22-year period, which represented different epidemics, disease severity, and sampling time. the results showed remarkable inter-genotypic variation between predominant and non-predominant genotypes and genotype-specific amino acids and nucleotides throughout the entire viral genome exc ...201021036855
factors influencing dengue virus isolation by c6/36 cell culture and mosquito inoculation of nested pcr-positive clinical samples.dengue viral isolation is necessary for definitive diagnosis, pathogenesis and evolutionary research, vaccine candidates, and diagnostic materials. using standardized techniques, we analyzed isolation rates of 1,544 randomly selected polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-positive samples, representing all four dengue serotypes, from patients with serologically confirmed dengue infections and evaluated whether clinical and laboratory results could be predictive of isolation using standard and mosquito ...201121292887
determinants of inapparent and symptomatic dengue infection in a prospective study of primary school children in kamphaeng phet, thailand.dengue viruses are a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. inapparent dengue is an important component of the overall burden of dengue infection. it provides a source of infection for mosquito transmission during the course of an epidemic, yet by definition is undetected by health care providers. previous studies of inapparent or subclinical infection have reported varying ratios of symptomatic to inapparent dengue infection.201121390158
safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine in flavivirus-naive infants.abstract. a phase i/ii observer-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a dengue virus (denv) vaccine candidate in healthy thai infants (aged 12-15 months) without measurable pre-vaccination neutralizing antibodies to denv and japanese encephalitis virus. fifty-one subjects received two doses of either denv (n = 34; four received 1/10th dose) or control vaccine (n = 17; dose 1, live varicella; dose 2, haemophilus influenzae type b). after each vaccine dose, ...201121813857
dengue-1 virus clade replacement in thailand associated with enhanced mosquito transmission.dengue viruses (denv) are characterized by extensive genetic diversity and can be organized in multiple, genetically distinct lineages that arise and die out on a regular basis in regions where dengue is endemic. a fundamental question for understanding denv evolution is the relative extent to which stochastic processes (genetic drift) and natural selection acting on fitness differences among lineages contribute to lineage diversity and turnover. here, we used a set of recently collected and arc ...201122130539
the influence of temperature on oxygen consumption in the larvae of toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) (diptera: culicidae). 1975235651
specificity of resistance to dengue virus isolates is associated with genotypes of the mosquito antiviral gene contrast to the prevailing view that invertebrate immunity relies on broad-spectrum recognition and effector mechanisms, intrinsic genetic compatibility between invertebrate hosts and their pathogens is often highly specific in nature. solving this puzzle requires a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying observed patterns of invertebrate host-pathogen genetic specificity, broadly referred to as genotype-by-genotype interactions. here, we identify an invertebrate immune gene in ...023193131
complete genome sequences of zika virus strains isolated from the blood of patients in thailand in 2014 and the philippines in, we present the complete genome sequences of two zika virus (zikv) strains, zika virus/homo sapiens-tc/tha/2014/sv0127-14 and zika virus/h. sapiens-tc/phl/2012/cpc-0740, isolated from the blood of patients collected in thailand, 2014, and the philippines, 2012, respectively. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the asian lineage.201627174274
zika virus infection, philippines, 2012. 025811410
dengue infection in children in ratchaburi, thailand: a cohort study. i. epidemiology of symptomatic acute dengue infection in children, 2006-2009.there is an urgent need to field test dengue vaccines to determine their role in the control of the disease. our aims were to study dengue epidemiology and prepare the site for a dengue vaccine efficacy trial.201222860141
occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in fortaleza, ceará, brazil.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus perform an important role in the transmission of the dengue virus to human populations, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. despite a lack of understanding in relation to the maintenance of the dengue virus in nature during interepidemic periods, the vertical transmission of the dengue virus in populations of a. aegypti and a. albopictus appears to be of significance in relation to the urban scenario of fortaleza.201222848479
the invasive mosquito species aedes albopictus: current knowledge and future of the most dynamic events in public health is being mediated by the global spread of the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus. its rapid expansion and vectorial capacity for various arboviruses affect an increasingly larger proportion of the world population. responses to the challenges of controlling this vector are expected to be enhanced by an increased knowledge of its biology, ecology, and vector competence. details of population genetics and structure will allow following, and possibly ...201323916878
plaque reduction neutralization antibody test does not accurately predict protection against dengue infection in ratchaburi cohort, thailand.the plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) is currently the best and most widely accepted approach to measuring virus-neutralizing and protective antibodies to dengue virus, and in assessing the immunogenicity of a dengue vaccine. however, the correlation between presence of dengue-neutralizing antibody and protection from infection is not absolute.201424620925
dengue infection in children in ratchaburi, thailand: a cohort study. ii. clinical manifestations.dengue infection is one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases. more data regarding the disease burden and the prevalence of each clinical spectrum among symptomatic infections and the clinical manifestations are needed. this study aims to describe the incidence and clinical manifestations of symptomatic dengue infection in thai children during 2006 through 2008.201222389735
zika virus (zikv). 201627994533
new paradigms for virus detection, surveillance and control of zika virus vectors in the settings of southeast asia.zika virus (zikv) has now become a global public health concern. the vectors for zikv are aedes aegypti and a. albopictus. both these mosquitoes are predominant in southeast asia and are also responsible for the spread of other arboviral diseases like dengue virus and chikungunya virus. the incidence of dengue has been increasing over the years and this is of concern to public health workers. simple laboratory tools for the detection of zikv is also lacking. in the absence of drugs and vaccine f ...201627679623
comparative evaluation of the efficiency of the bg-sentinel trap, cdc light trap and mosquito-oviposition trap for the surveillance of vector mosquitoes.the surveillance of vector mosquitoes is important for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. to identify a suitable surveillance tool for the adult dengue vector aedes albopictus, the efficacy of the bg-sentinel trap, cdc light trap and mosquito-oviposition trap (mot) on the capture of vector mosquitoes were comparatively evaluated in this study.201627519419
a plasmid-based reporter system for live cell imaging of dengue virus infected cells.cell culture models are used widely to study the effects of dengue virus (denv) on host cell function. current methods of identification of cells infected with an unmodified denv requires fixation and permeablization of cells to allow denv-specific antibody staining. this method does not permit imaging of viable cells over time. in this report, a plasmid-based reporter was developed to allow non-destructive identification of denv-infected cells. the plasmid-based reporter was demonstrated to be ...201425445884
detection of zika virus infection in thailand, 2012-2014.zika virus (zikv) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in africa, asia, and large outbreaks in the pacific. no autochthonous zikv infections have been confirmed in thailand. however, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from thailand. here we report seven cases of acute zikv infection in thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. these endemic cases, combined with previous reports in trav ...201526101272
bothaella manhi, a new species of tribe aedini (diptera: culicidae) from the cuc phuong national park of vietnam based on morphology and dna sequence.a new species of genus bothaella (diptera: culicidae) collected along with two other species of the genus during surveys for flavivirus isolations in the cuc phuong national park in northern vietnam is formally described and named as bothaella manhi, sp. n. the adults, pupa and fourth-instar larva are characterized, the male genitalia and the two immature stages are illustrated and dna sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the coi and coii genes (mtdna). the species is co ...023155353
an insight into the sialotranscriptome of the non-blood feeding toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquito.all adult mosquitoes take sugar meals, and most adult females also take blood meals to develop eggs. salivary glands (sg) of males are thus much smaller and do not contain many of the antihemostatic and antiinflammatory compounds found in females. in the past 5 years, transcriptome analyses have identified nearly 70 different genes expressed in adult female sg. for most of these, no function can be assigned in either blood or sugar feeding. exceptionally, toxorhynchites mosquitoes are unusual in ...200818405828
larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions.the incidence of malaria in the amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the amazon, representing >95% of total anopheles population present in the porto velho region. despite its importance in the transmission of the plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. studies regarding aspects of adul ...201222856645
surplus killing by predatory larvae of corethrella appendiculata: prepupal timing and site-specific attack on mosquito prey.surplus or 'wasteful' killing of uneaten prey has been documented in the fourth larval instar of various species of the mosquito genus toxorhynchites that occur in treeholes and other phytotelmata. here we document surplus killing by the predatory midge corethrella appendiculata, which in florida cohabits treeholes and artificial containers with larvae of toxorhynchites rutilus. provided with a surfeit of larval mosquito prey, surplus killing was observed only in the fourth instar of c. appendic ...019081802
risky behaviors: effects of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. we need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. this research examined prey choices by toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. the results show that tx. splendens prefers to consume ae. ...201526386041
midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito toxorhynchites theobaldi (diptera, culicidae).in most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. however, in toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. the midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. in the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural ...201526514271
hla class i supertype associations with clinical outcome of secondary dengue virus infections in ethnic thais.human leukocyte antigen (hla) supertypes are groups of functionally related alleles that present structurally similar antigens to the immune system.201525740956
frequent in-migration and highly focal transmission of dengue viruses among children in kamphaeng phet, thailand.revealing the patterns and determinants of the spread of dengue virus (denv) at local scales is central to understanding the epidemiology and evolution of this major human pathogen. we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (e) genes of denv-1, -2, -3, and -4 isolates (involving 97, 23, 5, and 74 newly collected sequences, respectively) sampled from school-based cohort and village-based cluster studies in kamphaeng phet, thailand, between 2004 and 2007. with these data, we sought to d ...201323350000
species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of dhaka, bangladesh.mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of dhaka in bangladesh during the month of may and june 2012. a total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, anopheles barbirostris, anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles vagus, cu ...201627241953
effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae), a predator of container breeding utilization by the larvae of toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of aedes aegypti linnaeus, anopheles stephensi (liston), and culex quinquefasciatus (say). quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. the regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (id) and food availability were higher when offered early instars of ...200516444422
screening of ten plant species for metaphase chromosome preparation in adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) using an inoculation technique.the screening of 10 plant species (aloe barbadensis mill., asparagus officinalis l., as. plumosus bak., as. racemosus willd., as. sprengeri regel, codyline fruticosa goppert, dracaena loureiri gagnep., gloriosa superba l., hemerocallis flava l., and sansevieria cylindrica bojer) for colchicine-like substance(s) using a mosquito cytogenetic assay revealed that a 1% solution of dried gl. superba rhizome extracted in 0.85% sodium chloride solution could be used instead of a 1% colchicine in hanks' ...199910593098
estimation of predation by the larvae of toxorhynchites splendens on the aquatic stages of aedes aegypti.predation by instars of toxorhynchites splendens on aquatic stages of aedes aegypti was studied by estimating functional response parameters such as attack rate (a') and handling time (th) in the laboratory. the predator displayed typical type-ii functional response, similar to that of most insect predators when presented with increasing densities of any given size class of prey. second instar predator attacked prey significantly at higher rate than the other instars. small prey were attacked at ...19989740296
toxicity of insecticides to toxorhynchites splendens and three vector mosquitos and their sublethal effect on biocontrol potential of the predator.toxicity of six larvicides ie fenthion, temephos, malathion, deltamethrin, alphamethrin (fendona), oms 3031 and five adulticides ie malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, deltamethrin, permethrin to aedes aegypti, culex quiquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi and the predator, toxorhynchites splendens was studied for evaluating safety margin. concentrations of alphamethrin that killed 50% larvae of t. splendens were 53 and 12 times more than that which killed cx. quinquefasciatus and ae. aegypti. in ca ...19969031419
time to death from starvation and compulsive killing by the larvae of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae).time to death from starvation and compulsive killing without eating of the prey by larvae of toxorhynchites splendens were studied in the laboratory. the first and second instars survived without food for 3 days while third and fourth instars survived for 7.8 and 14 days, respectively. when the corresponding instars of aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi or culex quinquefasciatus were offered, the number of prey killed but not eaten ranged from 0 to 15 per 40 prey larvae. compulsive killing of ae ...19947887340
cannibalism and carnivory in toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae).laboratory reared larvae of toxorhynchites splendens, which were previously starved for 24 hours, cannibalized eggs of their own kind or preyed upon the eggs of other species (aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi) present on the surface of water in small containers. second and third instars consumed eggs faster than first and fourth instars. the first instar consumed larvae of its own kind faster than the other instars, in the absence of other prey. however, when prey larvae were provided, ther ...19921362626
factors affecting oviposition site preference by toxorhynchites splendens in the a series of laboratory oviposition assays, gravid toxorhynchites splendens exhibited a preference for cups containing aedes aegypti larval rearing water, but not for cups containing liquid cultures of bacteria, live ae. aegypti in distilled water, ae. aegypti larval holding water with reduced bacterial contamination, or methyl propionate at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% in distilled water. preoviposition flight behavior was elicited by dark-colored containers, but few eggs were deposited if they containe ...19882903901
biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators toxorhynchites splendens and mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. in this study, silver nanoparticles (agnps) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. agnps were characterized by using uv–vis spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction, and scanning el ...201626499804
influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae) against dengue vector.toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, aedes albopictus. this study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of tx. splendens third instar larvae on ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. predation rate of tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. the experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (ti ...201424862057
permethrin resistance in aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) and associated fitness costs.insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. the selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae), originating from penang island, malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underly ...201323540125
field observation on the efficacy of toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) as a biocontrol agent against aedes albopictus (skuse) larvae in a cemetery.this study explored the efficacy of toxorhynchites splendens, predator of aedes albopictus as a biocontrol agent. there was a negative correlation between ae. albopictus larval population and tx. splendens larval population in ovitraps (r=-0.287, r²=0.0821). the correlation is higher between the mean number of ae. albopictus larvae per ovitrap and the number of tx. splendens larvae in an ovitrap (r=-0.987, r²=0.9737). larvae of tx. splendens were observed to co-exist with larvae of ae. albopictu ...201122041750
laboratory evaluation of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae) for predation of aedes albopictus mosquito larvae.biology of the mosquito toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory to provide baseline data for using the predatory larvae of this species against those of aedes albopictus (skuse) in a biological control programme. the mean incubation time of tx.splendens eggs was 43.8 h and the time required for newly-hatched larvae to initiate predation was 2.5 h. mean numbers of prey larvae consumed and killed by each tx.splendens larva totalled 389 and 345 respectively. the larval pe ...19921358270
entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in western and eastern ghats hill ranges of tamilnadu, india.the distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. the aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in tamilnadu, india. in addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between june, 2014 and may, 2015. six hills ranges viz., anaimalai hills, kodaikanal hi ...201627016014
predatory efficiency of the sewage drain inhabiting larvae of toxorhynchites splendens wiedemann on culex quinquefasciatus say and armigeres subalbatus (coquillett) larvae.the rate of predation by stage iv instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae on the equivalent instar stage larvae of culex quinquefasciatus and armigeres subalbatus, co-occurring in sewage drains, were noted for a period of three consecutive days in the laboratory using different prey densities and combinations. the rate of predation varied by age of the predator, density of prey, and prey type. the number of ar. subalbatus larvae consumed by a single tx. splendens larva ranged between 0.50 +/- 0.7 ...200718041295
dipterous haematophagous insects occurring in dehradun district and its adjoining areas in uttarakhand, india.haematophagous dipterans belonging to 10 genera - aedes (12), anopheles (14), armigeres (01), culex (09), toxorhynchites (01), uranotaenia (01), sergentomyia (02), phlebotomus (01), atylotus (01) and tabanus (03) were encountered from 12 localities under 6 blocks of dehradun district (uttarakhand) during january 2011 to december 2012. the culicines (50.69%) were more dominant than the anophelines (38.9%), toxorhynchites (1.72%), horse flies (6.63%) and sandflies (2.01%). the following species vi ...201324522130
toxicological effects of chemical constituents from piper against the environmental burden aedes aegypti liston and their impact on non-target toxicity evaluation against biomonitoring aquatic insects.dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. the mosquito, aedes aegypti, also spreads yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika virus. as the primary vector for dengue, ae. aegypti now occurs in over 20 countries and is a serious concern with reports of increasing insecticide resistance. developing new treatments to manage mosquitoes are needed. formulation of crude volatile oil from piper betle leaves (pb-cvo) was evaluated as a potential treatment which showed lar ...201728852982
development of an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from alangium salvifolium against the dengue vector aedes aegypti and its biosafety on the aquatic predator.plant extracts with their enriched chemical constituents have established potential alternative mosquito control agents. in this research, we developed an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from alangium salvifolium leaves against the dengue and zika virus vector aedes aegypti and we investigated its biosafety on the mosquito aquatic predator toxorhynchites splendens. results showed that the methanolic extract of a. salvifolium leaves was composed by eight main compounds, with major peak area for ...201728580548
toxicological effects of sphaeranthus indicus linn. (asteraceae) leaf essential oil against human disease vectors, culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti linn., and impacts on a beneficial mosquito predator.use of environmentally friendly, decomposable natural products for effective vector control has gained considerable momentum in modern society. in this study, essential oil of sphaeranthus indicus (si-eo) was extracted and further phytochemical screening revealed fourteen compounds with prominent peak area percentage of 24.9 and 22.54% in 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzene,2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,4-dimethoxy, respectively. the si-eo was further evaluated for their larvicidal res ...028455566
molecular typing and phylogeny of wolbachia: a study from assam, north-eastern part of india.wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, infecting 40-75% of arthropod species. knowledge on distribution of native strains infecting mosquito vectors from endemic regions is essential for successful implementation of vector control interventions utilizing potential strains of wolbachia. study identified various native strains of wolbachia inhabiting different mosquito species from field and colonised conditions of assam. the fly drosophila melanogaster was also incl ...201728939497
presence of a predator image in potential breeding sites and oviposition responses of a dengue dengue vector control, attempts to minimize or replace the use of pesticides have mostly involved use of predators, but success has been severely impeded by difficulties associated with financial and environmental costs, predator mass production, and persistence in target habitats. visual deterrents have been used successfully to control animal pests, in some cases in an effort to replace pesticide use. despite evidence that visual signals are crucial in site choice for egg deposition by deng ...201728865898
salivary gland of toxorhynchites splendens wiedemann (diptera: culicidae): ultrastructural morphology and electrophoretic protein profiles.the salivary glands of male and female toxorhynchites splendens have the same morphology, and they are paired organs lying on either side of the esophagus. each gland is composed of two identical tubular lobes, joined together at the end of the proximal region. in the gland, a salivary duct extends through the length of each lobe. the general cellular architecture of the salivary gland of this mosquito is unique. no secretory cavity was found in any cell, and the salivary materials are secreted ...200415311445
susceptibility of first instar toxorhynchites splendens to malathion, naled and resmethrin.acute toxicity tests were conducted to measure the response of first instar toxorhynchites splendens to commonly used mosquito adulticides: malathion, naled and resmethrin. the concentrations of pesticide causing 50% mortality (lc50) after 24 h was 2.87, 69.1 and 623 ppb for resmethrin, malathion and naled, respectively. naled was determined to be the least toxic of the 3 compounds tested for integrated use with tx. splendens. the latter assessments were based on comparisons between laboratory-d ...19938096872
a new mutant, white larva, of the mosquito toxorhynchites splendens: genetics and cannibalism.a strain of a new body-color mutant, white larva (wl), was established from a field-collected wild-type strain of toxorhynchites splendens. the mutant can be distinguished from the wild type in both the larval and pupal stages, but not in the adult. crossing experiments confirmed its mode of inheritance to be a single recessive system. this is the first visible mutant found in tx. splendens. larvae of the wl phenotype seem to be recognized as prey by other individuals in mass larvae rearing.19901977878
endurance to starvation by the immatures of toxorhynchites splendens.studies on the endurance to starvation by the immatures of t. splendens showed that the iii instar larvae survived longer than the i and ii instar larvae. the iv instar larvae even in the absence of food pupated and emerged into adults. the irregular supply of food did not affect the perpetuation of the predator in the habitat.19901975803
the biology of toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) (diptera: culicidae) and its potentiality as a biological control agent to other mosquitoes. 19883245830
field release of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera; culicidae) in controlling container breeding mosquitoes in a coastal village. 19836874015
the development of filarial worms in toxorhynchites splendens. 19826128796
biology of the predator mosquito, toxorhynchites splendens (wiedemann) (diptera : culicidae). 19816118326
multiple phosphoglucomutase alleles in toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culcidae).multiple phosphoglucomutase (e.c. alleles are found in the mosquito toxorhynchites splendens. the sample studied reveals 3 pgm alleles whose frequencies are in good accord with hardy-weinberg expectations. the most frequent allele is that controlling a phenotype with an intermediate electrophoretic mobility. each pgm allele determines a two-band electrophoretic pattern.19806106557
target and non-target botanical pesticides effect of trichodesma indicum (linn) r. br. and their chemical derivatives against the dengue vector, aedes aegypti l.the effects of crude ethanol derived leaf extract trichodesma indicum (linn) (ex-ti) and their chief derivatives were accessed on the survival and development of the dengue mosquito ae. aegypti also their non-toxic activity against mosquito predator. t. indicum is recognized to be the vital weed plant and a promising herb in the traditional ayurvedic medicine. in this study, the gc-ms chromatogram of ex-ti showed higher peak area percentage for cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (21.83%) followed by cycl ...201930977009
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