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chemical and canine analysis as complimentary techniques for the identification of active odors of the invasive fungus, raffaelea lauricola.raffaelea lauricola, a fungus causing a vascular wilt (laurel wilt) in lauraceae trees, was introduced into the united states in the early 2000s. it has devastated forests in the southeast and has now moved into the commercial avocado groves in southern florida. trained detection canines are currently one of the few successful methods for early detection of pre-symptomatic diseased trees. in order to achieve the universal and frequent training required to have successful detection canines, it is ...201728391862
the fungus raffaelea lauricola modifies behavior of its symbiont and vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (xyleborus glabratus), by altering host plant volatile production.the redbay ambrosia beetle xyleborus glabratus is the vector of the symbiotic fungus, raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt, a highly lethal disease to members of the lauraceae family. pioneer x. glabratus beetles infect live trees with r. lauricola, and only when tree health starts declining more x. glabratus are attracted to the infected tree. until now this sequence of events was not well understood. in this study, we investigated the temporal patterns of host volatiles and phytohormone ...201728455797
flight capacities and diurnal flight patterns of the ambrosia beetles, xyleborus glabratus and monarthrum mali (coleoptera: curculionidae).we compared the flight activity of xyleborus glabratus eichhoff, vector and symbiont of the causal agent of laurel wilt disease (raffaelea lauricola), with a native species monarthrum mali (fitch) using flight mills. flight mills were operated either for 24 h or for three 3-h time intervals. during the 3-h interval experiment, the shortest time to flight initiation for x. glabratus occurred at 1600-1900 hours. the average flight time and total flying distance during 1600-2100 hours were also hig ...201728459955
evaluation of lure combinations containing essential oils and volatile spiroketals for detection of host-seeking xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).the invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus eichhoff (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae), vectors the fungal pathogen (raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a disease responsible for widespread mortality of trees in the lauraceae in the southeastern united states. early detection of incipient vector populations may allow for management practices that could successfully mitigate damage. developing new, highly effective attractants is a priority for improving sensitivity o ...201728575468
isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, raffaelea lauricola, originated in asia.the laurel wilt pathogen raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern usa in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus, which is native to asia. to test this hypothesis adult x. glabratus were trapped in taiwan and on kyushu island, japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to usa for isolation of fungal symbionts. individual x. glabratus were macerated in glass tissue grinders, and the slurry was serially diluted and plated onto malt a ...201121471288
the scent of a partner: ambrosia beetles are attracted to volatiles from their fungal symbionts.invasive fungus-growing ambrosia beetles are an emerging threat to forest ecosystems and fruit industries, but management tools are lacking. here we explored the potential of beetle symbionts-ambrosia fungi-as a source of attractants. our focus was the redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus, and its symbiotic fungus, raffaelea lauricola, which are devastating lauraceous hosts in the southeastern united states. we also tested three additional co-occurring beetle species and their symbionts. ...201122161224
temporal analysis of sesquiterpene emissions from manuka and phoebe oil lures and efficacy for attraction of xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt. laurel wilt has had severe impact on forest ecosystems in the southeastern united states, killing a large proportion of native persea trees, particularly redbay (p. borbonia) and swampbay (p. palustris), and currently poses an economic threat to avocado (p. americana) in florida. to control the spread of this lethal disease, effective attr ...201222606839
evaluation of screen barriers on redbay trees to protect them from xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae) and distribution of initial attacks in relation to stem moisture content, diameter, and height.fine mesh screen was used to create a physical barrier to prevent redbay ambrosia beetles, xyleborus glabratus eichhoff (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae), from accessing various parts of the boles of redbay trees, persea borbonia (l.) sprengel, and infecting them with the laurel wilt fungus, raffaelea lauricola (t.c. harrington, fraedrich, & aghayeva). screen barriers prevented beetles from attacking boles of mature redbay trees from the ground to 1 or to 3 m and from 1 to 3 m above ground ...201324020283
effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.significant mortality ofredbay trees (persea borbonia (l.) spreng.) in the southeastern united states has been caused by raffaelea lauricola, t.c. harr., fraedrich, & aghayeva (harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus, eichhoff (fraedrich et al. 2008). this pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. r. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species ...201324224251
north american lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).the invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. this lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (persea borbonia) and swampbay (p. palustris) trees in the southeastern usa, threatens avocado (p. americana) production in florida, and has potential to impact additional new world species. to date, all north american hosts of x. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are member ...201425007073
phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus raffaelea.the genus raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of platypus ambrosia beetles was described. since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens raffaelea quercivora, raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of japanese and korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. the discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of raffaelea to new a ...201425457944
impact of laurel wilt, caused by raffaelea lauricola, on leaf gas exchange and xylem sap flow in avocado, persea americana.laurel wilt, caused by raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (persea americana). the susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. in the present study, net co2 assimilation (a), stomatal conductance of h2o (gs), transpiration (e), water use efficiency (wue), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. after artificial inoculation with r. ...201525496301
cubeb oil lures: terpenoid emissions, trapping efficacy, and longevity for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus eichhoff, is an exotic wood borer and the primary vector of raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. this lethal disease has decimated native redbay [persea borbonia (l.) sprengel] and swampbay [persea palustris (rafinesque) sargent] throughout southeastern u.s. forests, and currently threatens avocado (persea americana miller) in florida. to curtail the spread of laurel wilt, effective attractants are needed for early detection ...201526470139
geographic variation in mycangial communities of xyleborus glabratus.factors that influence fungal communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia are poorly understood. the beetle that is responsible for spreading laurel wilt in se usa, xyleborus glabratrus, was examined at three sites along a 500 km n-s transect in florida, each populated by host trees in the lauraceae. fungal phenotypes were quantified in mycangia of individual females that were collected from a site in miami-dade county (mdc), 25.8n, with swamp bay (persea palustris), one in highlands county (hc), 27 ...201627055571
comparing avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree as hosts of raffaelea lauricola using a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-labeled strain of the pathogen.raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the lauraceae plant family. north american species in the family, such as avocado (persea americana) and swamp bay (p. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the asian camphortree (cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. to determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of r. lauricola ...201727602540
efficacy of α-copaene, cubeb, and eucalyptol lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus eichhoff, is a wood-boring pest that has now invaded nine states in the southeastern united states. the beetle's dominant fungal symbiont (raffaelea lauricola) is phytopathogenic, inducing laurel wilt in trees within the family lauraceae. members of the genus persea are particularly susceptible to the lethal disease, including native redbay (p. borbonia) and swampbay (p. palustris), as well as commercial avocado (p. americana). cubeb oil lures are the ...201627986939
presence and prevalence of raffaelea lauricola, cause of laurel wilt, in different species of ambrosia beetle in florida, usa.we summarize the information available on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in florida with raffaelea lauricola t.c. harr., fraedrich & aghayeva, the primary symbiont of xyleborus glabratus eichhoff and cause of laurel wilt. in total, 14 species in ambrosiodmus, euwallacea, premnobius, xyleborus, xyleborinus, and xylosandrus were either reared from laurel wilt-affected host trees or trapped in laurel wilt-affected stands of the same, and assayed for r. lauricola in six collection ...201728073980
chemotyping the temporal volatile organic compounds of an invasive fungus to the united states, raffaelea lauricola.volatile organic compounds (vocs) in the headspace of the fungus raffaelea lauricola have been monitored and identified over a twenty-eight day growth period. r. lauricola is an invasive and phytopathogenic fungus that was first identified in the united states in the mid-2000s. it is believed to be spread by a host beetle, xyleborus glabratus, and is detrimental both to wild members of the lauraceae family and to commercial avocado groves particularly in the southeastern region of the country. t ...201728143663
quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus.the laurel wilt pathogen, raffaelea lauricola, is a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, xyleborus glabratus, which is native to asia and was believed to have brought r. lauricola with it to the southeastern united states. individual x. glabratus beetles from six populations in south carolina and georgia were individually macerated in glass tissue grinders and serially diluted to quantify the cfu of fungal symbionts. six species of raffaelea were isolated, with up to four species from ...201020839947
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