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evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. iii. growth pattern and antibiotic production in soil by aspergillus versicolor.soil supports the growth of a jute pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides but only to a limited extent that of its antagonist aspergillus versicolor. the growth of the sensitive pathogen is considerably checked by the antagonist in mixed soil culture although versicolin production could not be demonstrated within the limits of assay. both the sensitive and the antagonistic organisms grow well in soil-compost medium and versicolin production by the latter is also enhanced. the antagonistic effec ...1977863784
evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. i. antifungal spectrum and phytotoxicity.two antifungal antibiotics, mycobacillin and versicolin, were studied as agricultural fungicides in the control of fungal infection of rice and jute. mycobacillin is especially active against piricularia oryzae at a concentration of 10 mug/ml, and versicolin against colletotrichum gloeosporioides at a concentration of 2.5 mug/ml. mycobacillin has no adverse effect on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of rice and jute plants as a concentration of 500ppm, even for prolonged exposure. (2 ...19751206010
cloning and molecular characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and cdna from the plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata.the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpda) has been identified from a genomic dna library prepared from the plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata. nucleotide sequence data revealed that this gene codes for a putative 338-amino-acid protein encoded by two exons of 129 and 885 bp, separated by an intron 216 bp long. the 5' leader sequence is also spliced by an intron of 156 bp. a cdna clone was prepared using the polymerase chain reaction, the sequence of which was used to con ...19921452034
cloning and analysis of cut1, a cutinase gene from magnaporthe grisea.a gene from magnaporthe grisea was cloned using a cdna clone of the colletotrichum gloeosporioides cutinase gene as a heterologous probe; the nucleotide sequence of a 2 kb dna segment containing the gene has been determined. dna hybridization analysis shows that the m. grisea genome contains only one copy of this gene. the predicted polypeptide contains 228 amino acids and is homologous to the three previously characterized cutinases, showing 74% amino acid similarity to the cutinase of c. gloeo ...19921557023
antitumour and immunological activity of a beta 1----3/1----6 glucan from glomerella cingulata.the in vivo antitumour activity of a beta 1----3/1----6 glucan from the fungus glomerella cingulata was investigated in vivo. the glucan exhibited a strong inhibition of tumour growth of the allogeneic sarcoma-180 as well as the syngeneic dba/2-mc.sc-1 fibrosarcoma with inhibition ratios up to 100%. against the hormone sensitive noble-nb-r prostate carcinoma the glucan alone showed a moderate antitumour effect, whereas in combination with diethylstilbestrol an almost complete regression of the t ...19921735734
structural investigations of glucans from cultures of glomerella cingulata spaulding & von schrenck.methylation analysis, enzymic digestion, n.m.r. spectroscopy, and smith degradation showed that the major extracellular polysaccharide, isolated from cultures of the fungus glomerella cingulata, was a (1----3)-beta-d-glucan with side chains of 1-4 (1----3)-linked beta-d-glucose residues attached to position 6. a (1----6)-beta-d-glucan was produced by the fungus in small proportions. treatment of the (1----3,1----6)-beta-d-glucan (890,315) with greater than 0.05m naoh at greater than 150 degrees, ...19911797397
changes in nutritional value of guava fruits infected by major post-harvest pathogens.post-infection changes in ascorbic acid, sugars, proteins and phenols were studied in guava fruits infected by major post-harvest pathogens which in order of importance were colletotrichum gloeosporioides, (penz.), botryodiplodia theobromae, pat., rhizopus arrhizus fischer., phomopsis psidii nag raj and ponnappa apud ponnappa and nag raj, and pestalotiopsis versicolor (speg.) steyaert. contents of ascorbic acid, sugars and proteins declined in the fruits infected by botryodiplodia theobromae, co ...19892631087
selectable genes for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (colletotrichum lindemuthianum).glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (gcp) was transformed using either of two selectable markers: the amds + gene of aspergillus nidulans, which encodes acetamidase and permits growth on acetamide as the sole nitrogen source and the hygbr gene of escherichia coli which encodes hygromycin b (hy) phosphotransferase and permits growth in the presence of the antibiotic hy. the amds+ gene functioned in gcp under control of a. nidulans regulatory signals and hygbr was expressed after fusion to a prom ...19873038698
radiation induced biochemical mutation in colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz. causing anthracnose of guava (psidium guajava l). 19734763736
a self-inhibitor of protein synthesis in the conidia of glomerella cingulata. 19734778924
the utilization in vitro of different avocado fruit constituents by colletotrichum gloeosporioides. 19725042611
[demonstration of heterokaryosis in colletotrichum gloeosporioides penzig with the use of auxotrophic mutants]. 19685757172
role of auto-inhibitors on mycelial growth and dimorphism of glomerella cingulata. 19695787002
nutritional studies on colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz. 19655876681
effects of nutrients on self-inhibition of germination of conidia of glomerella cingulata. 19655884162
the nature of self-inhibition of germination of conidia of glomerella cingulata. 19665953828
[heterocaryosis in colletotrichum gloeosporioides penzig]. 19665989298
[studies on the variability of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penzig in conjunction with heterokaryosis. 1. morphological variability of c. gloeosporioides penz]. 19676072920
[studies on the variability of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penzig in conjunction with heterokaryosis. 2. cytologyical bases of heterokaryosis]. 19676072921
[studies on the variability of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penzig in conjunction with heterokaryosis. 3. experiments on the demonstration of heterokaryosis]. 19676072922
production of the phytotoxic metabolite, ferricrocin, by the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a siderophore was isolated as a non-specific phytotoxic compound from a culture of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from infected blackberry. this siderophore was identified as ferricrocin by nmr, ir, ms, and cd spectra. the phytotoxic activities of ferricrocin and deferriferricrocin were compared.19957765958
gene inactivation in the plant pathogen glomerella cingulata: three strategies for the disruption of the pectin lyase gene pnla.the feasibility of performing routine transformation-mediated mutagenesis in glomerella cingulata was analysed by adopting three one-step gene disruption strategies targeted at the pectin lyase gene pnla. the efficiencies of disruption following transformation with gene replacement- or gene truncation-disruption vectors were compared. to effect replacement-disruption, g. cingulata was transformed with a vector carrying dna from the pnla locus in which the majority of the coding sequence had been ...19957862090
integration of vectors by homologous recombination in the plant pathogen glomerella cingulata.an homologous transformation system has been developed for the plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata (colletotrichum gloeosporioides). a transformation vector containing the g. cingulata gpda promoter fused to the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene was constructed. southern analyses indicated that this vector integrated at single sites in most transformants. a novel method of pcr amplification across the recombination junction point indicated that the integration event occurred by homolog ...19947923405
isolation, characterization, and expression of a second beta-tubulin-encoding gene from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene is a fungal plant pathogen of aeschynomene virginica. a beta-tubulin-encoding gene (tub2) from this pathogen was cloned and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequence of tub2 had a high degree of homology to other fungal beta-tubulins. a portion of tub2 from a benomyl-resistant c. gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene mutant was also cloned and sequenced. a point mutation resulting in a glutamic acid-to-lysine substitution at amino acid 198 likely ...19947993097
a strain-specific cyclin homolog in the fungal phytopathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which infects the tropical pasture legume, stylosanthes guianensis, contains highly variable mini-chromosomes. the transcription of strain-specific genomic dna clones previously isolated from one variable mini-chromosome was investigated by using these clones to screen a cdna library prepared from the fungus grown in liquid medium. a cdna clone was obtained with one of the genomic clones and was sequenced. a single long open reading frame of 259 amino ...19938224888
isolation and characterization of a beta-tubulin-encoding gene from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene (c.g.a.) is a fungal pathogen of legumes and is used as a commercial mycoherbicide for rice and soybeans. as an initial study to potentially improve the utility of this fungus and develop a gene transfer system, a beta-tubulin (beta tub)-encoding gene (tub1) was isolated, cloned and sequenced. the coding sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the c.g.a. tub1 gene was highly homologous to the tub1 gene of colletotrichum graminicola. southern ...19938440473
lupinus albus l. pathogenesis-related proteins that show similarity to pr-10 proteins.we describe a group of three acidic proteins, pathogenesis-related (pr)-p16.5a, pr-p16.5b, and pr-p16.5c, that accumulate in the leaves of lupinus albus l. cv rio maior plants when infected with the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz. these proteins co-migrate in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a single band of 16.5 kd, behaving as charge isomers, and are related to several members of the defense-related pr-10 protein family. localization of the proteins was investigated by ...19958539294
cloning and characterisation of glutamine synthetase from colletotrichum gloeosporioides and demonstration of elevated expression during pathogenesis on stylosanthes guianensis.experiments were designed to clone and identify genes of the fungal phytopathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides expressed at high levels during growth on the compatible host stylosanthes guianensis when compared with expression in axenic culture. a cdna clone (pcggs) that hybridised preferentially to a cdna probe prepared from infected leaves was isolated by the differential screening of a cdna library from a nitrogen-starved axenic culture of c. gloeosporioides. the dna sequence of pcggs is hi ...19979162117
oxidation of the phytoalexin maackiain to 6,6-dihydroxy-maackiain by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.phytoalexins are low molecular weight antibiotic compounds produced by plants in response to infection by microbes. these antimicrobial compounds are thought to provide resistance to microbial invasion and colonization. (-)maackiain and its pterocarpan relatives can be oxidized at a number of sites, including at the 6 carbon. a previously unknown metabolite was produced for (-)maackiain by the broad host-range pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides (glomerella cingulata). this unknown was ident ...19979214775
purification and antifungal activity of a basic 34 kda beta-1,3-glucanase from soybean hypocotyls inoculated with phytophthora sojae f. sp. glycines.inoculation of soybean (glycine max l. cv. jangyup) hypocotyls with phytophthora sojae f. sp. glycines results in a marked accumulation of some pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins. a basic beta-1,3-glucanase (34 kda) was purified from soybean hypocotyls infected by an incompatible race of p. sojae f. sp. glycines using cm-cellulose cation exchange chromatography and bio-gel p-60 gel filtration. the purified soybean beta-1,3-glucanase cross-reacted with polyclonal antibody raised against a tomato ...19979264030
transfer of an autonomously replicating vector between vegetatively incompatible biotypes of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.previous research has indicated that biotypes a and b of collectotrichum gloeosporioides that infect stylosanthes spp. in australia are asexual and vegetatively incompatible. selectable marker genes conferring resistance either to hygromycin or phleomycin were introduced into isolates of these biotypes. vectors conferring resistance to hygromycin and carrying telomeric sequences from fusarium oxysporum replicated autonomously in c. gloesoporioides and gave frequencies of transformation 100-times ...19979309172
subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the coelomycete colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated in pure culture from subcutaneous nodules of the left forearm and elbow of a farmer after traumatic injury. to our knowledge, we report the first case involving this fungus as an etiological agent of subcutaneous infection. the in vitro inhibitory activities of amphotericin b, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, flucytosine, and fluconazole were studied.19989738070
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of filamentous fungi.agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers part of its ti plasmid, the t-dna, to plant cells during tumorigenesis. it is routinely used for the genetic modification of a wide range of plant species. we report that a. tumefaciens can also transfer its t-dna efficiently to the filamentous fungus aspergillus awamori, demonstrating dna transfer between a prokaryote and a filamentous fungus. we transformed both protoplasts and conidia with frequencies that were improved up to 600-fold as compared with conve ...19989743116
indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomenewe characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. auxin production was tryptophan dependent. compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture.19989835603
mating system of the filamentous ascomycete, glomerella cingulata.mating in heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes is typically controlled by a single mating-type locus with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs. in this study, five self-sterile strains of glomerella cingulata from pecan were crossed in all possible combinations. four of the five strains could be placed into two mating-type groups, but the fifth strain was sexually compatible with all of the other strains. single ascospore progeny were isolated from each of the successful crosses, tested for self ...199910079331
early expression of the calmodulin gene, which precedes appressorium formation in magnaporthe grisea, is inhibited by self-inhibitors and requires surface attachment.fungal conidia contain chemicals that inhibit germination and appressorium formation until they are well dispersed in a favorable environment. recently, such self-inhibitors were found to be present on the conidia of magnaporthe grisea, and plant surface waxes were found to relieve this self-inhibition. to determine whether the self-inhibitors suppress the expression of early genes involved in the germination and differentiation of conidia, the calmodulin gene was chosen as a representative earl ...199910348871
a peroxidase gene promoter induced by phytopathogens and methyl jasmonate in transgenic plants.the expression of two closely related peroxidase isogenes, shpx6a and shpx6b, of the legume stylosanthes humilis was studied using isogene-specific reverse transcriptase pcr techniques. results indicated that transcripts of both genes were rapidly induced following inoculation with the fungal pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides, wounding and treatment with the defense regulator methyl jasmonate (meja). in contrast treatment of leaves of s. humilis with abscisic acid (aba) and salicylic acid ...19979100378
a cytochrome p450 gene is differentially expressed in compatible and incompatible interactions between pepper (capsicum annuum) and the anthracnose fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the anthracnose fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, was previously shown to have an incompatible interaction with ripe-red fruit of pepper (capsicum annuum). however, the fungus had a compatible interaction with unripe-mature-green fruit. using mrna differential display, we isolated and characterized a pepcyp gene expressed in the incompatible interaction. the pepcyp gene encodes a protein homologous to cytochrome p450 proteins containing a heme-binding domain. the expression level of pepcyp ...199910624013
a comparison of the pectate lyase genes, pel-1 and pel-2, of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae and the relationship between their expression in culture and during necrotrophic infection.extracellular pectic lyase and polygalacturonase activities of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae were detected in broths containing mallow cell wall extract, pectin or glucose as the carbon source. the initial ph of the broth as well as the carbon source had major influences on pectinase enzyme activities. in the host, only pectic lyase activity was detected, which began at the end of the biotrophic phase and increased in the necrotrophic phase of infection. two full-length pectate lya ...200010675622
ph regulation of pectate lyase secretion modulates the attack of colletotrichum gloeosporioides on avocado fruits.growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in pectolytic enzyme-inducing medium (peim) increased the ph of the medium from 3. 8 to 6.5. pectate lyase (pl) secretion was detected when the ph reached 5.8, and the level of secretion increased up to ph 6.5. pl gene (pel) transcript production began at ph 5.0 and increased up to ph 5.7. pl secretion was never detected when the ph of the inducing medium was lower than 5.8 or when c. gloeosporioides hyphae were transferred from pl-secreting conditions at ...200010698767
evidence for mating between isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides with different host specificities.individual isolates of the ubiquitous plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides (teleomorph glomerella cingulata) can have very restricted host ranges. isolates that share the same host range are considered to be genetically discrete units, and sexual compatibility has been reported to be limited to individuals that share the same host range. however, we have recently observed that some isolates of c. gloeosporioides that are specifically pathogenic to different, distantly-related hosts are ...19947915968
isolation and characterization of genes expressed uniquely during appressorium formation by colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia induced by the host surface wax.appressorium formation in germinating colletotrichum gloeosporioides is induced by the surface wax of the host, the avocado fruit. to elucidate the mechanism by which differentiation of appressorium formation is induced, the fungal genes specifically activated by this host signal were sought. from a cdna library of the transcripts present in appressorium-forming conidia, the clones representing nongerminating conidia were removed by hybridization with cdnas synthesized from the nongerminating co ...19957770033
expression of pectate lyase from colletotrichum gloesosporioides in c. magna promotes pathogenicity.to test the contribution of pectate lyase (pl) to promoting fungal pathogenicity, a pectate lyase gene (pel) from the avocado pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolate cg-14, was expressed in c. magna isolate l-2.5, a pathogen of cucurbits that causes minor symptoms in watermelon seedlings and avocado fruits. isolate l-2.5 was transformed with ppcph-1 containing hph-b as a selectable marker and the 4.1-kb genomic pel clone. southern hybridization, with the 4.1-kb genomic pel clone or 2.13 ...200010939261
cloning of a gene expressed during appressorium formation by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and a marked decrease in virulence by disruption of this gene.appressorium formation in germinating colletotrichum gloeosporioides is induced by the surface wax of its host. one of the genes expressed uniquely in c. gloeosporioides during appressorium formation induced by the host signal has been designated cap20, and this gene and its cdna were cloned and sequenced. nucleotide sequences of both revealed an open reading frame that could encode a 183-amino acid polypeptide that did not have significant homology with any known proteins. reverse transcriptase ...19957756829
differential expression of peroxidase isogenes during the early stages of infection of the tropical forage legume stylosanthes humilis by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.infection of stylosanthes humilis by the fungal phytopathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides is associated with an increase in peroxidase enzyme activity within 24 h postinoculation. peroxidase gene expression was investigated as a first step towards understanding the regulation and functional importance of this host response to fungal attack. four distinct cdnas shpx 2, 5, 6, and 12, isolated from a cdna library of s. humilis contained deduced amino acid (aa) sequence motifs characteristic of p ...19957655062
cgdn3: an essential pathogenicity gene of colletotrichum gloeosporioides necessary to avert a hypersensitive-like response in the host stylosanthes guianensis.a gene of colletotrichum gloeosporioides that is induced by nitrogen starvation in axenic culture and is expressed at the early stages of infection of the host stylosanthes guianensis has been identified and its role in pathogenicity tested. the sequence of this gene, named cgdn3, indicated that it encodes a protein of 74 amino acids that contains a predicted 18 amino acid signal sequence for secretion of a basic 54 amino acid mature protein with weak homology to an internal region of plant wall ...200010975650
nuclear staining of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae conidia with fluorescent and nonfluorescent stains.six different staining techniques were evaluated for their suitability to stain nuclei of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae (c.g.m.) spores. of the three fluorescent stains, dapi (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and bisbenzimide (hoechst 33258) stained spore nuclei well; mithramycin did not. to achieve consistent results with the bisbenzimide staining protocol, the spores had to be fixed prior to staining and the stain had to be supplemented with triton x-100. both safranin o and giems ...19911716160
detection and differentiation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates using pcr.an oligonucleotide primer (cgint), synthesised from the variable internally transcribed spacer (its) 1 region of ribosomal dna (rdna) of collectotrichum gloeosporioides was used for pcr with primer its4 (from a conserved sequence of the rdna) to amplify a 450-bp fragment from the 25 c. gloeosporioides isolates tested. this specific fragment was amplified from as little as 10 fg of fungal dna. a similar sized fragment was amplified from dna extracted from c. gloeosporioides-infected tomato tissue ...19921459401
the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 in the presence of penicillium expansum and glomerella cingulata in wounds on apple surfaces.the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 in the presence of one of two plant pathogens, penicillium expansum and glomerella cingulata, in wounds on apples was observed during 14 days storage at room temperature (rt) and at 4 degrees c. the aim of this work was to determine if changes in apple physiology caused by the proliferation of fungal decay organisms would foster the survival of e. coli o157:h7. trials were performed where (a) plant pathogens (4 log10 spores) were added to apple wounds 4 d ...200011131883
[fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].one hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased paeonia albiflora pall. var. trichocarpa bung., astragalus membranaceus bung., lithospermum erythrorhizon sieb. et zucc., ledebouriella seseloides wolff and bupleurum falcatum l. which were collected in the test field of tsukuba medicinal plant research station, national institute of hygienic sciences. most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants ...19921364438
ileumycin, a new antibiotic against glomerella cingulata.a new antifungal antibiotic, named ileumycin, was isolated from culture broth of streptomyces h 698-sy2, which was identified as s. lavendulae. the antibiotic was recovered from the culture filtrate by adsorption on amberlite xad-ii and elution with aqueous methanol and was further purified by ion-exchange column chromatography on se-cellulose and followed by partition chromatography on silica gel. the antibiotic was named ileumycin, because isoleucine was detected in the acid hydrolyzate of the ...1978632221
coexpression of a defensin gene and a thionin-like via different signal transduction pathways in pepper and colletotrichum gloeosporioides interactions.the anthracnose fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, interacts incompatibly with the ripe fruit of pepper (capsicum annuum). it interacts compatibly with the unripe-mature fruit. we isolated a defensin gene, jl-l, and a thionin-like gene, pepthi, expressed in the incompatible interaction by using an mrna differential display method. both genes were developmentally regulated during fruit ripening, organ-specifically regulated, and differentially induced during the compatible and incompatible i ...199910598099
cloning, sequence and expression of the pel gene from an amycolata sp.the pel gene from an amycolata sp. encoding a pectate lyase (ec 4.2.2.2) was isolated by activity screening a genomic dna library in streptomyces lividans tk24. subsequent subcloning and sequencing of a 2.3 kb bamhi bglii fragment revealed an open reading frame of 930 nt corresponding to a protein of 29,660 da. the overall g + c content for the coding region was 65%, with a strong g + c preference in the third (wobble) codon position (93%). a putative ribosome-binding site 5'-gggag-3' preceded t ...19979427544
variability and interactions between endophytic bacteria and fungi isolated from leaf tissues of citrus rootstocks.fungi and bacteria were isolated from surface disinfected leaf tissues of several citrus rootstocks. the principal bacterial species isolated were alcaligenes sp., bacillus spp. (including b. cereus, b. lentus, b. megaterium, b. pumilus, and b. subtilis), burkholderia cepacia, curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, enterobacter cloacae, methylobacterium extorquens, and pantoea agglomerans, with p. agglomerans and b. pumilus being the most frequently isolated species. the most abundant fungal species wer ...200111315114
enzymatic properties of the highly thermophilic and alkaline pectate lyase pel-4b from alkaliphilic bacillus sp. strain p-4-n and the entire nucleotide and amino acid sequences.we cloned two genes for alkaline pectate lyase, pel-4a and pel-4b, from alkaline pectinase-producing alkaliphilic bacillus sp. strain p-4-n. the pel-4b gene product pel-4b was purified to homogeneity and characterized. the purified enzyme had an isoelectric point of ph 9.6 and a molecular mass of 35 kda, values close to those of the pel-4a gene product pel-4a. the ph and temperature optima for activity were as high as 11.5 and 70 degrees c, respectively, which are the highest among the pectate l ...200111354456
the lupinus albus class-iii chitinase gene, if3, is constitutively expressed in vegetative organs and developing seeds.a cdna fragment encoding a lupinus albus. l. class-iii chitinase, if3, was isolated, using a cdna probe from cucumis sativus l., by in-situ plaque hybridization from a cdna library constructed in the uni-zap xr vector, with mrnas isolated from mature lupin leaves. the cdna had a coding sequence of 293 amino acids including a 27-residue n-terminal signal peptide. a class-iii chitinase gene was detected by southern analysis in the l. albus genome. western blotting experiments showed that the if3 p ...200010787047
sensitivity of mango anthracnose pathogen, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, to the fungicide prochloraz in taiwan.in order to monitor the sensitivity of the mango anthracnose fungus, colletotricthum gloeosporioides, to the eradicative imidazole fungicide prochloraz, a total of 43 mango orchards were surveyed throughout the tainan area, covering a 4000 ha region of mango plantations. these orchards were recognized as having undergone higher prochloraz application. a subpopulation, 55 isolates in total, collected from wufeng, taichung, served as a baseline population since no fungicide was ever used in this m ...200111480773
cgt1: a non-ltr retrotransposon with restricted distribution in the fungal phytopathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.two genetically distinct biotypes (a and b) of colletotrichum gloeosporioides that cause different anthracnose diseases on the legumes stylosanthes spp. have been identified in australia. a dna sequence that was present in biotype b and absent in biotype a was isolated by differential hybridisation of a genomic library using total genomic dna of each biotype as hybridisation probes. this sequence also failed to hybridise to dna of three biotypes of c. gloeosporioides from other host species and ...19968842152
a catalase gene of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae is highly expressed during the necrotrophic phase of infection of round-leaved mallow, malva pusilla.a small-subunit peroxisomal catalase gene, cgcat1, was cloned from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a hemibiotrophic pathogen of round-leaved mallow (malva pusilla). when compared to the expression of an actin gene of the fungus, a much lower level of expression of cgcat1 was detected in the biotrophic phase than in the subsequent necrotrophic phase of infection. in culture, cgcat1was expressed at higher levels when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. changes in cgcat1 expression during i ...200111506915
phytotoxic and fungitoxic activities of the essential oil of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus l.) leaves and its composition.the chemical composition of the essential oil of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus) was examined by gc-ms. fifty-eight components were characterized from h. cannabinus with (e)-phytol (28.16%), (z)-phytol (8.02%), n-nonanal (5.70%), benzene acetaldehyde (4.39%), (e)-2-hexenal (3.10%), and 5-methylfurfural (3.00%) as the major constituents. the oil was phytotoxic to lettuce and bentgrass and had antifungal activity against colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum accu ...200111513663
biological stereoselective reduction of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone by glomerella cingulata.the microbial transformation of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone was investigated using the plant pathogenic fungus, glomerella cingulata. with this organism 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone gave the corresponding cis- and trans-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanols with the ratio of 20:1 forming the cis-isomer highly stereoselectively, upon 5 days incubation together with 3,3,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (isophrone) as a minor product.200111547426
local modulation of host ph by colletotrichum species as a mechanism to increase virulence.the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides produces one pectate lyase (pl) that is a key virulence factor in disease development. during growth of c. gloeosporioides, colletotrichum acutatum, and colletotrichum coccodes in acidified yeast extract medium, the fungus secreted ammonia and increased the medium ph. ammonia accumulation and the consequent ph change increased as a function of initial ph and buffer capacity of the medium. pl secretion by c. gloeosporioides correspondingly ...200111551075
the pectin lyase-encoding gene (pnl) family from glomerella cingulata: characterization of pnla and its expression in yeast.oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers were designed from conserved amino acid (aa) sequences between pectin lyase d (pnld) from aspergillus niger and pectate lyases a and e (pela/e) from erwinia chrysanthemi. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used with these primers to amplify genomic dna from the plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata. three different 220-bp fragments with homology to pnl-encoding genes from a. niger, and a 320-bp fragment with homology to pel-encoding genes from nicotia ...19948181749
purification of pectate lyase produced by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its inhibition by epicatechin: a possible factor involved in the resistance of unripe avocado fruits to anthracnose.pectate lyase (pl) from colletotrichum gloeosporioides was purified to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction chromatography followed by isoelectric focusing. the purified preparation showed one band corresponding to 40 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. the isoelectric point of the enzyme was 7.9, and the optimum ph for activity was 8.9. the purified pl efficiently macerated unripe avocado fruit wedges. in vitro translation of mrna from an induced fungal culture revealed ...19948012046
clinical and experimental keratitis caused by the colletotrichum state of glomerella cingulata and acrophialophora fusispora.two cases of mycotic keratitis caused by the colletotrichum state of glomerella cingulata and acrophialophora fusispora are reported for the first time. both the isolates produced experimental corneal lesions in rabbit eyes but a. fusispora was more pathogenic. the experimental infection was more severe, with both the fungi, in rabbits pretreated with cortisone as compared with untreated animals. in vitro a. fusispora was most sensitive to miconazole and tolciclate followed by clotrimazole, amph ...19836683875
endophytic fungi from amomum siamense.endophytic fungi were isolated from apparently healthy organs of the wild ginger amomum siamense criab.. including leaves, pseudostems, and rhizomes, collected from two sites in doi suthep-pui national park, thailand. endophytes were relatively common with an isolate prevalence of 70%-83% at the two sites sampled in the wet and dry seasons. the endophyte assemblages from the two sites were diverse and comprised 7 ascomycetes and 26 mitosporic fungi. colletotrichum "gloeosporioides" (penz.) penz. ...200111718548
a thaumatin-like gene in nonclimacteric pepper fruits used as molecular marker in probing disease resistance, ripening, and sugar accumulation.during pepper (capsicum annuum) fruit ripening, the ripe fruit interaction with the anthracnose fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is generally incompatible. however, the unripe fruit can interact compatibly with the fungus. a gene, designated peptlp (for pepper thaumatin-like protein), was isolated and characterized by using mrna differential display. the peptlp gene encodes a protein homologous to other thaumatin-like proteins and contains 16 conserved cysteine residues and the consensus ...200211999369
a novel actin-related protein gene of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae shows altered expression corresponding with spore production.a novel actin-related protein (arp) was found in the plant pathogenic fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae (cgm), which causes anthracnose disease of round-leaved mallow (malva pusilla). sequence comparisons showed that this gene, arpa, belongs to the highly divergent 'other arps' category in the current arp classification system. arpa is most similar to the arp11 gene of mus musculus but has a unique structure with deletions at the c-terminus similar to that of the arp10 gene of ...200111313136
increased expression of a plant actin gene during a biotrophic interaction between round-leaved mallow, malva pusilla, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae.two actin genes, acta from the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) penz. & sacc. f. sp. malvae, and act1 from its host, malva pusilla (sm.) were cloned from a cdna library developed from infected host tissue. the actin gene, acta, of c. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, which is similar to that of other euascomycetes, appears to be expressed constitutively. the actin gene of m. pusilla is most similar to one of the actin genes of arabidopsis thaliana that is un ...199910550630
transformation of the bioherbicide colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene by electroporation of germinated conidia.a highly efficient and reproducible procedure for the transformation of the bioherbicide colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene by electroporation of germinated conidia is reported. development of the procedure involved a detailed study of the germination process followed by extensive calibration of the electrical-pulse and selection conditions. optimization of the transformation protocol was facilitated by the use of the green fluorescent protein that helped in the identification of ...199910447601
diversity of antifungal actinomycetes in various vegetative soils of korea.diversity of actinomycetes and their antifungal activities against some plant pathogenic fungi were examined in various vegetative soils from 14 different sites in the western part of korea. actinomycete counts ranged from 1.17 x 10(6) to 4.20 x 10(6) cfu x g(-1) dried soil. a total of 1510 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples. streptomyces was predominant in soils with a ph range of 5.1-6.5, 9.1-13.0% moisture, and 9.1-11.0% organic matter. most micromonospora, dactylosporangium, a ...200212109880
induction of ca2+-calmodulin signaling by hard-surface contact primes colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia to germinate and form appressoria.hard-surface contact primes the conidia of colletotrichum gloeosporioides to respond to plant surface waxes and a fruit-ripening hormone, ethylene, to germinate and form the appressoria required for infection of the host. our efforts to elucidate the molecular events in the early phase of the hard-surface contact found that egta (5 mm) and u73122 (16 nm), an inhibitor of phospholipase c, inhibited (50%) germination and appressorium formation. measurements of calmodulin (cam) transcripts with a c ...19989748448
in vitro, greenhouse and field assessments of cassava lines for resistance to anthracnose disease caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis.fifty-three cassava lines were selected from breeding populations at the international institute of tropical agriculture (iita), ibadan, nigeria and screened in vitro for resistance to cassava anthracnose disease (cad). the in vitro inoculation of stem cuttings with the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis showed significant differences (p +/- 0.05) in acervuli production and in the sensitivity of the cassava lines to the fungal infection after 7 days of incubation at 25 degrees ...200212206320
chemical signals from avocado surface wax trigger germination and appressorium formation in colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the surface wax of the host, avocado (persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of colletotrichum gloeosporioides. waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. bioassays of the thin-layer chromatographic fractions of the avocado wax showed that the fatty alcohol fraction was the main appressorium-inducing comp ...199312231933
extracts from seaweeds can promote fungal growth.hormesis is the stimulation of a biological response at low concentrations of an inhibitor. ethanolic extracts were made using osmundaria serrata (suhr) r. e. norris and stypopodium zonale (lamouroux) papenfuss from the east coast of south africa. two plant pathogens (colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) penz. and sacc. and rhizoctonia solani kühn) were used as test organisms in bioassays. serial dilutions of macroalgal extracts were tested by the pour plate technique. both growth inhibitory a ...200212362401
purification, characterization and cloning of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor from squash phloem exudate.phloem exudate from squash fruit contains heat-inactivated material which inhibits pepsin activity. this inhibitory activity was purified by mild acid treatment, chromatography on trypsin-agarose, sephadex g-75 and reverse-phase hplc, resulting in the elution of three peaks with pepsin-inhibitory activity. n-terminal sequencing indicated a common sequence of mgpgpaigevig and the presence of minor species with seven- or two-amino-acid n-terminal extensions beyond this point. microheterogeneity in ...19989652409
ph modulation of zopfiellin antifungal activity to colletotrichum and botrytis.zopfiellin, a novel cyclooctanoid natural product isolated from zopfiella curvata no. 37-3, was evaluated in a 96-well microtiter assay for fungicidal activity against botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and fusarium oxysporum. zopfiellin exhibited ph-dependent activity, with the most mycelial growth inhibition demonstrated at ph 5.0. mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies indicated that zopfiellin un ...200212428951
characterization of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from avocado and almond fruits with molecular and pathogenicity tests.one hundred twenty isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from avocado (6 u.s. and 57 israeli isolates) and almond (57 israeli isolates) fruits were compared by various molecular methods and a pathogenicity assay in order to determine the genetic diversity and host specificity between and among the different populations. dna from eight additional u.s. almond anthracnose isolates were also compared. pcr amplification of genomic dna with four primers produced uniform banding patterns for all t ...19968975596
antifungal compounds from idioblast cells isolated from avocado fruits.(e,z,z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-5,12,15-triene was isolated from avocado, persea americana mill., idioblast cells. it inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides. full characterization is also reported for two additional compounds that have been described and partially characterized previously.200010872209
two novel genes induced by hard-surface contact of colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia.germinating conidia of many phytopathogenic fungi must differentiate into an infection structure called the appressorium in order to penetrate into their hosts. this differentiation is known to require contact with a hard surface. however, the molecular basis for this requirement is not known. induction of this differentiation in the avocado pathogen, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, by chemical signals such as the host's surface wax or the fruit-ripening hormone, ethylene, requires contact of th ...200010940006
microbiological transformation of steroids. 1-dehydrogenation of 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione with glomerella cingulata.the micro-organism glomerella cingulata dehydrogenates 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione to 17,21-dihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione in high yield practically without by-products.19734780686
metabolites of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an endophytic fungus in artemisia mongolica.a new antimicrobial metabolite, named colletotric acid (1), was isolated from a liquid culture of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an endophytic fungus colonized inside the stem of artemisia mongolica. the structure was determined using spectroscopic methods (eims and fabms,(1)h and (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h cosy, hmbc, and hmqc). compound 1 inhibited the growth of bacillus subtilis, staphylococcusaureus, and sarcina lutea with minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) of 25, 50, and 50 microg/ml, resp ...200011087599
a long terminal repeat retrotransposon cgret from the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cranberry.a repetitive dna element cloned from the cranberry fruit rot pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been characterized. sequence data indicate that it is a long terminal repeat (ltr) retrotransposon of 7,916 base pairs. ltr of 544 base pairs occur at either end of an internal region of 6,828 base pairs. this element, designated cgret (c. gloeosporioides retrotransposon), encodes two putative polypeptides which have high homology to the gag and pol genes of other fungal retrotransposons. the ...200011191207
comparison of cross inoculation potential of south african avocado and mango isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.three hundred and eighteen colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. al ...200312906387
two pectin lyase genes, pnl-1 and pnl-2, from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae differ in a cellulose-binding domain and in their expression during infection of malva pusilla.two pectin lyase genes, designated pnl-1 and pnl-2, were cloned from colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a pathogen of round-leaved mallow (malva pusilla). pnl-1 was isolated using cdna from infected plant material; pnl-2 was isolated using cdna from 3-day-old mycelia grown in mallow-cell-wall extract (mcwe) broth. pnl-1 is the first pectinase gene described thus far to encode a cellulose-binding domain (cbd), which is common in cellulases and xylanases, whereas pnl-2 encodes a pectin ...200212101302
transfer of a supernumerary chromosome between vegetatively incompatible biotypes of the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.two biotypes (a and b) of colletotrichum gloeosporioides infect the tropical legumes stylosanthes spp. in australia. these biotypes are asexual and vegetatively incompatible. however, field isolates of biotype b carrying a supernumerary 2-mb chromosome, thought to originate from biotype a, have been reported previously. we tested the hypothesis that the 2-mb chromosome could be transferred from biotype a to biotype b under laboratory conditions. selectable marker genes conferring resistance to h ...19989832523
the nutrition of colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz. 196213984843
targeted gene disruption of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in colletotrichum gloeosporioides reveals evidence that glycerol is a significant transferred nutrient from host plant to fungal pathogen.unidirectional transfer of nutrients from plant host to pathogen represents a most revealing aspect of the parasitic lifestyle of plant pathogens. whereas much effort has been focused on sugars and amino acids, the identification of other significant metabolites is equally important for comprehensive characterization of metabolic interactions between plants and biotrophic fungal pathogens. employing a strategy of targeted gene disruption, we generated a mutant strain (gpdhdelta) defective in gly ...200414563847
calcium restores prepenetration morphogenesis abolished by polyamines in colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting red pepper.colletotrichum gloeosporioides forms a specialized infection structure, an appressorium, to infect its host, red pepper. polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) as well as s-adenosyl methionine inhibitor, methylglyoxal-bis-guanyl hydrazone (mgbg), impaired conidial germination and appressorium formation of c. gloeosporioides. curtailment of cell differentiation by polyamines and mgbg was more evident in conidial germination than in appressorium development. exogenous addition of calciu ...200314592714
fungicidal potential of methoxylated flavones from citrus for in vitro control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of anthracnose disease in tropical fruits.four polymethoxylated flavones (3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone) were isolated and characterized from cold-pressed orange oil. their antifungal activities were evaluated against colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz) penz & sacc, a major plant pathogen of fruits that causes significant damage to crops in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. methoxylated flavones were effective in in ...200314620052
[factors influencing pathogenicity of collectotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. veronicae to veronica persica].the effects of the characters of the fungus, the growing period of plants and environmental factors on the pathogenicity of colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. veronicae infecting veronica persica were studied in pot experiments. the results showed that 1.08 x 10(8) spores.ml-1 suspension could kill the seedlings with two cotyledons within one week and cause old plants serious disease. 1 x 10(8) spores.ml-1 was optimal concentration and 1 or 2 weeks old was the best age of the spores for killin ...200212385213
camp regulation of "pathogenic" and "saprophytic" fungal spore germination.we report on the elucidation of two separate pathways of spore germination in a plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. conidia of the fungus can germinate either from one side or from both sides, depending on external conditions. in shake culture that includes an extract made up from fresh peas, the unicellular conidium divides and one of the two cells develops a germ tube. on a solid surface this germ tube differentiates an appressorium. in rich medium witho ...200414761792
two plant alkaloids isolated from corydalis longipes as potential antifungal agents.the alkaloids n-methylhydrasteine hydroxylactam and 1-methoxyberberine chloride were isolated from corydalis longipes. both alkaloids showed high efficacy individually (in concentration of 50-150 ppm) and also in a 1:1 mixture against spore germination of some fungi, viz. alternaria alternata, a. brassicae, curvularia maculans, curvularia sp., colletotrichum gloeosporioides, colletotrichum sp., helminthosporium speciferum, h. pennisetti, helminthosporium sp., and ustilago cynodontis. the antifun ...200314976716
identification of a gene product induced by hard-surface contact of colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia as a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme by yeast complementation.the germinating conidia of many phytopathogenic fungi on hosts must differentiate into an infection structure called the appressorium in order to penetrate their hosts. chemical signals, such as the host's surface wax or fruit ripening hormone, ethylene, trigger germination and appressorium formation of the avocado pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides only after the conidia are in contact with a hard surface. what role this contact plays is unknown. here, we describe isolation of genes expres ...19989658002
in planta production of indole-3-acetic acid by colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.the plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (iam). we studied the effects of tryptophan, iaa, and iam on iaa biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta iaa production by the fungus. iaa biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and iam. the fungus produced iam and iaa in planta during the bio ...200415006816
a secreted aspartic proteinase from glomerella cingulata: purification of the enzyme and molecular cloning of the cdna.a secreted aspartic proteinase from glomerella cingulata (gcsap) was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography. the enzyme has an m, of 36000 as estimated by sds-page, optimal activity from ph 3.5 to ph 4.0 and is inhibited by pepstatin. the n-terminal sequence, 23 residues long, was used to design a gene-specific primer. this was used in 3' race (rapid amplification of cdna ends) pcr to amplify a 1.2 kb fragment of the gcsap cdna. a second gene-specific primer was designed and used ...19979141702
cloning and analysis of mold-specific genes in the dimorphic fungus histoplasma capsulatum.a critical feature in the pathogenesis of the respiratory pathogen histoplasma capsulatum is the conversion from the mold form (found in soil) to the yeast form in the lungs of the host. little is known about the molecular biology of histoplasma dimorphism. in particular, the possible roles of genes which are transcriptionally silent in yeast (i.e. mold-specific) have not been studied. we have produced a cdna library highly enriched for mold-upregulated clones by fragmenting cdna and removing ye ...200111574158
biotransformation of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate using the plant parasitic fungus glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst.the microbial transformation of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate was investigated using the plant parasitic fungus glomerella cingulata. as a result, (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate was converted to dihydromyrcenol, 3,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene-7-carboxylate, 3,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene, 3,7-dimethyloctane-1,2, 7-triol-7-carboxylate, and 3,7-dimethyloctane-1,2,7-triol. in addition, microbial transformation of dihydromyrcenol by g. cingulata was carried out. the metabolic pathway of (-)-dih ...200011052740
inhibition of fungal appressorium formation by pepper (capsicum annuum) esterase.a pepper esterase gene (pepest) that is highly expressed during an incompatible interaction between pepper (capsicum annuum) and the anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been previously cloned. glutathione-s-transferase-tagged recombinant pepest protein expressed in escherichia coli showed substrate specificity for p-nitrophenyl esters. inoculation of compatible unripe pepper fruits with c. gloeosporioides spores amended with the recombinant protein did not cause anthracnose sym ...200111194875
peptide inhibitors of appressorium development in glomerella cingulata.the phytopathogen glomerella cingulata (anamorph: colletotrichum gloeosporioides) infects host tissue by means of a specialised infection structure, the appressorium. the saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor pheromone, the saccharomyces kluyveri alpha-mating factor pheromone and a hendecapeptide produced by g. cingulata inhibit appressorium development. the amino acid sequence of the g. cingulata peptide, gyfsyphgnlf, is different from that of the mature pheromone peptides of other filam ...200212007806
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