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a method of feeding the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) on mammalian hosts. 1979541810
antibodies to akabane virus in australia.neutralising antibody to akabane virus was shown to develop in cattle in northern australia throughout the year and also on the east coast of new south wales in the summer during 1975/1976. other species found to have antibody to akabane virus were buffaloes, horses, camels and sheep, but no antibody was found in domestic chickens, ducks, wallabies or man. the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis has been detected in all the major areas where antibody was demonstrated in this study.1978655964
a survey of antibody to aino virus in cattle and other species in australia.a serological survey of healthy cattle in australia showed that antibodies to aino virus were present in serums from cattle in northern australia and down the east coast as far as central new south wales in 1975, 1976 and 1977, but occurred with a lower frequency than antibodies to akabane virus. in contrast to the findings with akabane virus, no neutralising antibodies to aino virus were detected in serums from camels, dogs or horses. antibodies to both viruses were detected in buffaloes and sh ...1978718555
isolations of akabane virus from sentinel cattle and culicoides brevitarsis.a total of 14 isolations of akabane virus were made from the blood of five cattle during sub-clinical infection. the serial isolation of this virus from four of these animals suggests a viraemia of at least 3 or 4 days. neutralising antibody to akabane virus in the serum of infected calves reached an initial peak titre of 32 to 256 four to five days after the viraemia but later uose further to a range of 64 to 512. three isolations of akabane virus were made from culicoides brevitarsis collected ...1978753220
congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in australia. distribution of antibodies to akabane virus in australian cattle after the 1974 epizootic.at the end of the 1974 epizootic of bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in south-eastern new south wales, an australia-wide serological survey (about 4,000 serums) was made to determine the ditribution of cattle possessing serum neutralising antibodies against akabane virus. eighty per cent of the serums from cattle in northern australia (western australia, northern territory, and queensland) were positive. a detailed study in the epizootic area in new south wales (particularly ...19761016149
effect of temperature on late immature stages of culicoides brevitarsis (diptera: ceratopogonidae).fourth-instar larvae of the biting midge, culicoides brevitarsis kieffer, were reared to adult in agar medium at temperatures of 20, 26, 30.5, 33, 35.5, 38 and 40 degrees c. optimum (greater than 80%) survival to adult occurred from 26 to 33 degrees c. temperatures outside this range disrupted development. above 35.5 degrees c, all immatures died before completing development. duration of development from fourth instar to adult was shortest at 30.5 degrees c (4.3 d). the estimated duration of de ...19911770526
an investigation of transovarial transmission of akabane virus in culicoides brevitarsis. 19902118340
bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer and related viruses: current situation in australia.since 1975 3 serotypes of bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) have been identified in australia: btv1 (csiro156), btv20 (csiro19) and btv21. at present 2 further bt viruses (dpp90 and dpp192) have been isolated from the blood of healthy cattle in the northern territory (nt) and are undergoing identification. there is serological evidence for btv15 infection in western australia (wa) and the nt, and a background level of serological activity to btv serotypes 1 to 17. in addition, over 50 isolations of ep ...19852989863
epidemiology of bluetongue in australia: the vertebrate hosts.ruminants became established in australia after european settlement which commenced in the late 18th century. bluetongue (bt) disease has never been suspected in cattle or sheep in this country. the species of ruminants found to have antibodies to bt and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehd) viruses are cattle, buffaloes, deer, goats and sheep. no antibodies have been found in pigs, horses, marsupials (kangaroos and wallabies) or humans, even in areas of high prevalence of bt and ehd infection. t ...19852989897
experimental infection of culicoides brevitarsis from south-east queensland with three serotypes of bluetongue virus.laboratory-reared c. brevitarsis (biting midges) were fed on sheep which had been experimentally infected with bluetongue serotype 1 (csiro 156), bluetongue serotype 20 (csiro 19) or bluetongue serotype 21 (csiro 154), or on cattle experimentally infected with bluetongue serotype 20 (csiro 19). approximately 77 000 c. brevitarsis were exposed to sheep and 9000 to cattle. the average percentage feeding on sheep was 54% and on cattle 47%. in attempts to transmit virus by bite 3360 c. brevitarsis w ...19852998313
transmission and in vitro excretion of bluetongue virus serotype 1 by inoculated culicoides brevitarsis (diptera: ceratopogonidae). 19873035181
akabane epizootics in new south wales: evidence for long-distance dispersal of the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis.in 1983 an outbreak of akabane disease occurred in calves in new south wales between coolah and dunedoo at the foothills of the liverpool range, from molong to oberon in the blue mountains and in the bylong valley. these areas, at the time of infection of the dams, were in a drought and conditions were unsuitable for the multiplication of c. brevitarsis. in late march meteorological phenomena developed producing air movements favourable for transporting infected midges from the hunter valley. a ...19873125823
isolation of a new rhabdovirus in australia related to tibrogargan virus.a virus isolated from the blood of a healthy steer and designated dpp53 was shown to have rhabdovirus morphology. although dpp53 virus was antigenically related to tibrogargan virus by reciprocal immunofluorescence and neutralization tests, the viruses were distinguishable by neutralization tests. dpp53 virus contained rna and was sensitive to both ether and chloroform. the geographical distribution of neutralizing antibody to dpp53 virus in australian cattle corresponded to the distribution of ...19863548679
mortality of culicoides brevitarsis fed on cattle treated with ivermectin.adult female culicoides brevitarsis kieffer, important vectors of arboviruses affecting livestock in australia, were fed on penned hereford yearling cattle which had been given a single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at a dose of 200 mcg/kg. the mean mortality of engorged females 48 hr after feeding on the treated cattle was 99% for 10 days posttreatment and in excess of 40% for 18 days posttreatment. based on these results, it appears that ivermectin administered subcutaneously could be a ...19853839308
a serological survey for bluetongue virus antibody in western australia.a serological survey was carried out to detect specific (serotype 20) and a group bluetongue virus antibody in cattle and sheep serums collected in western australia during the period january 1 1978 to june 30 1979. of 18,849 cattle serums examined by the gel diffusion precipitin test (gdpt), 9.7% were positive and 6.1% gave doubtful results. all 1949 sheep serums tested were negative. precipitin antibody was demonstrated in 22.5% of serums from kimberley cattle and 3.6% of cattle serums from th ...19806261730
bluetongue and douglas virus activity in new south wales in 1989: further evidence for long-distance dispersal of the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis. 19957661825
last occurrence and survival during winter of the arbovirus vector culicoides brevitarsis at the southern limits of its distribution. 19957661826
last occurrence and survival during winter of the arbovirus vector culicoides brevitarsis at the southern limits of its distribution.linear regression analysis was used to describe the decline in numbers of culicoides brevitarsis kieffer into winter with monthly maximum, average and minimum temperatures at the southern limits to its distribution in new south wales. from this, low temperature thresholds were derived when c brevitarsis would be absent from the field. the low minimum threshold +/- 2 se (95% confidence interval) of 8.1 +/- 0.3 degree c was used with historical temperature data to estimate the last month that the ...19957779034
bluetongue and douglas virus activity in new south wales in 1989: further evidence for long-distance dispersal of the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis.infection of cattle with bluetongue and douglas viruses was detected on the central and southern coast of new south wales from january to april 1989. bluetongue virus infection was found well south of areas of expected occurrence. evidence is presented to support wind-borne dispersal of infected vectors, culicoides brevitarsis, southwards from the hunter valley.19957779035
infection of culicoides brevitarsis and c. wadai (diptera: ceratopogonidae) with four australian serotypes of bluetongue virus.field collected culicoides brevitarsis kieffer and c. wadai kitaoka were fed on sheep that had been artificially infected with a field-isolate of either bluetongue virus serotype 3 (blu3), blu9, blu16, or blu23. feeding rates averaged 11.9% but were variable. survival of midges during incubation tended to be enhanced by the addition of antibiotics and fungicide to the diet. attempts to transmit virus to sheep by the bite of these two species were unsuccessful. both c. brevitarsis and c. wadai ha ...19948057311
influences of vector biology on transmission of arboviruses and outbreaks of disease: the culicoides brevitarsis model.the use of a model to appraise arboviral epizootics is described, and examples are given which demonstrated long-distance wind-dispersal of the biting-midge vector culicoides brevitarsis from the same endemic source. vector abundance is characterised by peaks and troughs of abundance, the patterns of which vary between localities and annually. short term climatic effects can change rapidly the age structure of a population, thus increasing the number of midges that can transmit a virus and profo ...19958545983
the dispersal of culicoides brevitarsis in eastern new south wales and associations with the occurrences of arbovirus infections in cattle.distributions of the vector culicoides brevitarsis kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae) (determined from light trap data) and 2 arboviruses (determined from seroconversions in sentinel cattle) were studied in eastern new south wales in 1993-94. c brevitarsis was recorded progressively from endemic areas on the north coast, to nowra on the south coast, and westward to scone, in the hunter valley. c brevitarsis also survived through winter at paterson, in the hunter valley. its apparently focal reap ...19968660239
association between risk of seroconversion of sentinel cattle to bluetongue viruses and culicoides species (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in queensland, australia.the association between risk of seroconversion of sentinel cattle to bluetongue viruses and the number of culicoides brevitarsis kieffer and c. wadai kitaoka caught by light traps was investigated using survival analysis. eight sentinel herds that seroconverted to bluetongue viruses between 1990 and 1994, and for which insect-trapping data were available, were selected for inclusion in the study. these herds were located at six sites along the eastern coast of queensland, australia, from approxi ...19979443333
rapid detection of antigenic diversity of akabane virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.akabane (aka) virus is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the simbu group of the genus bunyavirus. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against aka virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. five distinct antigenic domains were identified and were designated a, b, c, d, and e. domains a and c consisted of two epitopes each. it was demonstrated that seven neutralizing epitopes exist on the g1 glycoprotein of aka virus. dot im ...19989521142
factors affecting numbers of culicoides in truck traps in coastal queensland.truck trap collections of ceratopogonidae were made over a period of 27 months (november 1973-february 1976) at tingalpa creek, in southeast queensland, australia. six collections were made on each of 95 days, giving 570 observations and a total of 29,378 culicoides. two collections were made before, one at, and three after sunset. separate analyses were made of the catches of thirteen entities: male and female c. austropalpalis, c. brevitarsis, c. marksi, c. marmoratus and c. victoriae, female ...19989824820
comparison of intertypic antigenicity of aino virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the aino virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. seven continuous and overlapping neutralizing epitopes existed on the g1 glycoprotein of the aino virus. two antigenic domains were identified and were designated i and ii, with domain ii consisting of six epitopes. dot immunobinding assays (dias) were performed with mabs that recognized these seven neutralizing epitopes. dias were ...200011060092
evidence of an antigenic shift among palyam serogroup orbiviruses.the japanese isolates of palyam serogroup viruses isolated from 1985 to 2001 were investigated for the genome sequence of segments 2 and 7 and were phylogenetically analyzed in comparison with australian and african isolates of the same serogroup. the nucleotide sequences of segment 7 were highly conserved within japanese isolates (95.1 to 100%) and between japanese and taiwanese isolates (96.0 to 100%), whereas the identities between japanese and taiwanese isolates and australian and african is ...200415472317
effects of altitude, distance and waves of movement on the dispersal in australia of the arbovirus vector, culicoides brevitarsis kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae).the dispersal of the biting midge and arbovirus vector culicoides brevitarsis in the bellinger, macleay and hastings river valleys and up the escarpment of the great dividing range (gdr) of mid-northern coastal new south wales, australia, from 1995 to 2003 was studied. the midge moved up these valleys from the endemic coastal plain in at least two waves between october and may, and both waves were modelled. dispersal time can be explained by direct distance from the coast and the altitude of the ...200415488267
comparative descriptions of the pupae of five species of the culicoides imicola complex (diptera, ceratopogonidae) from south africa.the viruses causing the economically important livestock diseases of african horse sickness (ahs) and bluetongue (bt) are transmitted by biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera, ceratopogonidae). in the old world the most important vectors of these diseases are culicoides imicola kieffer, 1913, culicoides brevitarsis kieffer, 1917 and culicoides bolitinos meiswinkel, 1989. all three of these vectors belong to the imicola complex of the subgenus avaritia fox, 1955. this species complex now ...200717883197
estimating the temporal and spatial risk of bluetongue related to the incursion of infected vectors into switzerland.the design of veterinary and public health surveillance systems has been improved by the ability to combine geographical information systems (gis), mathematical models and up to date epidemiological knowledge. in switzerland, an early warning system was developed for detecting the incursion of the bluetongue disease virus (bt) and to monitor the frequency of its vectors. based on data generated by this surveillance system, gis and transmission models were used in order to determine suitable seas ...200818922155
factors affecting the spread of culicoides brevitarsis at the southern limit of distribution in eastern australia.culicoides brevitarsis kieffer is the main vector of bluetongue and akabane viruses in australia. its threat to animal health and livestock exports requires that areas free of the vector and viruses be defined clearly. in new south wales, survival of the vector over winter is limited to the northern coastal plains. c. brevitarsis therefore has to reinfest areas outside the endemic area each year. models have been developed to predict the extent and nature of its movements. it can move at differe ...200420419685
protection of cattle from culicoides spp. in australia by shelter and chemical treatments.trials were conducted in three regions of australia to investigate the potential for improvised shelters and chemical treatments to reduce feeding by culicoides on cattle and thereby minimise the risk of bluetongue transmission during transport of cattle to ports. various designs and combinations of roofs and walls were placed around penned cattle. chemical treatments were applied to other penned cattle. culicoides were collected from the cattle by vacuum samplers or by light traps in the pens. ...200420419686
estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue.abstract: understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. we illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (tsa) model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (sarerr model) to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (bt), an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (btv) and transmitted by culicoides. in a first step to gain further insight into ...201121507221
tibrogargan and coastal plains rhabdoviruses: genomic characterisation, evolution of novel genes and seroprevalence in australian livestock.tibrogargan virus (tibv) and coastal plains virus (cpv) were isolated from cattle in australia and tibv has also been isolated from the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis. complete genomic sequencing revealed that the viruses share a novel genome structure within the rhabdoviridae, each containing two additional putative genes between the m and g genes and one between the g and l genes. the predicted novel protein products are highly diverged at the sequence level but demonstrate significant co ...201121593274
biological transmission of arboviruses: reexamination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends.among animal viruses, arboviruses are unique in that they depend on arthropod vectors for transmission. field research and laboratory investigations related to the three components of this unique mode of transmission, virus, vector, and vertebrate host, have produced an enormous amount of valuable information that may be found in numerous publications. however, despite many reviews on specific viruses, diseases, or interests, a systematic approach to organizing the available information on all f ...016223950
evolution of bovine ephemeral fever virus in the australian episystem.bovine ephemeral fever virus (befv) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes a debilitating disease of cattle in africa, asia, and australia; however, its global geodynamics are poorly understood. an evolutionary analysis of g gene (envelope glycoprotein) ectodomain sequences of 97 befv isolates collected from australia during 1956 to 2012 revealed that all have a single common ancestor and are phylogenetically distinct from befv sampled in other geographical regions. the age of the austral ...201324227855
a spatial simulation model for the dispersal of the bluetongue vector culicoides brevitarsis in australia.the spread of bluetongue virus (btv) among ruminants is caused by movement of infected host animals or by movement of infected culicoides midges, the vector of btv. biologically plausible models of culicoides dispersal are necessary for predicting the spread of btv and are important for planning control and eradication strategies.201425105418
seasonal drivers of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses in australia.arthropod-borne viruses are a major cause of emerging disease with significant public health and economic impacts. however, the factors that determine their activity and seasonality are not well understood. in australia, a network of sentinel cattle herds is used to monitor the distribution of several such viruses and to define virus-free regions. herein, we utilize these serological data to describe the seasonality, and its drivers, of three economically important animal arboviruses: bluetongue ...201425412443
seroepidemiology of bluetongue in south bengal.with the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (bt) in the southern part of west bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of bt along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any.201627051176
application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses.the rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. to this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (rma), termed pathogenid, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. we focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family rhabdoviridae. we demonstrate that this approach has th ...201020610710
circadian activity of culicoides oxystoma (diptera: ceratopogonidae), potential vector of bluetongue and african horse sickness viruses in the niayes area, senegal.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are important vectors of arboviruses in africa. culicoides oxystoma has been recently recorded in the niayes region of senegal (west africa) and its high abundance on horses suggests a potential implication in the transmission of the african horse sickness virus in this region. this species is also suspected to transmit bluetongue virus to imported breeds of sheep. little information is available on the biology and ecology of culicoides in afri ...201526002826
epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (befv), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of africa, the middle east, asia and australia. although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, p ...201526511615
does covering of farm-associated culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the united kingdom?culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (btv) and the recently emerging schmallenberg virus (sbv). culicoides species in the subgenus avaritia (in the uk: culicoides obsoletus meigen, culicoides scoticus downes & kettle, culicoides dewulfi goetghebuer and culicoides chiopterus meigen) have been implicated in btv transmission in northern europe and to a varying degre ...201324472769
population genetic structure and potential incursion pathways of the bluetongue virus vector culicoides brevitarsis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in australia.culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (btv), which infects sheep and cattle. it is an invasive species in australia with an assumed asian/south east asian origin. using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for australian c. brevitarsis. nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-0.7%) among these, were ide ...201626771743
evolution of bluetongue virus serotype 1 in northern australia over 30 years.bluetongue virus serotype 1 (btv 1) was first isolated in australia from cattle blood collected in 1979 at beatrice hill farm (bhf), northern territory (nt). from long-term surveillance programs (1977 to 2011), 2,487 isolations of 10 btv serotypes were made. the most frequently isolated serotype was btv 1 (41%, 1,019) followed by btv 16 (17.5%, 436) and btv 20 (14%, 348). in 3 years, no btvs were isolated, and in 12 years, no btv 1 was isolated. seventeen btv 1 isolates were sequenced and analyz ...201425253345
modelling the abundances of two major culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species in the niayes area of senegal.in senegal, considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses were caused by the african horse sickness (ahs) epizootic in 2007. culicoides oxystoma and culicoides imicola, known or suspected of being vectors of bluetongue and ahs viruses are two predominant species in the vicinity of horses and are present all year-round in niayes area, senegal. the aim of this study was to better understand the environmental and climatic drivers of the dynamics of these two specie ...201526121048
implicating culicoides biting midges as vectors of schmallenberg virus using semi-quantitative rt-pcr.the recent unprecedented emergence of arboviruses transmitted by culicoides biting midges in northern europe has necessitated the development of techniques to differentiate competent vector species. at present these techniques are entirely reliant upon interpretation of semi-quantitative rt-pcr (sqpcr) data in the form of cq values used to infer the presence of viral rna in samples.201323520481
genotyping of whole genome amplified reduced representation libraries reveals a cryptic population of culicoides brevitarsis in the northern territory, australia.the advent of genotyping by next generation sequencing has enabled rapid discovery of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) markers and high throughput genotyping of large populations at an affordable cost. genotyping by sequencing (gbs), a reduced representation library sequencing method, allows highly multiplexed sequencing of genomic subsets. this method has limitations for small organisms with low amounts of genomic dna, such as the bluetongue virus (btv) vectors, culicoides midg ...201627716062
climate change influences on the global potential distribution of bluetongue virus.the geographic distribution of arboviruses has received considerable attention after several dramatic emergence events around the world. bluetongue virus (btv) is classified among category "a" diseases notifiable to the world organization of animal health (oie), and is transmitted among ruminants by biting midges of the genus culicoides. here, we developed a comprehensive occurrence data set to map the current distribution, estimate the ecological niche, and explore the future potential distribu ...201626959424
assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, culicoides brevitarsis (diptera: ceratopogonidae), using multi-locus dna microsatellites.bluetongue virus (btv) is a major pathogen of ruminants that is transmitted by biting midges (culicoides spp.). australian btv serotypes have origins in asia and are distributed across the continent into two distinct episystems, one in the north and another in the east. culicoides brevitarsis is the major vector of btv in australia and is distributed across the entire geographic range of the virus. here, we describe the isolation and use of dna microsatellites and gauge their ability to determin ...201526408175
douglas and tinaroo viruses: two simbu group arboviruses infecting culicoides brevitarsis and livestock in australia.two australian members of the simbu group, douglas and tinaroo viruses, were found to be distinct, by virus-neutralization tests, from three previously known simbu group viruses isolated in australia, namely akabane, aino and peaton viruses. a low-titre, two-way, cross-reaction was noted between akabane and tinaroo viruses. antibody to tinaroo and douglas viruses was detected in serum from cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and deer but not in humans, pigs, kangaroos and wallabies. the results for ho ...19846517762
mortality of culicoides brevitarsis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) fed on cattle treated with ivermectin. 19846547733
the use of discriminant analysis in predicting the distribution of bluetongue virus in queensland, australia.the climatic variables that were most useful in classifying the infection status of queensland cattle herds with bluetongue virus were assessed using stepwise linear discriminant analysis. a discriminant function that included average annual rainfall and average daily maximum temperature was found to correctly classify 82.6% of uninfected herds and 72.4% of infected herds. overall, the infection status of 74.1% of herds was correctly classified. the spatial distribution of infected herds was fou ...19948091641
peaton virus: a new simbu group arbovirus isolated from cattle and culicoides brevitarsis in australia.a new member of the simbu group of arboviruses, for which the name peaton virus is proposed, has been isolated from midges and cattle in australia. nine isolates were obtained from 101 pools of the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis collected at peachester, qld, (26.51 degrees s., 152.53 degrees e.) between 30 november and 8 december 1976. three isolations of the same virus were made from the blood of sentinel cattle collected at grafton and tamworth, n.s.w., on 20 january and 13 april 1977, re ...19807436869
the isolation of a bluetongue virus from culicoides brevitarsis. 19846331360
preliminary characterization of d'aguilar virus and three palyam group viruses new to australia.between 1974 and 1980, 424 viruses were isolated at the long pocket laboratories of the division of animal health, csiro, either from insects or from the blood of sentinel cattle, and of these, 165 cross-reacted with d'aguilar virus (an australian palyam group virus) in a complement fixation test. neutralization tests were used to classify these viruses into four serotypes with the isolates d'aguilar b8112, csiro 11, csiro 58 and csiro 82 as the type strains. the latter three were new to austral ...19827150118
virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle.diagnosing the cause of bovine congenital malformations (bcms) is challenging for bovine veterinary practitioners and laboratory diagnosticians as many known as well as a large number of not-yet reported syndromes exist. foetal infection with certain viruses, including bovine virus diarrhea virus (bvdv), schmallenberg virus (sbv), blue tongue virus (btv), akabane virus (akav), or aino virus (av), is associated with a range of congenital malformations. it is tempting for veterinary practitioners ...201526399846
genome sequence of bivens arm virus, a tibrovirus belonging to the species tibrogargan virus (mononegavirales: rhabdoviridae).the new rhabdoviral genus tibrovirus currently has two members, coastal plains virus and tibrogargan virus. here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, bivens arm virus. a genomic comparison reveals bivens arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, tibrogargan virus.201525792044
bovine ephemeral fever in iran: diagnosis, isolation and molecular characterization.bovine ephemeral fever (befv) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle and water buffaloes. befv occurs seasonally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of africa, asia and australia. it has been known for the past decades in iran based on clinical signs but lack of an accurate diagnosis has made the real feature of disease obscured. this is the first scientific report on isolation and identification of the agent in which molecular diagnosis of befv was also set up with high sensitivity ...201526623431
phylogenetic relationships of the glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated from mainland china, taiwan, japan, turkey, israel and australia.the glycoprotein (g) gene sequences of bovine ephemeral fever virus (befv) strains derived from mainland china have not been compared with those of the isolates from other countries or areas. therefore, the g genes of four befv isolates obtained from mainland china were amplified and sequenced. a phylogenetic tree was constructed in order to compare and analyze the genetic relationships of the befv isolates derived from mainland china and different countries and areas.201223150932
evaluation of metarhizium anisopliae for the control of culicoides brevitarsis kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae), the principal vector of bluetongue virus in australia.four isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae were tested for their potential to control the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis, the principal vector of bluetongue virus in australia. adult c. brevitarsis died three to eight days after walking on paper substrate treated with 0.7 g/m(2) conidia of any of the isolates, indicating that m. anisopliae has potential as a surface treatment or topical application control strategy. incorporation of the fungus into freshly excreted ...201424820575
malakal virus from africa and kimberley virus from australia are geographic variants of a widely distributed ephemerovirus.kimberley virus (kimv) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that was isolated in 1973 and on several subsequent occasions from healthy cattle, mosquitoes (culex annulirostris) and biting midges (culicoides brevitarsis) in australia. malakal virus (malv) is an antigenically related rhabdovirus isolated in 1963 from mosquitoes (mansonia uniformis) in sudan. we report here the complete genome sequences of kimv (15442 nt) and malv (15444 nt). the genomes have a similar organisation (3'-l-n-p-m-g-g(ns)- ...201222925335
molecular identification of field-collected culicoides larvae in the southern part of japan.although culicoides biting midges act as a vector of important human and domestic animal diseases, their ecology is poorly understood. the lack of proper identification systems of culicoides larvae is one of the main obstacles to progress in research. based on mitochondrial sequences of 19 japanese culicoides species, we designed a universal primer set to amplify the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase i (cox 1). the polymerase chain reaction product amplified from extract ...201324180116
application of an embryonated chicken egg model to assess the vector competence of australian culicoides midges for bluetongue viruses.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of globally important arboviruses that affect livestock, including bluetongue virus (btv), african horse sickness virus and the recently emerged schmallenberg virus. in this study, a model using embryonated chicken eggs (eces) was utilized to undertake vector competence studies of australian culicoides spp. for 13 laboratory-adapted or wild-type virus strains of btv. a total of 7393 culicoides brevitarsis were reared fro ...201728429824
detection of elizabethkingia spp. in culicoides biting midges, australia.the bacterial pathogen elizabethkingia is known to exist in certain species of mosquito but was unknown in other arthropods. we report the detection and identification of elizabethkingia in species of culicoides biting midge in australia, raising the possibility of bacterial transmission via this species.201728726605
isolation of kimberley virus, a rhabdovirus, from culicoides brevitarsis. 19846532408
detection of culicoides brevitarsis activity in kyushu.culicoides brevitarsis transmits important ruminant arboviruses, such as akabane, aino and bluetongue viruses. the presence of this species has so far been recognized primarily in okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of japan. in entomological surveys in 2008 and 2009, c. brevitarsis was collected at 8 sites throughout nagasaki, kumamoto and kagoshima prefectures. the collection sites are all located near pastures, where the larvae of c. brevitarsis can grow in cattle dung left in the field. c. ...201121799296
models for the dispersal in australia of the arbovirus vector, culicoides brevitarsis kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae).culicoides brevitarsis is the main biting midge responsible for the transmission of bluetongue and akabane viruses to livestock in australia. models are given for its dispersal after winter from endemic areas at the southern limit of its distribution in new south wales (nsw); the models might also be applicable elsewhere. model 1 shows that dispersal can be explained by distance from a key point just outside the endemic area in mid-northern/northern coastal nsw. the model provides probability da ...200011087955
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