isolation and preliminary characterization of an orbivirus of the palyam serogroup from biting midge culicoides oxystoma in orbivirus of the palyam serogroup was isolated from culicoides oxystoma collected in a cowshed in kagoshima, southern kyushu island, japan. this is the first isolation of an orbivirus of the palyam serogroup in japan. the virus was a spherical non-enveloped rna virus, approximately 60 nm in diameter. the virus was resistant to ethyl ether, sodium deoxycholate and freezing-thawing, but readily inactivated by trypsin. the virus was not stabilized by 1 m mgcl2, was labile at ph 3.0 and was not p ...19892646823
isolation of akabane virus from the biting midge culicoides oxystoma in japan.akabane virus was isolated from the biting midge, culicoides oxystoma, collected in a cowshed in kagoshima on kyushu island of japan. this is the first report on the isolation of akabane virus from biting midges of the genus culicoides in japan. two calves kept as bait in the cowshed seroconverted to akabane virus. these results strongly suggest that c. oxystoma may be a vector of akabane virus.19873124329
isolation of chuzan virus, a new member of the palyam subgroup of the genus orbivirus, from cattle and culicoides oxystoma in japan.five virus strains with identical antigenic properties were isolated from 3 rbc suspensions obtained from 2 healthy sentinel calves and from 2 pools of culicoides oxystoma in cultures of a hamster lung cell line (hmlu-1). the virus was tentatively named chuzan virus. the chuzan virus was classified as a new member of the palyam subgroup of the genus orbivirus on the basis of its physicochemical, morphologic, and antigenic properties.19883239836
abundance and prevalence of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) on some philippine chicken total, 10,067 biting midges of the genus culicoides comprising 17 species were collected in a light trap survey of 50 chicken farms in the province of batangas, southern luzon, philippines, between 14 september and 5 december 1988. the species of greatest prevalence and abundance were culicoides effusus delfinado, culicoides peregrinus kieffer, and culicoides palpifer sen & das gupta. engorged females of c. effusus, c. peregrinus, c. palpifer, culicoides oxystoma kieffer, culicoides arakawae ...19948158628
rapid detection of antigenic diversity of akabane virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.akabane (aka) virus is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the simbu group of the genus bunyavirus. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against aka virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. five distinct antigenic domains were identified and were designated a, b, c, d, and e. domains a and c consisted of two epitopes each. it was demonstrated that seven neutralizing epitopes exist on the g1 glycoprotein of aka virus. dot im ...19989521142
comparison of intertypic antigenicity of aino virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the aino virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. seven continuous and overlapping neutralizing epitopes existed on the g1 glycoprotein of the aino virus. two antigenic domains were identified and were designated i and ii, with domain ii consisting of six epitopes. dot immunobinding assays (dias) were performed with mabs that recognized these seven neutralizing epitopes. dias were ...200011060092
evidence of an antigenic shift among palyam serogroup orbiviruses.the japanese isolates of palyam serogroup viruses isolated from 1985 to 2001 were investigated for the genome sequence of segments 2 and 7 and were phylogenetically analyzed in comparison with australian and african isolates of the same serogroup. the nucleotide sequences of segment 7 were highly conserved within japanese isolates (95.1 to 100%) and between japanese and taiwanese isolates (96.0 to 100%), whereas the identities between japanese and taiwanese isolates and australian and african is ...200415472317
isolation of bovine arboviruses from culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in southern japan: 1985--2002, surveillance for bovine arboviruses was conducted in kagoshima, located in the most southern part of the main islands of japan and known to be an area where bovine arboviral diseases have frequently been epidemic. culicoides biting midges were collected in a cowshed by light traps. a total of 456,300 culicoides biting midges representing 13 species were collected, and a portion of each pool of midges were tested for virus isolation. overall, 85 isolates of six different viruses we ...200515691010
bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by akabane virus in southern japan.akabane virus is a member of the genus orthobunyavirus in the family bunyaviridae. it is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. the virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. on the other hand, it is reported that the virus rar ...200818554406
epidemiological investigation of bovine ephemeral fever outbreaks in israel.outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever (bef) occurred in israel in 1990, 1999, and 2004. the main patterns of bef spread were similar in the 1990 and in 1999 epidemics, and the bef virus was probably carried in vectors transported by air streams across the rift valley and the red sea. in the 2004 outbreak, the primary focus of the disease was the southern mediterranean coastal plain and the disease agent was apparently brought by infected mosquitoes carried from their breeding site in the nile delt ...201020814543
flight behavior of adult culicoides oxystoma and culicoides maculatus under different temperatures in the laboratory.the flight behavior of adult culicoides biting midges is associated with their likelihood to reach nearby host animals and spread diseases. therefore, evaluating the effects of atmospheric factors on the flight performances of these insects is important for understanding the spread of diseases in various circumstances. we evaluated the effects of different temperatures on the flight behavior of culicoides oxystoma and culicoides maculatus under laboratory conditions. the flight activities for bo ...201120852889
Isolation of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 from Culicoides vector Captured in Livestock Farms and Sequence Analysis of the Viral Genome Segment-2.Bluetongue virus serotype-1 (BTV-1) was isolated from Culicoides oxystoma vectors captured on livestock farms in two places of Gujarat, India. The viruses were isolated on BHK-21 cells, which produced characteristic BTV-related cytopathic effects between 24 and 48 h post-infection. Virus antigen was demonstrated in infected cells at different passage by a BTV-specific sandwich ELISA. Further, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of viral genomic RNA revealed ten double-stranded ...201122151923
assessment of survival and body size variation in culicoides imicola (diptera: ceratopogonidae) as a function of cardinium (bacteriodetes) infection status.candidatus cardinium hertigii (bacteriodetes) is a maternally inherited endosymbiont known from several arthropods. its mechanisms for persistency in host populations are mostly by reproductive manipulation, though it has been occasionally reported to improve fitness parameters in several hosts. in culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midges, prevalence of cardinium infection was documented as moderate, with no detectable sex bias. we therefore investigated whether cardinium affects impo ...201323913434
characterization of viral communities of biting midges and identification of novel thogotovirus species and rhabdovirus genus.more than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them rna viruses represent the majority. ceratopogonidae (genus culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). they are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the oropouche virus. female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. in this context, ...201626978389
seroepidemiology of bluetongue in south bengal.with the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (bt) in the southern part of west bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of bt along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any.201627051176
comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and molecular biology techniques for identification of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midges in senegal.biting midges of the genus culicoides are implicated as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens. the morphological identification of these arthropods may be difficult because of a lack of detailed investigation of taxonomy for this species in africa. however, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) profiling is efficient for arthropod identification at the species level. this study established a spectrum database of culicoides spp. from senegal ...201425411169
first record of culicoides oxystoma kieffer and diversity of species within the schultzei group of culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midges in senegal.the schultzei group of culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout africa to northern asia and australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. the taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. in this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphol ...201324386366
molecular identification, phylogenetic status, and geographic distribution of culicoides oxystoma (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in israel.culicoides oxystoma (diptera: ceratopogonidae) is an important vector species, reported mainly from asia, with high potential to transmit viral diseases affecting livestock. in japan, many arboviruses have been isolated from c. oxystoma, suggesting it as a key player in the epidemiology of several culicoides-borne diseases. over the years, c. oxystoma has also been reported in the middle east region, including israel. in this region, however, c. oxystoma cannot be easily distinguished morphologi ...201222438964
a preliminary study on the insect fauna of al-baha province, saudi arabia, with descriptions of two new species.a preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of al-baha province, south-western part of saudi arabia. a total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. two of these species are described as new, namely: monomorium sarawatensis sharaf & aldawood, sp. n. [formicidae, hymenoptera] and anthrax alruqibi el-hawagry sp. n. [bombyliidae, diptera]. another eight species are recorded for the ...201323794807
seasonal dynamics of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of african horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the niayes area of senegal.the african horse sickness epizootic in senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses. the vectors involved in the transmission of this arbovirus have never been studied specifically in senegal. this first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of african horse sickness in senegal, was conducted at five sites (mbao, parc hann, niague, pout and thies) in the niayes ...201424690198
insight on the larval habitat of afrotropical culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in the niayes area of senegal, west africa.certain biting midges species of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are vectors of virus to livestock worldwide. culicoides larval ecology has remained overlooked because of difficulties to identify breeding sites, methodological constraints to collect samples and lack of morphological tools to identify field-collected individuals to the species level. after the 2007 unforeseen outbreaks of african horse sickness virus (ahsv) in senegal (west africa), there is a need to identify sui ...201627549191
circadian activity of culicoides oxystoma (diptera: ceratopogonidae), potential vector of bluetongue and african horse sickness viruses in the niayes area, senegal.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are important vectors of arboviruses in africa. culicoides oxystoma has been recently recorded in the niayes region of senegal (west africa) and its high abundance on horses suggests a potential implication in the transmission of the african horse sickness virus in this region. this species is also suspected to transmit bluetongue virus to imported breeds of sheep. little information is available on the biology and ecology of culicoides in afri ...201526002826
culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of african horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the niayes area of senegal.african horse sickness (ahs) is an equine disease endemic to senegal. the african horse sickness virus (ahsv) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the culicoides latreille genus. during the last epizootic outbreak of ahs in senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. in spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of ahs, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact betwee ...201525604465
host-seeking activity of bluetongue virus vectors: endo/exophagy and circadian rhythm of culicoides in western europe.feeding success of free-living hematophagous insects depends on their ability to be active when hosts are available and to reach places where hosts are accessible. when the hematophagous insect is a vector of pathogens, determining the components of host-seeking behavior is of primary interest for the assessment of transmission risk. our aim was to describe endo/exophagy and circadian host-seeking activity of palaearctic culicoides species, which are major biting pests and arbovirus vectors, usi ...201223144735
bunyavirus-vector interactions.the bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the hantavirus, orthobunyavirus, nairovirus, tospovirus, and phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. the viruses within the orthobunyavirus, nairovirus, and phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. this review present ...201425402172
modelling the abundances of two major culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species in the niayes area of senegal, considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses were caused by the african horse sickness (ahs) epizootic in 2007. culicoides oxystoma and culicoides imicola, known or suspected of being vectors of bluetongue and ahs viruses are two predominant species in the vicinity of horses and are present all year-round in niayes area, senegal. the aim of this study was to better understand the environmental and climatic drivers of the dynamics of these two specie ...201526121048
implicating culicoides biting midges as vectors of schmallenberg virus using semi-quantitative rt-pcr.the recent unprecedented emergence of arboviruses transmitted by culicoides biting midges in northern europe has necessitated the development of techniques to differentiate competent vector species. at present these techniques are entirely reliant upon interpretation of semi-quantitative rt-pcr (sqpcr) data in the form of cq values used to infer the presence of viral rna in samples.201323520481
bovine arboviruses in culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle in southern japan from 2003 to 2013.epizootic congenital abnormalities, encephalomyelitis and febrile illnesses in cattle caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are prevalent in japan. causative viruses including orthobunyaviruses, orbiviruses and rhabdovirus are thought to be transmitted by culicoides biting midges. recently, the incursions of several arboviruses, potentially culicoides-borne, were newly confirmed in japan. however, their spread pattern and exact vector species are currently uncertain. attempts to isolat ...201625597441
isolation of haemolytic bacilli from field-collected culicoides oxystoma and culicoides peregrinus: potential vectors of bluetongue virus in west bengal, india.two haemolytic bacterial strains of bacillus pumilus (cu1a, cu1b) and one blood-utilizing strain of bacillus licheniformis (cu2b) were isolated from relatively low numbers of field-collected females of culicoides oxystoma and culicoides peregrinus (diptera: ceratopogonidae). a total of 36 females, including 18 of each of c. oxystoma and c. peregrinus (consisting of one and a pool of eight blood-engorged specimens, and one and a pool of eight non-engorged specimens for each species), were tested. ...201525644315
host preferences and circadian rhythm of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae), vectors of african horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in senegal.african horse sickness- and bluetongue virus are orbiviruses transmitted by culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) to horses and to ruminants, respectively. since the last epizootic outbreak of african horse sickness in 2007 in senegal, extensive investigations have been undertaken to improve our knowledge on culicoides species involved locally in the transmission of the virus. the purpose of this study was to compare and quantify the host preferences of potential vectors of these o ...201526099680
foraging range of arthropods with veterinary interest: new insights for afrotropical culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) using the ring method.the identification of blood meal source of arthropod vector species contributes to the understanding of host-vector-pathogen interactions. the aim of the current work was to identify blood meal source in culicoides biting midge species, biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equids, using a new ecological approach. we examined the correlation between blood meal source identified in engorged culicoides females collected in a suction light trap and the availab ...201626826391
molecular identification of field-collected culicoides larvae in the southern part of japan.although culicoides biting midges act as a vector of important human and domestic animal diseases, their ecology is poorly understood. the lack of proper identification systems of culicoides larvae is one of the main obstacles to progress in research. based on mitochondrial sequences of 19 japanese culicoides species, we designed a universal primer set to amplify the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase i (cox 1). the polymerase chain reaction product amplified from extract ...201324180116
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