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characterization of two recessive genes controlling resistance to all races of bacterial spot in peppers.bacterial spot, one of the most damaging diseases of pepper, is caused by xanthomonas euvesicatoria. this pathogen has worldwide distribution and it is particularly devastating in tropical and sub-tropical regions where high temperatures and frequent precipitation provide ideal conditions for disease development. three dominant resistance genes have been deployed singly and in combination in commercial cultivars, but have been rendered ineffectual by the high mutation rate or deletion of the cor ...201020180094
comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper.bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. the four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. the genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xcv) has been previously reported. to determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing ...201121396108
fine mapping and analysis of a candidate gene in tomato accession pi128216 conferring hypersensitive resistance to bacterial spot race t3.bacterial spot caused by xanthomonas euvesicatoria, x. vesicatoria, x. perforans and x. gardneri is one of the most destructive diseases in tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l.) growing in tropical and subtropical regions. exploring resistance genes from diverse germplasm and incorporating them into cultivated varieties are critical for controlling this disease. the s. pimpinellifolium accession pi128216 was reported to carry the rx4 gene on chromosome 11 conferring hypersensitivity and field resis ...201122038434
evolutionary and experimental assessment of novel markers for detection of xanthomonas euvesicatoria in plant samples.bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (bsx) are quarantine phytopathogenic bacteria responsible for heavy losses in tomato and pepper production. despite the research on improved plant spraying methods and resistant cultivars, the use of healthy plant material is still considered as the most effective bacterial spot control measure. therefore, rapid and efficient detection methods are crucial for an early detection of these phytopathogens.201222655073
role of blossom colonization in pepper seed infestation by xanthomonas euvesicatoria.colonization of xanthomonas euvesicatoria was investigated in pepper blossoms and the relationship between inoculum concentrations and seed infestation was determined. inoculation of blossoms resulted in asymptomatic pepper fruit. however, real-time polymerase chain reaction detected x. euvesicatoria in 39% of the seed lots assayed and viable colonies were recovered from 35% of them. successful transmission occurred in 16% of the seed lots tested. in a separate experiment, x. euvesicatoria reach ...201424111576
xanthomonas euvesicatoria type iii effector xopq interacts with tomato and pepper 14-3-3 isoforms to suppress effector-triggered immunity.effector-triggered immunity (eti) to host-adapted pathogens is associated with rapid cell death at the infection site. the plant-pathogenic bacterium xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xcv) interferes with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type iii secretion system. here, we show that the xcv effector xopq suppresses cell death induced by components of the eti-associated map kinase cascade mapkkkα mek2/sipk and by several r/avr gene pairs. inactivation o ...201424279912
multiple xanthomonas euvesicatoria type iii effectors inhibit flg22-triggered immunity.xanthomonas euvesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. x. euvesicatoria bacteria interfere with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type iii secretion (t3s) system. about 35 t3s effectors have been identified in x. euvesicatoria 85-10, and a few of them were implicated in suppression of pattern-triggered immunity (pti). we used an arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify x. euvesic ...201627529660
eggplant and related species are promising genetic resources to dissect the plant immune response to pseudomonas syringae and xanthomonas euvesicatoria and to identify new resistance determinants.the apparent lack of durability of many resistance (r) genes highlights the need for the constant identification of new genetic sources of resistance for the breeding of new disease-resistant crop cultivars. to this end, we screened a collection of accessions of eggplant and close relatives for resistance against pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (pto) and xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xeu), foliar plant pathogens of many solanaceous crops. both pathogens caused substantial disease on most genotypes ...201424684604
purification, biochemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of a new lipid transfer protein from coffea canephora seeds.coffee, an agronomical crop of great economic importance, is also among the most commonly traded commodities in worldwide markets. antimicrobial peptides, which play a role in plant defense, have been identified and isolated particularly from seeds. we isolated and immunolocalized cc-ltp2, a new lipid transfer protein (ltp) from coffea canephora seeds. we report its antimicrobial activity against various phytopathogenic fungi of economic importance, and against the bacterium xanthomonas euvesica ...201627813588
popw activates pamp-triggered immunity in controlling tomato bacterial spot disease.popw, a protein elicitor, reduces tomato bacterial spot disease caused by xanthomonas euvesicatoria (x.e.) with a significantly decreased titer of x.e., achieving more than 50% biocontrol efficacy. along with phenotype changes, apparent reactive oxygen species (ros) burst and callose deposition were triggered by popw at the cellular level; the mrna abundance of pamp-triggered immunity (pti)-associated marker genes (pti5, lrr22, gras2) was increased by popw at the molecular level. these results d ...201526071355
sub-species diversity of xanthomonas euvesicatoria bulgarian and macedonian strains from pepper.sub-species diversity of pepper populations of xanthomonas euvesicatoria in bulgaria and macedonia in 2012 was the object of this study. species determination of 44 strains was performed by molecular methods using two pairs of species-specific primers and rflp (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of the 16s-23s its region with hpaii. the populations were characterized by genotypic and phenotypic properties. the genotypic diversity of the strains was evaluated by rapd (random ampli ...201426019547
draft genome sequences of two xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains from the balkan peninsula.we report the draft genome sequences of two xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains from the balkan peninsula, which were isolated from symptomatic pepper plants. the availability of these genome sequences will facilitate the development of modern genotyping assays for x. euvesicatoria strains and to define targets for resistance breeding.201525657284
bacterial spot of tomato and pepper: diverse xanthomonas species with a wide variety of virulence factors posing a worldwide challenge.bacteria; phylum proteobacteria; class gammaproteobacteria; order xanthomonadales; family xanthomonadaceae; genus xanthomonas; species xanthomonas euvesicatoria, xanthomonas vesicatoria, xanthomonas perforans and xanthomonas gardneri.201525649754
simultaneous detection and identification of the xanthomonas species complex associated with tomato bacterial spot using species-specific primers and multiplex pcr.to establish protocols for the simultaneous detection and identification of xanthomonas species causing tomato bacterial spot.201222900936
tracking and identification of antibacterial components in the essential oil of tanacetum vulgare l. by the combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography with direct bioautography and mass spectrometry.two tansy (tanacetum vulgare l.) essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the capitula with subsequent liquid-liquid extraction (oil 1) or with use of an auxiliary phase for the trapping of the steam components (oil 2). these oils were investigated against bacillus subtilis f1276, b. subtilis spizizenii (dsm 618), xanthomonas euvesicatoria, pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, ralstonia solanacearum strain gmi1000 and aliivibrio fischeri, using the coupling of high-performance thin- ...201526499972
identification of new protein-coding genes with a potential role in the virulence of the plant pathogen xanthomonas euvesicatoria.bacteria of the genus xanthomonas are economically important plant pathogens. pathogenicity of xanthomonas spp. depends on the type iii-secretion system and additional virulence determinants. the number of sequenced xanthomonas genomes increases rapidly, however, accurate annotation of these genomes is difficult, because it relies on gene prediction programs. in this study, we used a mass-spectrometry (ms)-based approach to identify the proteome of xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xe) strain 85-10 als ...201728814272
resistance of xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains from brazilian pepper to copper and zinc sulfates.bacterial spot, caused by xanthomonas spp., is one of the major bacterial diseases in pepper (capsicum annuum l.). the infection results in reduced crop yield, particularly during periods of high rainfall and temperature, due to the low efficiency of chemical control with copper bactericides. this study evaluated the copper and zinc sulfate sensitivity of 59 pathogenic strains of xanthomonas euvesicatoria isolated from pepper plants produced in various regions throughout brazil. both the respect ...201728746617
a risk assessment model for bacterial leaf spot (bls) of pepper (capsicum annuum l.), caused by xanthomonas euvesicatoria, based on concentrations of macronutrients and micronutrients and micronutrient ratios.the phytopathogenic bacterium xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial leaf spot (bls) of pepper and has a worldwide distribution. bls is difficult to control and an integrated management strategy that incorporates crop rotation, use of clean seeds and clean plants, weed control, resistant varieties, and applications of bactericides, biocontrol agents, and systemic acquired resistance (sar) inducers is generally recommended. however, even with that arsenal of weapons, bls can still be responsi ...201728686086
rapid, bioassay-guided process for the detection and identification of antibacterial neem oil compounds.bioassay guidance was used along the whole process including method development, isolation and identification of antibacterial neem (azadirachta indica) oil compounds. the biomonitoring was performed by direct bioautography (db), a combination of thin-layer chromatography (tlc) and antimicrobial detection. db of neem oil showed one antibacterial zone that was not uv-active; therefore, the tlc separation was improved under db control. the chromatographic zone that exhibited activity against bacil ...201626951543
avrrxo1 is a bifunctional type iii secreted effector and toxin-antitoxin system component with homologs in diverse environmental contexts.toxin-antitoxin (ta) systems are ubiquitous bacterial systems that may function in genome maintenance and metabolic stress management, but are also thought to play a role in virulence by helping pathogens survive stress. we previously demonstrated that the xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola protein avrrxo1 is a type iii-secreted virulence factor that has structural similarities to the zeta family of ta toxins, and is toxic to plants and bacteria in the absence of its predicted chaperone arc1. in t ...201627391081
xanthomonas type iii effector xopd desumoylates tomato transcription factor slerf4 to suppress ethylene responses and promote pathogen growth.xopd, a type iii secretion effector from xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xcv), the causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato, is required for pathogen growth and delay of host symptom development. xopd carries a c-terminal sumo protease domain, a host range determining nonspecific dna-binding domain and two ear motifs typically found in repressors of stress-induced transcription. the precise target(s) and mechanism(s) of xopd are obscure. we report that xopd directly targets the tomato ethylene respon ...201323414755
functional analysis of plant defense suppression and activation by the xanthomonas core type iii effector xopx.many phytopathogenic type iii secretion effector proteins (t3es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling but perturbation of the plant immune system by t3es can also elicit a plant response. xopx is a "core" xanthomonas t3e that contributes to growth and symptom development during xanthomonas euvesicatoria infection of tomato but its functional role is undefined. we tested the effect of xopx on several aspects of plant immune signaling. xopx promoted ethylene production and ...201525338145
phylogenomics of xanthomonas field strains infecting pepper and tomato reveals diversity in effector repertoires and identifies determinants of host specificity.bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato is caused by four distinct xanthomonas species and is a severely limiting factor on fruit yield in these crops. the genetic diversity and the type iii effector repertoires of a large sampling of field strains for this disease have yet to be explored on a genomic scale, limiting our understanding of pathogen evolution in an agricultural setting. genomes of 67 xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xe), xanthomonas perforans (xp), and xanthomonas gardneri (xg) strai ...201526089818
plant pathogen-induced water-soaking promotes salmonella enterica growth on tomato leaves.plant pathogen infection is a critical factor for the persistence of salmonella enterica on plants. we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of s. enterica on diseased tomato plants by using four diverse bacterial spot xanthomonas species that differ in disease severities. xanthomonas euvesicatoria and x. gardneri infection fostered s. enterica growth, while x. perforans infection did not induce growth but supported the persistence of s. enterica. x. vesicatoria-infected le ...201526386057
interactions of seedborne bacterial pathogens with host and non-host plants in relation to seed infestation and seedling transmission.the ability of seed-borne bacterial pathogens (acidovorax citrulli, clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, xanthomonas euvesicatoria, and pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea) to infest seeds of host and non-host plants (watermelon, tomato, pepper, and soybean) and subsequent pathogen transmission to seedlings was investigated. a non-pathogenic, pigmented strain of serratia marcescens was also included to assess a null-interacting situation with the same pl ...201424936863
genomic survey of pathogenicity determinants and vntr markers in the cassava bacterial pathogen xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain cio151.xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in africa and south america. current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable too ...201324278159
whole-genome sequences of xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains clarify taxonomy and reveal a stepwise erosion of type 3 effectors.multiple species of xanthomonas cause bacterial spot of tomato (bst) and pepper. we sequenced five xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains isolated from three continents (africa, asia, and south america) to provide a set of representative genomes with temporal and geographic diversity. lmg strains 667, 905, 909, and 933 were pathogenic on tomato and pepper, except lmg 918 elicited a hypersensitive reaction (hr) on tomato. furthermore, lmg 667, 909, and 918 elicited a hr on early cal wonder 30r contain ...201628018370
Computational and Biochemical Analysis of the Xanthomonas Effector AvrBs2 and Its Role in the Modulation of Xanthomonas Type Three Effector Delivery.Effectors of the bacterial type III secretion system provide invaluable molecular probes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plant immunity and pathogen virulence. In this report, we focus on the AvrBs2 effector protein from the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. Employing homology-based structural analysis, we generate a three-dimensional structural model for the AvrBs2 protein and identify catalytic sites in ...201122144898
avirulence proteins avrbs7 from xanthomonas gardneri and avrbs1.1 from xanthomonas euvesicatoria contribute to a novel gene-for-gene interaction in pepper.a novel hypersensitive resistance (hr) in capsicum baccatum var. pendulum against the bacterial spot of pepper pathogen, xanthomonas gardneri, was introgressed into c. annuum cv. early calwonder (ecw) to create the near-isogenic line designated as ecw-70r. a corresponding avirulence gene avrbs7, in x. gardneri elicited a strong hr in ecw-70r. a homolog of avrbs7, avrbs1.1, was found in x. euvesicatoria strain 85-10, which showed delayed hr on ecw-70r leaves. genetic analysis confirmed the presen ...201122112215
pcr-based assay for the detection of xanthomonas euvesicatoria causing pepper and tomato bacterial spot.to develop a pcr-based assay for xanthomonas euvesicatoria detection in culture and in planta.200919674291
suppression of the bacterial spot pathogen xanthomonas euvesicatoria on tomato leaves by an attenuated mutant of xanthomonas perforans.a bacteriocin-producing strain of the bacterial spot of tomato plant pathogen, xanthomonas perforans, with attenuated pathogenicity was deployed for biocontrol of a bacteriocin-sensitive strain of the genetically closely related bacterial spot of tomato plant pathogen, x. euvesicatoria. the attenuated mutant (91-118deltaopghdeltabcnb) of x. perforans was tested in leaf tissue and shown to significantly inhibit internal populations of the wild-type x. euvesicatoria strain although significantly l ...200919286785
phylogenetic structure of xanthomonas determined by comparison of gyrb sequences.previously, we have produced a phylogeny of species type strains from the plant-pathogenic genus xanthomonas based on gyrb sequences. to evaluate this locus further for species and infraspecies identification, we sequenced an additional 203 strains comprising all the pathovar reference strains (which have defined plant hosts), 67 poorly characterized pathovars, currently classified as xanthomonas campestris, and 59 unidentified xanthomonads. the well-characterized pathovars grouped either in cla ...200919196764
characterization of avrhah1, a novel avrbs3-like effector from xanthomonas gardneri with virulence and avirulence activity.many phytopathogenic bacteria inject virulence effector proteins into plant cells. to identify novel virulence effectors of the bacterial plant pathogen xanthomonas, a worldwide collection of pepper (capsicum annuum) pathogenic xanthomonas strains was studied. xanthomonas gardneri strains produced in pepper enhanced watersoaking, a phenotype that is typical of a compatible interaction. transfer of x. gardneri library clones into a xanthomonas euvesicatoria recipient strain revealed that enhanced ...200819086184
systemic modulation of gene expression in tomato by trichoderma hamatum 382.abstract a light sphagnum peat mix inoculated with trichoderma hamatum 382 consistently provided a significant (p = 0.05) degree of protection against bacterial spot of tomato and its pathogen xanthomonas euvesicatoria 110c compared with the control peat mix, even though this biocontrol agent did not colonize aboveground plant parts. to gain insight into the mechanism by which t. hamatum 382 induced resistance in tomato, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays were used to determine its effect ...200718943283
relative importance of bacteriocin-like genes in antagonism of xanthomonas perforans tomato race 3 to xanthomonas euvesicatoria tomato race 1 strains.in a previous study, tomato race 3 (t3) strains of xanthomonas perforans became predominant in fields containing both x. euvesicatoria and x. perforans races t1 and t3, respectively. this apparent ability to take over fields led to the discovery that there are three bacteriocin-like compounds associated with t3 strains. t3 strain 91-118 produces at least three different bacteriocin-like compounds (bcn-a, bcn-b, and bcn-c) antagonistic toward t1 strains. we determined the relative importance of t ...200516000765
reclassification of the xanthomonads associated with bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper.four phenotypic xanthomonad groups have been identified that are pathogenic to pepper, tomato, or both hosts. these include groups a and c which are found in xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, group b found in x. vesicatoria, and group d found in 'x. gardneri'. we present dna:dna hybridization data in which x. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria group a and c strains have less than 70% dna relatedness with each other, with the type strain of x. axonopodis, and with the currently classified species w ...200415612634
quantification of ethylene production in tomato leaves infected by xanthomonas euvesicatoria.ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone controlling fruit ripening, flower opening, leaf senescence as well as abscission, and disease symptom development. ethylene plays a critical role in the bacterial pathogen xanthomonas euvesicatoria (x. euvesicatoria)-elicited symptom development in tomato. this protocol describes the measurement of ethylene gas produced by tomato leaves infected with x. euvesicatoria. infected leaflets are placed in a glass tube for 30 min without sealing. the glass tubes are ...201627446982
xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in korea.in 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (bsx) were reclassified into 4 species-xanthomonas euvesicatoria, x. vesicatoria, x. perforans, and x. gardneri. bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in korea is known to be caused by both x. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and x. vesicatoria. here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locati ...201627721693
complete genome sequences of six copper-resistant xanthomonas strains causing bacterial spot of solaneous plants, belonging to x. gardneri, x. euvesicatoria, and x. vesicatoria, using long-read technology.xanthomonas vesicatoria, xanthomonas euvesicatoria, and xanthomonas gardneri cause bacterial spot disease. copper has been applied since the 1920s as part of integrated management programs. the first copper-resistant strains were reported some decades later. here, we fully sequenced six xanthomonas strains pathogenic to tomato and/or pepper and having a copper-resistant phenotype.201728232425
occurrence of copper-resistant strains and a shift in xanthomonas spp. causing tomato bacterial spot in ontario.field strains of tomato bacterial spot pathogen (xanthomonas euvesicatoria, x. vesicatoria, x. perforans, and x. gardneri) were characterized for sensitivity to copper and species composition. a total of 98 strains were isolated from symptomatic leaf and fruit samples collected from 18 tomato fields in ontario. in greenhouse pathogenicity tests, most of the field strains caused severe (37 strains) to highly severe (23 strains) symptoms on 'bonny best' tomato plants, whereas 38 strains caused mod ...201526308592
identification of novel xanthomonas euvesicatoria type iii effector proteins by a machine-learning approach.the gram-negative bacterium xanthomonas euvesicatoria (xcv) is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. xcv pathogenicity depends on a type iii secretion (t3s) system that delivers effector proteins into host cells to suppress plant immunity and promote disease. the pool of known xcv effectors includes approximately 30 proteins, most identified in the 85-10 strain by various experimental and computational techniques. to identify additional xcv 85-10 effectors, we applied ...201626104875
comparative genomics identifies a novel conserved protein, hpat, in proteobacterial type iii secretion systems that do not possess the putative translocon protein hrpf.xanthomonas translucens is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, the most common bacterial disease of wheat and barley. to cause disease, most xanthomonads depend on a highly conserved type iii secretion system, which translocates type iii effectors into host plant cells. mutagenesis of the conserved type iii secretion gene hrct confirmed that the x. translucens type iii secretion system is required to cause disease on the host plant barley and to trigger a non-host hypersensitive response ...201728694803
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