the efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.ectoparasites of sheep in britain include the tick ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, lucilia sericata, the ked, melophagus ovinus and the lice, damalinia ovis and linognathus ovillus. the most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. this notifiable disease was eradicated from britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. the control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. plunge dippin ...197876363
trypanosma (megatrypanum) melophagium: modes of attachment of parasites to mid-gut, hindgut and rectum of the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus. 1975239553
digestive processes of haematophagous insects--ii. trypsin from the sheep ked melophagus ovinus (l.) (hippoboscidae, diptera) and its inhibition by mammalian sera. 19724122948
[comparative elctrophoretic studies on blood sera of weaned lambs infested with melophagus ovinus]. 19744138735
melophagus ovinus: feeding mechanism on transilluminated mouse ear. 19695401458
effect of protein and vitamin a intake of sheep on numbers of the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus l. 19665949426
the ecological age of the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.) (diptera: hippoboscidae). 19846531930
[clinical picture and histological characteristics of so-called benign lymphadenosis of the skin caused by the bite of a hematophagous insect, the melophagus ovinus linneaus]. 195213012913
mortality in the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.), caused by trypanosoma melophagium flu. 195613369533
purine excretion by the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.). 195813566206
development in sheep of resistance to the ked melophagus ovinus (l.). iii. histopathology of sheep skin as a clue to the nature of resistance. 196313938065
development in sheep of resistance to the ked melophagus ovinus (l.). i. effects of seasonal manipulation of infestations. 196214478949
development in sheep of resistance to the ked melophagus ovinus (l.). ii. effects of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisone. 196214478950
a review of melophagus ovinus (l.), the sheep ked.the sheep ked melophagus ovinus is a member of the parasitic dipteran family hippoboscidae; it was a widespread ectoparasite of sheep that was of veterinary importance until the introduction of effective pesticides. since then it has become of less concern and may have become a relatively uncommon species through much of its former range. changes in agricultural practice, both greater intensification and development of more extensive systems (including organic farming and conservation grazing), ...200515893081
role of hippoboscidae flies as potential vectors of bartonella spp. infecting wild and domestic ruminants.the putative role of biting flies in bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. amplification of the bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 m. ovinus pupae. our findings suggest that hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of bartonella among ruminants. the vertical transmission of bartonella in m. ovinus and ...200415466580
transfer/of sheep keds, melophagus ovinus (l.), from ewes to their lambs. 195813493600
the morphology of ovine trypanosoma melophagium (zoomastigophorea: kinetoplastida).morphologic and biometric data on bloodstream stages of trypanosoma melophagium are presented. an increasing parasitemia with 111 trypomastigote stages of t. melophagium were found in giemsa-stained thin blood smears taken from a splenectomized, cortisone-treated sheep recently infested with melophagus ovinus infected with t. melophagium . the arithmetic mean and standard deviation in micron of the distances between posterior end and kinetoplast were 14.7 and 2.9, from the kinetoplastic to the c ...19846737322
[melophagus ovinus and trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in ovines in the state of minas gerais, brazil]. 19836645943
the treatment and eradication of sheep lice and ked with cyhalothrin--a new synthetic pyrethroid.a new synthetic pyrethroid, cyhalothrin, has been evaluated as both a sheep dip and a jetting fluid for the control of body lice (damalinia ovis), face lice (linognathus ovillus), foot lice (linognathus pedalis) and the sheep ked (melophagus ovinus). a dip wash concentration of 1.25 ppm cyhalothrin eradicated d. ovis from sheep. a jetting fluid at a concentration of 20 ppm also eradicated d. ovis. in the field cyhalothrin was evaluated at 20 ppm as a dip wash and at 50 ppm as a jetting fluid. th ...19846534357
recent insecticides: their efficacy as plunge dips against the biting louse, damalinia ovis, and the ked, melophagus ovinus, on sheep. 19705285871
the distribution and dynamics of ked populations, melophagus ovinus linn. 194818876878
the distribution of rickettsia in the tissues of insects and the absence of a satisfactory definition of rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and gram-negative. rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: amblyomma americana, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, atomus sp., casinaria infesta, chrysopa oculata, ctenocephalus canis, dermacentor variabilis, lepisma saccharina, lucoppia curviseta, margaropus annulatus, margaropus annulatus australis, ...192319868737
ectoparasites are the major causes of various types of skin lesions in small ruminants in ethiopia.ectoparasites are the major causes of skin lesions in animals. clinical, skin scraping examination, and histopathological studies were conducted to identify and characterize skin lesions in small ruminants caused by ectoparasites. mange mites, lice, sheep keds, and ticks were collected from the skin of affected animals for species identification. skin biopsies were collected from affected part of the skin and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. of 1,000 sheep and 600 goats ...201020195754
[comparative testing of the effect of some chemotherapeutic agents on the sheep ked (melophagus ovinus)]. 19744857248
[the occurrence of melophagus ovinus (linne, 1761) on sheep in the wroclaw province]. 19724676719
preliminary bluetongue transmission with the sheep ked melophagus ovinus (l.).five experiments indicated that the sheep ked melophagus ovinus (l.), can transmit bluetongue virus (btv) in sheep. it was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. sheep keds were manually transferred from a btv-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for btv. three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep ...19654221988
a method for observing the life-cycle of melophagus ovinus (linn.). 194620987673
aspects of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of sheep to the ked melophagus ovinus (diptera: hippoboscidae). 19854045948
bites from sheep ked (melophagus ovinus). 194621065068
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sheep keds (melophagus ovinus), tibet, china. 201021168285
test of the sheep ked melophagus ovinus (l) as a vector of anaplasma ovis lestoquard.the sheep ked melophagus ovinus was evaluated as a possible vector of anaplasma ovis. in 4 tests, 45 to 293 keds were transferred from sheep with acute anaplasmosis, low level parasitemia, or carrier state of anaplasmosis to individual splenectomized ewes. keds were confined in stockinette cages attached to the dorsal midline of the recipient hosts for 10 days. throughout the 90-day observation periods after the keds were transferred, no clinical, serologic, or hematologic evidence of anaplasmos ...19863717726
arbovirological survey in silica plateau area, roznava district, czechoslovakia.the serosurveys conducted in the silica plateau area of the slovak karst region revealed the presence of specific neutralizing antibody against tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus in 18% of local inhabitants (33 examined, mostly goats and sheep farmers), 54% of goats (26 examined), 18% of sheep (120 examined) and 13% of cattle (60 examined), against lipovník (lip) virus in 30% of inhabitants, 88% of goats, 55% of sheep and 45% of cattle, and against bhanja (bha) virus in 27% of inhabitants, 46% ...19863701055
seasonal movement and spatial distribution of the sheep ked (diptera: hippoboscidae) on wyoming lambs.when populations of adult sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.), infesting unshorn lambs were monitored at the university of wyoming paradise farm during 1986, we determined the body regions on which keds would be found at various times of the year and their seasonal population trends for optimal sampling. results suggested that ked populations were consistently greater on the ribs than on any other area of the lamb. no significant differences were detected for ked populations between sides of a lam ...19911744299
trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus. a scanning electron microscope (sem) study of the parasites and the insect gut wall surfaces.a description of the different stages of trypanosoma (m.) melophagium in different regions of the gut of the sheep ked (melophagus ovinus) as observed by the sem is presented. the extensive pile carpet or palisade colonization of the midgut and pylorus is described. the method of attachment and the relationship of the parasites to the microvilli in the midgut and the cuticle of the pylorus and ileum observed by other methods are confirmed. the micro-structure of the surfaces themselves in the re ...197832751
molecular detection of acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in oromia regional state, ethiopia.this study was conducted to determine the presence of acinetobacter and rickettsia species dna in lice and melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from oromia regional state in ethiopia. from september through november 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: linognathus vituli (l. vituli), bovicola bovis (b. bovis) and solenopotes capillatus (s. capillatus) on c ...201223285015
ectoparasites prevalence in small ruminants in and around sekela, amhara regional state, northwest ethiopia.this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around sekela, northwest ethiopia. clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. the collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. the prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, ctenoce ...201526464950
immunological responses to parasitic arthropods.parasitic arthropods are responsible for enormous economic losses to livestock producers throughout the world. these production losses may range from simple irritation caused by biting and non-biting flies to deaths and/or damage to carcass, fleece, or skin resulting from attack by myiasis flies. the estimated costs of these losses are colossal but even these usually include only direct losses and ignore those associated with pesticide application. in the usa alone (in 1976), these losses were c ...198715462916
high pressure sprays in control of the sheep tick (melophagus ovinus linn). 195014794539
the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus l. ii. keds acquired by a lamb from its mother. 195813600861
the parasitic fauna of the european bison (bison bonasus) (linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. part 1. the summarising list of parasites noted.during the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in bison bonasus. these are 22 species of protozoa (trypanosoma wrublewskii, t. theileri, giardia sp., sarcocystis cruzi, s. hirsuta, s. hominis, s. fusiformis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., eimeria cylindrica, e. subspherica, e. bovis, e. zuernii, e. canadensis, e. ellipsoidalis, e. alabamensis, e. bukidnonensis, e. auburnensis, e. pellita, e. brasiliensis, babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species ...201425119348
the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus l. i. dissemination potential. 195813600860
weight gains and wool growth in sheep infested with the sheep ked melophagus ovinus. 19685690044
ultrastructure of the fibrous matrix surrounding cells of trypanosoma melophagium in the hind-gut of the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus.a fibrous material surrounds cells of trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the hind-gut of the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus, and terminates just beyond the distal portions of the attached cells. the fibres of this extracellular matrix have a diameter of approximately 4 nm and are closely packed. individual fibres have approximately the same orientation as adjacent fibres and usually lie parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parasite cells.19853833459
bivalent structure in the fly, melophagus ovinus l. (pupipara, hippoboscidae). 194116577996
the occurrence of parasitic arthropods in two groups of european bison in the białowieza primeval forest.within 1992-2000, a total of 181 białowieza forest bison were examined from two winter herds. twelf parasitic arthropod species were observed, a high infestation being typical of demodex bisonianius, chorioptes bovis, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus, and bisonicola sedecimdecembrii. the infestation in section 422 herd being higher for b. sedecimdecembrii, i. ricinus, d. reticulatus, ch. bovis. d. bisonianus was slightly more prevalent in the section 391 herd, the intensity being, however ...200116886430
candidatus sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: phylogenetically independent comparative model to the tsetse fly symbiont sodalis glossinidius.bacteria of the genus sodalis live in symbiosis with various groups of insects. the best known member of this group, a secondary symbiont of tsetse flies sodalis glossinidius, has become one of the most important models in investigating establishment and evolution of insect-bacteria symbiosis. it represents a bacterium in the early/intermediate state of the transition towards symbiosis, which allows for exploring such interesting topics as: usage of secretory systems for entering the host cell, ...201222815743
molecular survey of arthropod-borne pathogens in sheep keds (melophagus ovinus), central the study, we screened a total of 399 adult sheep keds (melophagus ovinus) for the presence of rna and dna specific for arboviral, bacterial, and protozoan vector-borne pathogens. all investigated keds were negative for flaviviruses, phleboviruses, bunyaviruses, borrelia burgdorferi, rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, "candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis," and babesia spp. all ked pools were positive for bartonella dna. the sequencing of the amplified fragments of the glta and 16s-23s ...201627325400
bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (ovis aries) and sheep keds (melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern us: cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern united states. the sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that b. melophagi relates to but differ from other bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. presence of 183 genes specific for b. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other bartonella species associated with ruminants also su ...201627283855
bartonella melophagi in melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern oromia, ethiopia.melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. the present study was conducted from january 2012 to july 2013 on m. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in ethiopia. of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with m. ovinus. the prevalence of m. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the kimbibit, chacha and shano sites, respectively. an overall numbe ...201424326024
quantitative trait loci (qtl) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living soay sheep (ovis aries).a genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (qtl) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living soay sheep population on st. kilda (uk). the mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. the soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cm. the traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (fec), th ...200717067607
melophagus ovinus (pupipara: hippoboscidae): confirmation of the nonpathogenicity of trypanosoma melophagium for sheep keds. 19817240781
comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on melophagus ovinus (l.) in darab ecotype goats of southern iran.the efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against melophagus ovinus in darab ecotype goats of iran. twenty-four healthy iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). an experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 m. ovinus on the body of each animal. groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, re ...200717587499
studies on bluetongue - i. infectivity of the virus in the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.). 196117649325
metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in st kilda soay sheep.for hundreds of years, the unmanaged soay sheep population on st kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. important parasite taxa in young soay sheep are strongyles (trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus vitrinus and teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 eimeria species) and keds (melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, teladorsagia circumcincta. in this research, associat ...200818215336
ddt dips for the control of sheep ticks, melophagus ovinus. 194720256926
ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of tigray region, ethiopia.a study on ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of tigray region, ethiopia disclosed an overall prevalence of 55.5% and 58% in each examined 750 sheep and goats, respectively. in the sheep population, melophagus ovinus (19.1%), tick infestations (16%), damalinia ovis (15.3%), linognathus africanus (11.5%), and ctenocephalides felis (9%) were the major ectoparasites. the major ectoparasites identified in goats were tick infestations (29.7%), l. africanus (27.9% ...201020369295
the micro-organisms in melophagus ovinus. 194620994545
ectoparasites of livestock and companion animals in new zealand.abstract extract principal livestock species in new zealand, namely sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, horses and deer, are hosts, collectively to at least 45 species of ectoparasites, whereas companion animals such as dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs and ferrets, share about 30 species. tenquist and charleston (2001) provide a host/parasite checklist of all species, together with limited information on distribution and aspects of nomenclature. many of the parasites are not host-specific and none is re ...200221838631
first molecular evidence of anaplasma ovis and rickettsia spp. in keds (diptera: hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. dna was extracted individually or in pools. anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living dee ...201121923269
trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked melophagus ovinus from organic farms in croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite melophagus ovinus (diptera: hippoboscidae). sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in croatia, southeastern europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with t. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rrna, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrog ...201122168919
first report of rickettsia raoultii and r. slovaca in melophagus ovinus, the sheep ked.melophagus ovinus (diptera: hippoboscidae), a hematophagous ectoparasite, is mainly found in europe, northwestern africa, and asia. this wingless fly infests sheep, rabbits, and red foxes, and causes inflammation, wool loss and skin damage. furthermore, this parasite has been shown to transmit diseases, and plays a role as a vector. herein, we investigated the presence of various rickettsia species in m. ovinus.201627884170
prevalence of external parasites in the south eastern desert of egypt.external parasites in the triangle region (halaib & shalatin) affecting the animal health were studied. ectoparasites were collected in several sites by using bait traps and directly from animal bodies. results indicated the presence of twelve species of insects belonging to seven genera included in three families (calliphoridae, muscidae and sarcophagidae). concerning ectoparasites on animal bodies, there were two species of biting lice infested goats and sheep (bovicola caprae and b. ovis, res ...200112557945
in vivo and in vitro effects of imidacloprid on sheep keds (melophagus ovinus): a light and electron microscopic study.the effects of imidacloprid (advantage) on sheep keds (melophagus ovinus linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. it was found that: 1. imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. the compound is apparently taken up by the ...200111355684
ultrastructural investigation of antennae in three cutaneous myiasis flies: melophagus ovinus, hippobosca equina, and hippobosca longipennis (diptera: hippoboscidae).melophagus ovinus (linnaeus 1758), hippobosca equina linnaeus, 1758, and hippobosca longipennis fabricius, 1805 (diptera: hippoboscidae) are economically and medically important ectoparasites that can act as mechanic vectors of pathogens and cause myiasis in both human and domestic animals. as essential olfactory organs, antennae of these adult hippoboscids were examined using stereoscopic and scanning electron microscopes. general morphology of the antenna is provided in detail, combined with d ...201525707367
ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central oromia, ethiopia.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central oromia, ethiopia, from october 2009 to april 2010. the study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. the ectoparasites identified were bovicola ovis (27.2%), melophagus ovinus (16.4%), ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), linognathus africanus (1.2%), linognathus ovillus (0.3%), sarcop ...201223327319
records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of greenland.during recent archaeological excavations in viking greenland, specimens of the human flea, pulex irritans l., and the body louse, pediculus humanus humanus l., were recovered from several farmsteads. bovicola ovis (schrank) and the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.), also were found in associated deposits. the specimens were dated from about ad 990 to ad 1350. these finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conund ...19902201769
arsenophonus and sodalis symbionts in louse flies: an analogy to the wigglesworthia and sodalis system in tsetse flies.symbiosis between insects and bacteria result in a variety of arrangements, genomic modifications, and metabolic interconnections. here, we present genomic, phylogenetic, and morphological characteristics of a symbiotic system associated with melophagus ovinus, a member of the blood-feeding family hippoboscidae. the system comprises four unrelated bacteria representing different stages in symbiosis evolution, from typical obligate mutualists inhabiting bacteriomes to freely associated commensals ...201526150448
trypanosoma melophagium from the sheep ked melophagus ovinus on the island of st kilda.summarythe sheep ked has been largely eradicated in the uk but persists in the feral soay sheep of st kilda in the outer hebrides. sheep keds transmit trypanosoma melophagium, but parasitaemias are typically cryptic and this trypanosome has not been recorded in the st kilda sheep. trypanosomes were detected by pcr in preserved keds and were also found in gut smears from live keds; one infected gut was used to establish the trypanosome in vitro. examination of the morphology of bloodstream forms ...201020546642
microbial population analysis of the midgut of melophagus ovinus via high-throughput sequencing.melophagus ovinus, one of the most common haematophagous ectoparasites of sheep, can cause anaemia and reductions in weight gain, wool growth and hide value. however, no information is available about the microfloral structure of the midgut of this ectoparasite. in the present study, we investigated the microbial community structure of the midgut contents of fully engorged female and male m. ovinus using illumina hiseq.201728793927
ectoparasitic hematophagous dipters: potential reservoirs of dengue virus?recently, the presence of antibodies and dengue virus (dv) rna in neotropical wild mammals, including desmodus rotundus, was reported. in a previous study, dv was also found in a high percentage (39.6%) of ectoparasitic hematophagous dipters specifics of these hematophagous bats. in order to verify the susceptibility of these ectoparasites to dv, in this work experimental infections with vd2 of organs explants of strebla wiedemanni and of melophagus ovinus were performed using c6/36 cells as con ...201729099114
insecticidal activity of some traditionally used ethiopian medicinal plants against sheep ked melophagus ovinus.twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. the findings show that at 3.13 µl/ml, 6.25 µl/ml and 12.5 µl/ml concentration of cymbopogon citratus, foeniculum vulgare and eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against m. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. significantly higher insecticidal activity of esse ...201424649357
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