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massive occurrence of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in fowl tampan, argas persicus, in the armenian s.s.r.fowl tampans (argas persicus) collected in oktemberyan in the armenian s.s.r. in 1974 were found to be massively infected with rickettsiae of the spotted fever (sf) group. one isolated rickettsial strain, designated armenia 9, is antigenically related to, and probably identical with, strain armenia 11 and strain b of rickettsia slovaca, isolated from dermacentor marginatus ticks. strain armenia 9 grows readily in chick embryo yolk sacs and in chick embryo cell (cec) and l-cell cultures. it cause ...197722239
viraemia in clethrionomys glareolus -- a new ecological marker of tick-borne encephalitis virus.viraemia was studied in adult clethrionomys glareolus subcutaneously infected with 12 strains of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus isolated in western and eastern foci of tbe. nine strains caused viraemia regularly or irregularly, reaching titres higher than the threshold level of tbe virus infectivity for its vectors, ixodid ticks (2.5 -- 4.5 log ld50/0,03 ml) and three strains caused lower levels of hiraemia (0.4 -- 1.5 log ld50/0.03 ml). the ability or inability of various tbe virus strains ...197941440
the isolation and nature of campylobacters (microaerophilic vibrios) from laboratory and wild rodents.faeces voided by eight species of laboratory or feral rodents were cultured for campylobacters by means of selective methods. campylobacters were isolated from bank voles and from rats, but not from rabbits, laboratory mice, hamsters, guinea-pigs, field mice or field voles. in routine biochemical tests isolates from bank voles resembled a type of campylobacter fetus that causes infectious infertility in cattle; isolates from rats resembled campylobacter coli associated with swine dysentery. elec ...1977330861
leptospiral antibodies in wild living animals from north tyrol.the authors examined serologically 623 wild living animals (22 species) from north tyrol for the incidence of leptospirosis. positive reactions (mal) in the titre 1: 100 and more were found in 4.5% of the animals examined; the serotypes concerned were these: icterohaemorrhagiae, sorex-jalna, castellonis or arboreae, grippotyphosa, bratislava, pomona, sejroe, saxkoebing. positive reactions were obtained with the sera of sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, putorius putorius, vulpes vulpes, cervus ...1976780229
study of rickettsioses in slovakia. iii. experimental infection of apodemus flavicollis melch. by rickettsiae of the spotted fever (sf) group isolated in slovakia.experimental studies of infection of apodemus flavicollis, and for comparison of rickettsiaemia in clethrionomys glareolus and of susceptibility and antibody formation in white mice, with rickettsiae of the sf group isolated in slovakia, gave the following results: the species a. flavicollis reacted by the formation of antibodies on subcutaneous administration of rickettsiae, strain b, in an amount of 10(0.5) eid50/0.25 ml, whereas the white mouse only in an amount of 10(2.5). rickettsiae, strai ...1976825571
development of mouse-bank vole interspecific chimaeric embryos.one bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) embryo and two mouse embryos were combined at the 8- to 16-blastomere stage and cultured in vitro for 33-47 h. in 66% of cases single regular blastocysts were formed. the chimaeric composition of blastocysts was confirmed karyologically. out of the 222 blastocysts transplanted to 49 pseudopregnant mouse recipients, a total of 52 implantations were found in 20 recipients. among the 52 implantations, 14 contained embryos and the remaining were resorptions. t ...19751100759
study of rickettsioses in slovakia. iii. experimental infection of apodemus flavicollis melch. by rickettsiae of the spotted fever (sf) group isolated in slovakia.experimental studies of infection of apodemus flavicollis, and for comparison of rickettsiaemia in clethrionomys glareolus and of susceptibility and antibody formation in white mice, with rickettsiae of the sf group isolated in slovakia, gave the following results: the species a. flavicollis reacted by the formation of antibodies on subcutaneous administration of rickettsiae, strain b, in an amount of 10(0.5) eid 50/0.25 ml, whereas the white mouse only in an amount of 10(2.5). rickettsiae, stra ...19761036998
a woodland population of small rodents (apodemus sylvaticus (l.) and clethrionomys glareolus schreber) at adare, co. limerick. 1976995918
[presence of heligmosomoides glareoli baylis, 1928 in clethrionomys glareolus; first observation in france]. 1976937977
the occurrence of babesiasis affecting small terrestrial mammals and the importance of this zoonosis in europe.a short survey is given of the occurrence of babesiasis affecting small terrestrial mammals in some parts of europe. results obtained in studies of 7,038 small terrestrial mammals (42 species) from czechoslovakia, austria, hungary, yugoslavia and bulgaria, show the distribution of babesia microti in these countries. the authors found babesias in the following host species: neomys anomalus, clethrionomys glareolus. microtus arvalis, m. agrestis, apodemus agratius, a. flavicollis, a. sylvaticus an ...1977903030
wild bank voles (clethrionomys glariolus) are possibly a natural reservoir of campylobacters (microaerophilic vibrios). 1976787803
[the importance of laelaps agilis c.l. koch 1836 (mesostigmata: parasitiformae) as a vector of hepatozoon sylvatici coles 1914 (sporozoa: haemogregarinidae) (author's transl)].the importance of the mite laelaps agilis (parasitiformae) for the transmission of the hepatozoon species living in the blood of apodemus sylvaticus and apodemus flavicollis (hepatozoon sylvatici) is examined. with this mite the experimental transfer of the parasite to bred hosts of the same species was successful five times; for once, the transmission to a non-specific host (clethrionomys glareolus) was also possible. besides, an eventual stimulating effect emanating from the gonads of female m ...1977413271
[additional observations to the biology of hepatozoon erhardovae krampitz 1964 in bank voles from the south-western styria and from areas around the neusiedlersee (burgenland) (author's transl)].the incidence of hepatozoon erhardovae in the blood of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the investigated areas is examined. the biology of schizonts, their distribution in the lobes of the lung and the further development of natural infections in vertebrate hosts kept strictly free of ectoparasites are observed. the accumulation of gametocytes in larvae of the tick ixodes ricinus and of the mite neotrombicula zachvatkini after sucking on strongly infected bank voles is pointed ou ...1977413270
isolation of francisella tularensis from mites haemogamasus nidi and laelaps hilaris in western slovakia.isolating of f. tularensis from gamasid mites h. nidi parasitizing on the bank vole (cl. glareolus) and l. hilaris on the common vole (m. arvalis) are reported. the epidemiological significance of this finding is discussed.1979388944
microtus agrestis and clethrionomys glareolus as experimental hosts of new world leishmania. 1979386966
placental lactogen (chorionic mammotrophin) in the field vole, microtus agrestis, and the bank vole, clethrionomys glareolus.placental lactogen has been detected in the field vole, microtus agrestis, and the bank vole, clethrionomys glareolus, using a co-culture technique. in field voles this activity could be detected from about day 8 of pregnancy to shortly before term, and stimulated both mouse and vole mammary gland to secrete in vitro. partial immunological cross-reaction was detected in a radioimmunoassay system between rat prolactin and either extracts of vole pituitaries or media on which vole pituitaries had ...1976778321
interspecific heterokaryons between oocytes and blastomeres of the mouse and the bank vole.interspecific hybrid cells were produced using sendai-virus-mediated fusion of interphase blastomeres from 2-cell embryos with ovulated oocytes of the mouse and bank vole. under the influence of the cytoplasm of oocytes (arrested in metaphase ii) premature chromosome condensation occurs in the nuclei of blastomeres, thus implying that the cytoplasmic factor which induces chromosome condensation is not species specific, at least not between these two species.1979229193
antigenic variation of european haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus strains characterized using bank vole monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against puumala (puu) virus, the aetiological agent of nephropathia epidemica, were produced by fusing activated spleen cells from a bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) with the mouse myeloma cell line sp2/0. this novel approach, utilizing the natural vector of puu virus for hybridoma production, proved to be highly efficient, and eight stable puu virus-specific heterohybridomas were isolated and characterized. the bank vole mabs were all specific for the nucleocapsi ...19911716651
isolation of tettnang virus from ticks, mosquitoes and small rodents.seven strains of tettnang virus were isolated in czechoslovakia: 3 from ixodes ricinus tick nymphs, males and females, one from dermacentor reticulatus tick females, one from aedes cantans mosquitoes and two strains from the brains of clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis small rodents.197935963
preimplantation development in vivo and in vitro in bank voles, clethrionomys glareolus, treated with pmsg and hcg.ovulation can be induced in the bank vole by pmsg and hcg and takes place 9 1/2 to 11 1/2 hr after administration of hcg. the number of eggs obtained varied from 1 to 30 (average 9.3). the highest ovulation rates were observed when pmsg and hcg were administered 41 to 43 1/2 hr apart. the embryos attained the blastocyst stage 96 hr after hcg injection. bank vole eggs can be cultured in chemically defined media beginning with the eight-cell stage; only 25% of four-cell eggs developed to blastocys ...19751117444
fatal experimental babesia microti infections in the norwegian lemming, lemmus lemmus (l.).experimental infections of babesia microti in laboratory-reared clethrionomys glareolus revealed that approximately 15% of the erythrocytes were infected with single ring forms during peak parasitemia. infected erythrocytes could be detected in blood smears up to one month post infection. c. glareolus treated with a single injection of depo-medrol i.m. two days prior to infection displayed a four-fold increase in number of infected erythrocytes at peak parasitemia, 35% of which contained more th ...1978357267
isolation of emmonsia crescens emmons et jellison 1960 from small mammals in bulgaria.authors examined a total of 3849 specimens of mammals included in 36 species from different region of bulgaria. adiaspiromycosis was detected microscopically in 18 mammals species. strains of emmonsia crescens emmons et jellison 1960 was isolated from 6 species--apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, musmusculus and rattus norvegicus.19751171369
dermatophytes in a population of bank voles and woodmice.a population of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an oak wood in somerset was examined for dermatophytes at monthly intervals for 2 years. the marked animals were frequently retrapped, allowing a study of host fungus relationship over a period of time. microsporum persicolor (sabouraud) guiart er grigorakis and trichophyton mentagrophytes (robin) blanchard were isolated from both animal species, but m. persicolor predominated in bank voles and t. ...1978375097
implantation and early postimplantation development of the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus, schreber.the development of the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus is described from implantation to the formation of the foetal membranes. the embryonic development of this species combines features of primitive rodent species, for example geomys bursarius and highly specialized ones, for examples mus musculus. the egg-cylinder is formed by invagination into the blastocoelic cavity of the inner cell mass and polar trophoblast overlying it; this resembles in many respects the early stages of development o ...1976781173
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in czechoslovakia].the author investigated 4,853 specimens of wild living small mammals (43 species: insectivora, chiroptera, lagomorpha, rodentia, carnivora) from czechoslovakia for blood parasites. trypanosomes were found in talpa europaea, sorex alpinus, crocidura suaveolens, myotis myotis, apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis. babesia was detected in myotis emarginatus, myotis myotis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis ...19751158292
two myobiid mites (myobiidae: trombidiformes) from the great himalaya mountains).in the region of the barun glacier, in the vicinity of the makalu mountain in the great himalaya (nepal) two mite species of the family myobiidae, protomyobia kounickyi sp. n. and radfordia lemnina (c. l. koch, 1841) were found on soriculus caudatus soluensis (gruber) and alticola roylei (gray) respectively at high altitudes (3450--4900 m). a single specimen of the latter species slightly differs from specimens from the typical host, clethrionomys glareolus (schreber), in a greater length of l4 ...19751222920
[ecology of indigenious arbovirus in alsace. tick central european encephalitis. i.--complex ixodes ricinus--bank voles. ii.--study of bank voles population immunity. iii.--virologic results in bank voles population (author's transl)].i.--after showing that bank voles are parasited only by ixodes ricinus larvae, the authors attempt to found different factors (demographic, biometric, and sexual) who favor individual parasitism. the authors conclude to absent of anti tick immunity for this rodent specie. ii.--the search for anti-central european encephalitis antibodies (i.h.a.) are shown that 2 p. cent animals were immuns. yearly and monthly chronologies of antibodies apparition are shown, factors favoring the growth of specifi ...1979538306
enzymic markers of thyroid c cells in some rodents.the paper provides comparative data of the localization of histochemical reactions demonstrating the activities of alpha-glycerophosphate and succinate dehydrogenases, acid phosphatase, non-specific esterases and non-specific acetylcholinesterase in the c cells of thyroids of 26 animals belonging to 5 rodent species. the family muridae is represented by the wistar albino rat and albino mouse, the family microtidae by the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (schreber 1780), the field vole microtus ...1977340363
rodent hearing: apparatus for behavioral measurements with ultrasounds.for frequencies from 4 to 80 khz, the acoustic reliability, behavioral reliability and overall performance of an open platform were entirely satisfactory in measurements of "absolute" auditory thresholds (using a reward operant procedure) in rattus norvegicus. equal satisfaction was provided by a rodent-holder in measurements of preyer reflex thresholds over a similar frequency range in r. norvegicus, mus musculus, clethrionomys glareolus, meriones unguiculatus and sigmodon hispidus.1979515213
sensitivity of european microtines to injected cdcl2.basic histologic and metabolic indices of damage to the testes by cdcl2 were observed in six species of rodents: lagurus lagurus, pitymys subterraneus, microtus oeconomus, m. agrestis, clethrionomys glareolus (and mus musculus for comparison). all species showed discoloration of the subcapsular tissues and damage to the testicular parenchyma. testes of all species receiving cdcl2 utilized from 43% to 76% less oxygen than did those from untreated individuals. cadmium treatment preceded few signif ...1979232358
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: innocuity to several non-target bait consuming species.the pathogenicity of a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was tested in several wild animal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in consuming vaccine baits in europe. the following species were included in this study: wild boar (sus scrofa), eurasian badger (meles meles), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), common vole (microtus arv ...19892681844
contribution to the knowledge of swiss piroplasmas.the authors identify 3 species of babesia, which parasitize cattle in switzerland (babesia major, b. divergens and b. hovis). they also confirm the presence of b. canis in a dog in the proximity of geneva. finally, for the first time in switzerland, they point out the presence of non-identified babesia in various rodents (apodemus sylvaticus, a. flavicollis and clethrionomys glareolus).19757111
molecular characterization and expression of glycoprotein gene of hantavirus r22 strain isolated from rattus norvegicus in china.a cdna containing the complete open reading frame of the m genome segment of hantavirus r22 strain isolated from rattus norvegicus in china, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and then cloned. the m segment is 3656 nucleotides in length with a predicted region of 3402 bases encoding a precursor glycoprotein of 1134 amino acids subsequently processed into viral glycoproteins 1 and 2 (g1 and g2). a strain comparison between r22 and sr11 (isolated from a rat in japan), and hantaan 76 ...19911962503
spread of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. gran. infection to man.the occurrence of t. mentagrophytes var. gran. infection of small mammals in their natural habitat was studied. the most common host of the exoanthropic mammals was clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole); the next most common hosts were hemisynanthropes sorex araneus (common shrew) and eusynathropes mus musculus (common mouse). occurrence of infection increased during the winter months. because small mammals gather in farm outbuilding during cold weather, man is more likely to be exposed to infecti ...19751093983
investigation on the transfer of fleas among small mammals using radioactive phosphorus.the transfer of fleas megabothris turbidus, ctenophthalmus agyrtes, nosopsyllus fasciatus etc. was investigated by labelling the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus schreb.) with radioactive phosphorus. on the one hand, the process of flea transfer was traced among different individuals of the same host species, and on the other, among different host species (c. glareolus, apodemus flavicollis melch.). the investigations revealed that the flea transfer in a rodent nest visited by another host dep ...1979396209
[observations of fleas of small mammals at the gran paradiso national park (italian occidental alps)].the siphonaptera of small mammals (nearly 200 rodents, insectivora and mustelids) of the parco nazionale del gran paradiso (western italian alps) have been collected and studied during the years 1973-75. all the animals have been captured at altitudes ranging from 1570 to 2400 m during different seasons. twelve genera and sixteen species have been identified, namely: chaetopsylla (c.) homoea homoea from mustela erminea; hystrichopsylla (h.) talpae talpae from clethrionomys glareolus; rhadinopsyl ...19751233394
[the reproductive potential of the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus schreb) and of the tundra vole (microtus oeconomus pall.) under the conditions of the elevated radiation background of bryansk province].the continuous irradiation (connected with the accident on the chernobyl atomic power plant) by cesium-137 of the dominant species of rodents (clethrionomys glareolus, microtus oeconomus) in the forests of bryansk province had a deteriorating effect on the state of reproductive organs and on the course of embryogenesis, stimulated the reproduction cycle but inhibited the rate of sexual maturation and increased the death-rate of young animals. these effects resulted in significant ageing of the p ...19921302492
[nephropathia epidemica. hantavirus and acute renal insufficiency].puumala virus belongs to the hantavirus group and as other members of the group it can cause acute renal insufficiency. other hantaviruses are responsible for korean hemorrhagic fever and other hemorrhagic fevers with renal involvement. in scandinavia, hantavirus nephropathy is better known as nephropathia epidemica. hantavirus cause asymptomatic infections in mice and rats and the virus is thought to be transmitted to man via inhalation of desicated saliva, urine or feces from infected animals. ...19901967859
serological survey with the antigen of haemorrhagic fever virus with renal syndrome in small rodents in slovakia.results of serological survey in small rodents with the antigen of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus indicate the existence of a natural focus of this virus in slovakia. antibodies were found in the following free-living rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus agrarius, apodemus sylvaticus, pitymys subterraneus, microtus arvalis and microtus economus. a total 10 out of 120 (8.2%) small rodents trapped in investigated localities of western and eastern slovakia had anti ...19862873734
[the disposition of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in different landscape areas of tyumen province].lungs of 3159 animals of the forest complex from 90 areas of 30 administrative districts of tyumen province were examined by enzyme immunoassays for antigen of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) during 5 years, 1985-1989. the antigen of hers virus was detected in the lungs of mammals of 8 species: clethrionomys glareolus and cl. rutilus, siberian and arctic lemmings (first findings in the world), m. oeconomus, field mouse, common and pygmy shrews. nearly all the findings refer to the s ...19921359712
[virus-specific proteins and rna of the virus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].virus-specific proteins g1, g2, and n with molecular weights of 70, 55-57, and 50 kilodaltons, respectively, were detected by radioimmunodiffusion tests in vero e-6 cells infected with strains of virus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) isolated in the european ussr from a patient with hfrs, a fatal human case of hfrs (the strains k-27 and p-360) and from a bank vole (strain cg-1820). the sera from human convalescents after hfrs in the european ussr and rat sera prepared with the cg ...19902114054
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in yugoslavia: epidemiologic and epizootiologic features of a nationwide outbreak in 1989.a nationwide epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) occurred in yugoslavia in 1989. sera from 609 hospitalized patients, from all six republics (bosnia and hercegovina, croatia, macedonia, montenegro serbia, slovenia) and two provinces (kosovo and vojvodina), who had signs and symptoms suggestive of hfrs, and sera and lung tissues from 544 small mammals belonging to 13 species were studied for evidence of hantavirus infection. of the 226 patients with serologically confirmed hf ...19921363468
bank vole monoclonal antibodies against puumala virus envelope glycoproteins: identification of epitopes involved in neutralization.bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the two envelope glycoproteins (g 1 and g 2) of the puumala (puu) virus were generated and characterized. analyses of the mabs' antigen and epitope specificities showed non-overlapping reactivities of one anti-g 1 and two anti-g 2 mabs. a significant neutralizing activity was shown by the anti-g 1 and one of the anti-g 2 mabs, suggesting the existence of at least one neutralizing domain on each of the two glycoproteins. the ...19921381914
[prevalence of hantavirus infection in small mammals in the south moravian region].in 1987 to 1990 in the south moravian region 1094 lungs of small terrestrial mammals were examined for hantavirus antigen and sera of 525 rodents and 93 hares for antibodies against these viruses. in the majority the materials were not from the same individual. lungs were examined by the elisa method, antibodies were assessed by the indirect immunofluorescence reaction. an antigen resembling the western subtype (puumala) was found in 65 animals (5.9%) of two rodent species (microtus arvalis--63 ...19921387051
susceptibility of the bank vole clethrionomys glariolus to infection with campylobacter fetus. 1978352476
[hantaan virus infection in twente].to find out if hantavirus infection, as a cause of acute renal failure, has been overlooked in the past. to determine if hantavirus can be found in wild rodents, particularly in red bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), living in the area.19911675769
nephropathia epidemica (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) in scandinavia.nephropathia epidemica (ne) in scandinavia is a zoonosis caused by puumala virus. the main animal reservoir is the bank vole. ne predominantly affects men. its annual incidence varies in a cyclic fashion, with peaks occurring every third to fourth year. the clinical picture of ne in scandinavia is similar to that of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in other parts of the world, although ne generally has a milder course. the case-fatality rate is approximately 0.2%. the most common clinical f ...19911681581
variation in the number of genes coding for salivary amylase in the bank vole, clethrionomys glareola.a danish population of bank voles is polymorphic for three electrophoretically different salivary amylases; a, h and s, of which a is the most common. both single-, double- and triple banded phenotypes were observed, and in several crosses two electrophoretic forms cosegregated. in addition to the qualitative variation, some individuals show consistent quantitative variation in the relative activities of their amylase bands. this variation has been qualified by spectrophotometrical measurements ...1977320091
the relationship between the flaviviruses skalica and langat as revealed by monoclonal antibodies, peptide mapping and rna sequence analysis.the flavivirus skalica was isolated from a bank vole in czechoslovakia in 1976. it can be serologically distinguished from prototype strains of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus and has a decreased virulence for adult mice. we have further defined the relationship of skalica virus to other members of the tbe serocomplex (tbe european and far eastern subtypes, langat and louping ill virus) by using a panel of 22 monoclonal antibodies, peptide mapping and rna sequence analyses. by these criteria ...19911847173
[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in penza province].the evidence of the existence of natural foci of hfrs in penza region has first been presented on the basis of serological examinations of patients and normal population as well as hfrs virus antigen demonstration in the lung tissue of small mammals. an outbreak of hfrs among children in a pioneer camp is described. aerogenic infection of the children contracted from hfrs virus-infected bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) living near the camp is assumed. the detection of hfrs antigen in 5 speci ...19852860753
susceptibility of some species of rodents to rickettsiae.the present study was designed to test the susceptibility of free-living rodents, viz apodemus flavicollis, microtus arvalis, clethrionomys glareolus, mus musculus, and outbred white mice from dobrá voda farm, csfr, to coxiella burnetii, rickettsiae of the spotted fever group (rickettsia sibirica, r. conorii, r. slovaca and r. akari) and rickettsiae of typhus group (r. typhi and r. prowazekii) by various routes of administration. the highest levels of antibodies to c. burnetii were found in a. f ...19921427494
longitudinal study of natural foci of central european encephalitis virus in west slovakia.a total of 2922 small terrestrial mammals of 12 species were collected in six localities of west slovakia between 1981 and 1986. when examined for the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (na) to central european encephalitis (cee) virus we found that 14.6% had antibody. nearly all (97%) of the 426 animals with antibody were clethrionomys glareolus, the most abundant species (52.6% of mammals collected, 15.1% of those with antibody). apodemus flavicollis (22.5% of mammals collected, 18.1% of th ...19901983180
experimental infection with puumala virus, the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica, in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus).subclinical chronic infections characterized by transient viremia, prolonged virus shedding in oropharyngeal secretions and feces, and virus persistence in tissues (particularly lung) developed in laboratory-bred weanling bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) inoculated intramuscularly with puumala virus (strain hällnäs), the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica. viral antigen, as evidence by granular fluorescence, was detected in the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, salivary glands, and smal ...19852861296
preparation and characterization of hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus.monoclonal antibodies (ma) were prepared to two strains of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus: strain 4072 isolated from a patient in the u.s.s.r. and low-pathogenic for mice strain skalica, isolated from a bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) in slovakia. ma specific to the 4072 and skalica strains were produced by hybridomas of the ken (60 clones) and nek (65 clones) series, respectively. chromosomal analysis of ma producing 114 hybridoma clones of both series revealed a great variability in t ...19862874723
two kinds of monoclonal antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus.two types of monoclonal antibodies (ma) of the ken and nek series prepared to tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus differed in the spectrum of their reactivity in serological tests and in their ability to react with individual representatives of the tbe virus complex. the ken series ma were induced to the 4072 strain isolated from the blood of a patient in the u.s.s.r. the nek series ma were prepared to the skalica strain isolated from a bank vole in czechoslovakia. both groups of ma belonged to ...19862874724
ecological and epidemiological data on hantavirus in bank vole populations in belgium.epidemiological and ecological data of a hantavirus infected bank vole population were collected using live-trapping methods. a close association between the distribution of hv-infected bank voles and wet habitat types was found. several seroconversions were observed during the life of individual bank voles. all seroconversions occurred within the wet habitat types and only after a certain age was reached. survival of hv-infected bank voles did not differ from not-infected animals. in the labora ...19862877647
hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly feed.to identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
occurrence and distribution of hantavirus in wild living mammals in belgium.small mammals were screened for the presence of antibodies to hantaan virus (htn) and hantavirus (hv) antigen in belgium. antibody and antigen-positive animals were found in different parts of the country. one insectivore and five rodent species were found positive. the highest prevalence of infection was found in the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). a relation between infected animals and wet habitats was observed. it was obvious that in bank vole the likelihood of infection increased with ...19872883857
partial characterization of a hantavirus isolated from a clethrionomys glareolus captured in belgium.a hantavirus was isolated in vero-e6 cells from lungs of a free living bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) captured in turnhout, province of antwerp--northern part of belgium. with help of monoclonal antibodies the belgian hantavirus isolate could be clearly differentiated from hantaan virus strain 76-118, prospect hill virus strain ph1 and sr11, a hantavirus isolated from laboratory wistar rat in japan, but not from the nephropathia epidemica virus strain hällnäs.19872886029
[detection of foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the estonian ssr].examination by the enzyme-immunoassay of organs of 10 small mammal species trapped in different landscape zones of the estonian ssr revealed the presence of hfrs virus antigen in organs of bank voles and field mice. radioimmunoassay studies of serum specimens from donors demonstrated the presence of antibody to hfrs virus in 2.54% of those examined.19872891222
subadult ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) on rodents in berlin, west germany.to identify hosts that may serve as reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease in central europe, we determined whether ixodes ricinus l. feed most frequently on certain rodents and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the season of feeding activity of the tick in four sites in berlin, federal republic of germany. in addition, we correlated abundance of i. ricinus with that of particular rodent hosts. two small rodents were more abundant than any others; a mouse, apodemus flavicolli ...19902332880
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in yugoslavia: antigenic characterization of hantaviruses isolated from apodemus flavicollis and clethrionomys glareolus.hantavirus antigens were detected in lung tissues of 8/113 apodemus flavicollis and 2/17 clethrionomys glareolus captured in 1984 in fojnica, a region of yugoslavia endemic for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; hantavirus antigens were not detected in lung tissues from 126 other mammals collected in fojnica. three hantaviruses, 2 from a. flavicollis and 1 from c. glareolus, were isolated directly in vero e6 cells and were partially characterized. the isolates from a. flavicollis, designated ...19892569846
differential detachment from resting hosts of replete larval and nymphal ixodes ticks.to determine whether replete subadult ixodes ticks detach more frequently from resting than from active hosts, diverse rodents and lizards were caged in an apparatus designed to record the ticks' sites of detachment relative to the resting site of the host. replete larval ixodes ricinus and ixodes dammini accumulated mainly beneath the resting places of the mice (apodemus agrarius and peromyscus leucopus) most frequently parasitized in nature. although nymphal i. ricinus similarly detached where ...19912040945
[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in croatia: incidence of infection in human and wild animal reservoirs].on the territory of lika and gorski kotar a group of 300 forest workers and 260 persons from the general population were screened for hantavirus antibodies (by the indirect immunofluorescence test). in the first group of examenees a mean of 1.6% were found positive, ranging from 0% (gospić) to 3.2% (ogulin). in the second groups a mean of 5.4% were positive, ranging from 4.4 to 8.9% (delnice and slunj, respectively). it is concluded that the hantavirus infection rate in our natural foci of hfrs ...19911688294
[incidence of coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae from the rmsf group in the sub-alpine region in austria].investigations were carried out on small mammals to determine further distribution of coxiella burnetii and rickettsia rmsf-group in the alpine and sub-alpine regions. in altitudes of 1,200-2,400 m antibodies against clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis, sorex alpinus, sorex minutus and microtus agrestis were demonstrated. these findings emphasize that in the entire alpine and sub-alpine regions of austria the occurrence of c. burnetii and rmsf-group rickettsia is to be expected.19892744470
[detection of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome on the territory of the komi assr].natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (hfrs) have been found for the first time in the komi assr. the main source of the causative agent in this territory was clethrionomys glareolus the average infection rate of which was 4.4% and in some areas as high as 22.6%. for the first time in the republic the portion of human population naturally immune to hfrs was determined, comprising 5.2% of the population. the immune structure of the population did not differ from that in other ...19852864760
ecology of the murine alphaherpesvirus and its isolation from lungs of rodents in cell culture.together 381 sera of murine rodents (apodemus flavicollis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis and mus musculus) trapped in different localities of czechoslovakia were examined for the presence of antibodies to a murine alphaherpesvirus (mhv) and to murine cytomegalovirus (cmv). positivity of rodent sera to the two mhv and one murine cmv strains varied from none to 12.5% and from none up to 11.3%, respectively, depending on the locality under study. from the lungs of a. flavicollis showing ...19852864834
[characteristics of the epizootic process in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].for the first time in the study of epizootology of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (hfrs) in wild animals data are presented indicating certain relationship between true infection rate of bank voles with hfrs virus and the content of the circulating antigen of hfrs virus and antibody to this virus in these animals. different age groups of animal populations were shown to have different intensity of immunity: it was more marked in animals of older age groups, and less in young animals. ...19852865854
epidemiology of nephropathia epidemica in sweden.a comprehensive study of nephropathia epidemica (ne), caused by puumala virus, was conducted in sweden. human sera from residents of various regions of sweden were examined for antibody to puumala virus, and the incidence of ne was determined. small mammals were captured at locations throughout sweden and were examined for antibody to puumala virus and for antigen. the human serosurvey found the highest prevalence rates and the highest incidence rates in northern sweden. the bank vole was found ...19872879874
in vitro studies of interactions between frequent and unique mrnas and cytoplasmic factors from brain tissue of several species of wild timber voles of northern eurasia, clethrionomys glareolus, clethrionomys frater and clethrionomys gapperi: a new criticism to a modern molecular-genetic concept of biological evolution.as a result of the complex comparative neurochemical study of the translation machinery functioning in the brain cells of three conventionally "phylogenetically related" species of wild timber voles (clethrionomys glareolus, clethrionomys frater and clethrionomys gapperi), it has been found that the cytoplasm of brain cells of the latter contain an oligonucleotide (oligoribonucleotide) factor(s) with mol. weight below 1.0 kd which is able completely and highly selectively to inhibit the translat ...19892691420
[use of monoclonal antibodies for differentiating strains of the virus causing the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].using monoclonal antibody and animal immune sera the experiment confirmed the existence of antigenic relationships between the strains of virus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) isolated in the ussr from clethrionomys glareolus and members of all known serotypes of hfrs virus. clear-cut differentiation was made from serotypes apodemus and rattus, and cross-relationships were shown between the strains isolated in the ussr and prospect hill virus (phv), a member of the serotype micro ...19873124351
seroepidemiology of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in bulgaria.during the period of 1954-1986, 399 cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) were registered in bulgaria with 63 (15.7%) deaths. three hundred serum samples from 214 patients who had contracted the disease from 1957 to 1986 were investigated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (if-at). as antigen vero-e6 cells infected with the asian hantaan virus were used, as well as lung sections from bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) infected with strains udmurt and kazan 6-cg from the eur ...19882902774
[persistent infection caused by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus)--the natural host of the virus]. 19872907924
[intermediate hosts of echinococcus multilocularis in northeastern france. description of lesions found in 3 naturally infested rodent species].the authors describe lesions of echinococcus multilocularis larvae found in one of 476 clethrionomys glareolus and one of 16 arvicola terrestris examined from lorraine and in four microtus arvalis from jura. the receptivity of each of these host-species is discussed.19863524402
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in czechoslovakia: detection of antigen in small terrestrial mammals and specific serum antibodies in man.a direct elisa technique was used for demonstration of hfrs virus antigen in suspensions of the lungs obtained from 774 wild small mammals belonging to 13 zoological species trapped in 21 localities in czechoslovakia between 1983 and 1984. western serotype of hfrs virus was demonstrated in the lungs of 8 microtus arvalis voles caught in the areas of central bohemia, southern moravia and western slovakia, and in one clethrionomys glareolus vole from the area of eastern slovakia. the eastern serot ...19863084630
experimental infection with tick-borne virus in clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus. 2. serological studies. 19665958662
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (nephropathia epidemica) in norway: seroepidemiology 1981-1985.an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (ifat) was applied to serologically confirm the clinical diagnosis in 507 nephropathia epidemica (ne) suspected patients. hantaan virus (hv), the agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, which is serologically related to the ne agent, was used as antigen. both igg and igm reactions were detected. high levels of igg antibodies to hv were common, even in the acute phase of illness. over a 5-year period, a total of 35% of the ne suspected patients revealed antib ...19882900551
first isolations of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents collected in northern europe.spirochetes were found in 13% of ixodes ricinus collected from an island, near stockholm where human borreliosis is endemic. borrelia burgdorferi was cultivated from the kidney and/or spleen of wild rodents (clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis) from the same island. spirochetes were identified as borrelia burgdorferi by indirect immunofluorescence assays using species and genus specific monoclonal antibodies. in these tests the spirochetes could not be differentiated from strains pr ...19883190915
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in yugoslavia: detection of hantaviral antigen and antibody in wild rodents and serological diagnosis of human disease.lung tissues from 547 rodents and 26 insectivores captured between 1981 and 1984 in central bosnia (fojnica) and central serbia (cacak), 2 regions known to be endemic for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), were examined for hantaviral antigen by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. antigen was detected in 17/231 apodemus flavicollis, 3/187 a. sylvaticus, 1/46 a. agrarius, 4/32 mus musculus, and 3/28 clethrionomys glareolus. in addition, antibodies against hantaan and puu ...19882900550
[study of antihemagglutinin formation in clethrionomys glareolus and cl. rutilus experimentally infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus]. 19695373445
host specificity of and cross-immunity between two strains of heligmosomoides polygyrus.the infectivity of wild and laboratory strains of heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius) in laboratory mice and in three species of wild british rodent was compared. wild strains, of the subspecies h. p. polygyrus, were isolated from wild caught apodemus sylvaticus. only very low-level infections of the wild strains became established in laboratory mice. similar worm burdens of the laboratory strain became established in laboratory mice and a. sylvaticus, although infections in a. sy ...19911866189
the morphology and biology of trypanosoma (herpetosoma) evotomys of the bank-vole, clethrionomys glareolus. 19695357322
[changes in the synthesis of the virion antigen of the tick-borne encephalitis virus after passage through ixodid ticks and small mammals].large-plaque strains of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus possess a high peripheral activity, and in acute infection in continuous pig embryo kidney cells (pek) synthesize a virion antigen (va) whose subpopulations differ in their mobility in agarose gel electrophoresis: the bulk portion of va moves towards the cathode and a small one towards the anode. after long-term passages of these strains in ixodid ticks they lose their peripheral activity and produce only small plaques. in reproduction ...19873318134
[viremia in clethrionomys glareolus, clethrionomys rutilis and stenocranius gregalis experimentally infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus]. 19695400212
propagation of nephropathia epidemica virus in mongolian gerbils.nephropathia epidemica virus, the etiological agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in scandinavia, was serially propagated in mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus). intracerebrally inoculated suckling gerbils developed subclinical infections, with viral antigen found in lung, brain, liver and spleen. the distribution of viral antigen was similar to that seen in experimentally infected bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), the principal wild rodent reservoir of nephropathia epidemic ...19853882997
androgen-dependent proteins in the urine of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus).the concentration of proteins in the urine of adult bank vole males was higher than that in urine of immature males and females. after separation of the urine by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sds, the principal urinary protein had a slightly lower mobility than cytochrome c. urine from females or castrated males contained only trace amounts of this protein. injection of testosterone into castrated males increased this protein band. we suggest that bank vole males, like th ...19853897526
[the isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains and the determination of the scope of immune stratification among the population and the domestic animals on the northern russian plain].between 1986 and 1987 the authors conducted virological survey of 689 ixodes persulcatus and 420 mouse-like and insectivorous rodents at the territory of arkhangelsk province and the republic of komi. a total of 8 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus were isolated. out of them 3 strains were isolated from small mammalians (2 from clethrionomys glareolus, 1 from microtus oeconomus) at the southeastern areas of arkhangelsk province within the middle taiga subarea, 5 strains were isolated from ...19902145500
[biometry and reproduction biology of the red field mouse clethrionomys glareolus (schreber, 1780) at different altitudes in switzerland]. 19705517259
antigenic relatedness of alphaherpesviruses isolated from free-living rodents.complement fixation and virus neutralization tests confirmed that alphaherpesviruses isolated from free-living apodemus flavicollis and clethrionomys glareolus rodents form an antigenically identical or very close group. immunofluorescence showed that antigen assembly and distribution within the infected cell resembles that of members of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. radioimmunoassay revealed close antigenic relatedness between five rodent herpesvirus isolates. moreover it suggested a possib ...19826188352
[studies of the ecology of some blood protozoa of wild small mammals in north germany (author's transl)].in 1977 and 1978, 696 small mammals of 9 different species were surveyed for protozoal blood parasites. the following parasites were found: hepatozoon sylvatici in apodemus flavicollis, h. erhardovae and trypanosoma evotomys in clethrionomys glareolus, t. microti and babesia microti in microtus agrestis and t. croicidurae in crocidura russula. h. erhardovae showed regularly high infection-rates (more than 70%) during all the years in 1977 and 1978. h. sylvatici was found only in 5.6% of the yell ...19806104423
seasonal and age distributions of babesia, hepatozoon, trypanosoma and grahamella species in clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus sylvaticus populations.four common blood parasites belonging to the genera babesia, hepatozoon, trypanosoma and grahamella were detected in sympatric populations of clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus sylvaticus. seasonal changes in the abundance of hosts and parasites were monitored in a longitudinal field survey for 18 months. all parasites in both hosts showed similar seasonal patterns with most transmission occurring in summer and autumn and ceasing in winter. amongst aged subsets of each host population, hepatoz ...19863537923
hormonal requirements and the influence of age on the decidual cell reaction in the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus).laboratory bred bank voles of different age and reproductive status were bilaterally ovariectomized, treated with exogenous oestrogen or progesterone or both, and given an artificial decidual stimulus (crushing with artery forceps). an hormonal regimen of oestrogen (100 ng) followed by progesterone (1 mg) and small amounts of oestrogen (10 ng) was necessary for maximal development of the decidual cell reaction (dcr). a dcr did not develop if the animals were treated with only oestrogen or proges ...19873553583
definition of three serotypes of hantaviruses by a double sandwich elisa with biotin-avidin amplification system.a total of seven different isolates of hantaviruses from five mammalian species and six geographical areas were examined by a double sandwich elisa with biotin-avidin amplification system. three serotypes were recognized by comparing antigen titres to homologous and heterologous antibody and blocking antibody titres to homologous and heterologous antigens. serotype 1 included four strains: hantaan virus isolated from apodemus agrarius in south korea, hupei-i isolated from acute-phase serum from ...19853926952
brucella abortus infection in the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). 19853928085
the protective effect in bank voles of some strains of bcg.the bank vole, like the guinea-pig, can be immunized against tuberculosis with very small doses of bcg, presumably because bcg is sufficiently virulent for both these species to multiply freely until the immunization of the animal has reached a maximum. large doses of bcg induce an earlier, but not an ultimately stronger, immunity. however, the smallest immunizing dose is not the same for all bcg strains and this is a feature that may be used to differentiate strains. in the studies reported by ...19704921094
experimental infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus in clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus. 1. virological studies. 19665958418
the autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the tribec mountain range.small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. in order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the tribec region and adjacent parts of the hronský inovec mountains. the following mammals are discussed: ...19675298539
the role of small rodents and hedgehogs in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis.the role of small rodents and hedgehogs in the circulation of tick-borne encephalitis in natural foci in the tribec region of czechoslovakia has been studied. isolation of virus from the blood of apodemus flavicollis, clethrionomys glareolus and erinaceus roumanicus, as well as the demonstration of antibodies in the sera of these mammals and of a. sylvaticus, microtus arvalis and sciurus vulgaris, showed that these mammals had been in contact with the virus in recent years. the proportion of pos ...19675298543
[small wild mammals and arboviruses in italy].in 1980 and 1981, sera of 256 small wild mammals (rodentia, insectivora, carnivora) were collected in piemonte and southern italy. they were then tested for antibody against 12 arboviruses by haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests. in the north of the country, 42.8% of sera were found positive against tahyna or sicilian sandfly fever viruses. in the southern provinces, 44.3% of sera reacted with bhanja, west nile or other flaviviruses, tahyna, sicilian sandfly fever and arumo ...19836627549
interspecific chimaerism between sheep and goat.in rodents, chimaeric blastocysts produced by combining embryonic cells of two different species have been used in investigations of cell lineage and interaction during development (mus musculus-rattus norvegicus, m. musculus-clethrionomys glareolus, m. musculus-mus caroli). however, interspecific chimaerism also offers new approaches to the study of reproductive incompatibilities between species and may even allow such incompatibilities to be neutralized, thus improving the chances of successfu ...19846694751
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