electron microscopy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of yellow poplar. iii host-endophyte interactions during arbuscular development.scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy were used to examine developing and mature functional arbuscules in mycorrhizal roots of yellow poplar. arbuscules developed from intracellular hyphae which branched repeatedly upon penetration into the host cells. intermediate and late stages of developemnt were characterized by the production of numerous, short, bifurcate hyphae throughout the arbuscule. mature arbuscules exhibited a coralloid morphology which resulted in a considerable increase i ...19751220861
alkaloid toxins in endophyte-infected grasses.grasses infected with clavicipitaceous fungi have been associated with a variety of diseases including classical ergotism in humans and animals, fescue foot and summer syndrome in cattle, and rye-grass staggers in sheep. during the last decade it has been recognized that many of these fungal infections are endophytic; a fungal endophyte is a fungus that grows entirely within the host plant. inspection of field collections and herbarium specimens has revealed that such infections are widespread i ...19921344917
effects of the fungal endophyte acremonium coenophialum in fescue on pregnant mares and foal viability.effects of the endophyte acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue on pregnant mares and foal viability were evaluated. twenty-two mature pregnant mares were randomly chosen to graze either kentucky-31 tall fescue that was free from a coenophialum (endophyte-free, ef) or tall fescue infected with a coenophialum (endophyte-present, ep) after the first 90 days of pregnancy through parturition. concentrations of pyrrolizidine and ergopeptine alkaloids were significantly greater in ep grass, compared w ...19911789525
occurrence of peptide and clavine ergot alkaloids in tall fescue grass.evidence is presented that ergot alkaloids are ubiquitous in tall fescue pastures infected with the clavicipitaceous fungal endophyte sphacelia typhina (or acremonium coenophialum). ergopeptide alkaloids, predominantly ergovaline, constituted 10 to 50 percent of the total ergot alkaloid concentration, which was as high as 14 milligrams per kilogram in sheaths and 1.5 milligrams per kilogram in blades. ergot alkaloid concentrations were substantially increased by application of large amounts (10 ...19863008328
a clearing technique for detecting the fungal endophyte acremonium sp. in grasses.leaf tissue of tall fescue festuca arundinacea schreb., hard fescue festuca ovina l., red fescue festuca rubra l. and perennial ryegrass lolium perenne l. was stained with rose bengal or aniline blue to detect the presence of the fungal endophyte acremonium sp.. specimens were cleared using methyl salicylate, an optical clearing agent, and viewed using bright field microscopy. tissue was preserved as dried tissue or stored in 70% aqueous ethyl alcohol before staining and clearing. tissue was obs ...19937684264
taxol and taxane production by taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of pacific yew.taxomyces andreanae, a fungal endophyte, was isolated from the phloem (inner bark) of the pacific yew, taxus brevifolia. the fungus is hyphomyceteous and, when grown in a semi-synthetic liquid medium, produced taxol and related compounds. taxol was identified by mass spectrometry, chromatography, and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies specific for taxol. both [1-14c]acetic acid and l-[u-14c]phenylalanine served as precursors of [14c]taxol in fungal cultures. no taxol was detected in zero-time ...19938097061
bovine plasma vitamin a responses to selected nutrients, monensin, and endophytic fescue.previous research at this station adapted a maximal dose response (mdr) method of evaluating vitamin a status and utilization for use in beef cattle. this method was used in two experiments. in this first experiment, forty-eight crossbred steers (average weight, 284 kg) were fed diets supplemented with salt, monensin or both, and injected with vitamin e, zinc or selenium. steers receiving monensin had higher (38.5 micrograms/dl, monensin; 31.0 micrograms/dl, controls) initial plasma concentratio ...19938407168
endophytic fungal toxin effect on adrenergic receptors in lateral saphenous veins (cranial branch) of cattle grazing tall fescue.the objective of this research was to characterize the adrenergic receptor response in veins of cattle that grazed tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.), with (e+) and without (e-) fungal endophyte (neotyphodium coenophialum) infection. measurement of contractile response of lateral saphenous veins to selective adrenergic receptor agonists (alphal, phenylephrine; alpha2, bht-920) revealed enhanced reactivity (greater contractile response) only for the alpha2 adrenergic receptor in e+ pasture ...19989856395
distribution of fungal endophyte genotypes in doubly infected host grasses.fungal endophytes of the genus epichloë live intercellulary in above ground plant parts of many pooid 'grasses of the temperate regions. the associations are characterized by single genotype entities since a given host individual normally contains a single endophyte genotype. they can persist over the life span of the hosts. this study examines whether two fungal genotypes can co-exist within a host plant, and how fungal genotypes are distributed within a host in the case of double infections. w ...199910406120
fungal endophyte symbiosis and plant diversity in successional fieldsincreasing evidence suggests that microbial interactions are important determinants of plant biodiversity. the hypothesis that fungal endophyte symbiosis reduces diversity in successional fields was tested by manipulating infection of tall fescue, the most abundant perennial grass in the eastern united states. over a 4-year period, species richness declined and tall fescue dominance increased in infected plots relative to uninfected plots without differences in total productivity. a host-specifi ...199910481011
interaction between the endophytic fungus epichloe bromicola and the grass bromus erectus: effects of endophyte infection, fungal concentration and environment on grass growth and floweringepichloe bromicola is an endophytic fungal species that systemically and perennially colonizes intercellular spaces of leaf blades, leaf sheaths and culms of bromus grass species. e. bromicola causes choke disease in b. erectus, suppressing maturation of most, if not all, host inflorescences. in an investigation of the interaction between fungus and host, we used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique to estimate the amount of fungal dna, and thereby fungal concentration, in host pla ...199910620227
simple sequence repeat markers distinguish among morphotypes of sphaeropsis sapinea.sphaeropsis sapinea is a fungal endophyte of pinus spp. that can cause disease following predisposition of trees by biotic or abiotic stresses. four morphotypes of s. sapinea have been described from within the natural range of the fungus, while only one morphotype has been identified on exotic pines in the southern hemisphere. the aim of this study was to develop robust polymorphic markers that could be used in both taxonomic and population studies. inter-short-sequence-repeat primers containin ...200111133466
association between feeding perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne cultivar grasslands impact) containing high concentrations of ergovaline, and health and productivity in a herd of lactating dairy cows.perennial ryegrasses are frequently infected with fungal endophyte (neotyphodium lolii) to increase the resistance of the plant to insect damage. unfortunately, a side effect of endophyte infection can be the production of alkaloids, including lolitrem b and ergovaline, that produce toxic effects in animals. a significant 4.6 litre decrease in milk production in a herd of holstein-friesian dairy cows was associated with high concentrations of ergovaline in ryegrass silage. simultaneously, milk s ...200111349413
biological control of fusarium moniliforme in maize.fusarium moniliforme sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population a [= g. moniliformis (sheld.) wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. during the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, f. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. the fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and pla ...200111359703
effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (eisenia fetida).a cryptic fungal endophyte, neotyphodium coenophialum, infects most tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) pastures in the united states. cattle, sheep, and horses that consume the endophyte-infected grass can suffer fescue toxicosis caused by toxic alkaloids in the infected plants. the effects of the endophyte on mammalian herbivores have been well documented, but less is known regarding the quality of the grass (infected vs noninfected) as a food material for soil invertebrates. we conducted 21-d t ...200111392146
fungal genotype controls mutualism and sex in brachypodium sylvaticum infected by epichloë sylvatica.the fungal endophyte epichloë sylvatica (clavicipitaceae, ascomycota) may obligatorily infect the woodland grass brachypodium sylvaticum, on which it can display two alternative modes of reproduction. during the sexual cycle, external stromata suppress host flowering and production of seed (choke disease), whereas in the asexual cycle the fungus remains asymptomatic and transmits vertically by seeds. variation in the reproductive system thus determines whether the symbiosis is mutualistic or par ...200111426859
monoclonal antibodies incorporated into neotyphodium coenophialum fungal cultures: inhibition of fungal growth and stability of antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against proteins from the tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.) fungal endophyte neotyphodium coenophialum hybridize exclusively to a fungal protein under denaturing conditions. the protein is approximately 88 kda in size. these mabs were individually incorporated into liquid medium to determine their effects on fungal growth in culture. neotyphodium-specific mabs inhibited fungal growth for the duration of the study. fungal cultures grown in the p ...200111456463
mixed inoculation alters infection success of strains of the endophyte epichloë bromicola on its grass host bromus erectus.within-host competition in multiply infected hosts is considered an important component of host-parasite interactions, but experimental studies on the dynamics of multiple infections are still rare. we measured the infection frequencies of four strains of the fungal endophyte epichloë bromicola on two genotypes of its host plant bromus erectus after single- and double-strain inoculation. double-strain inoculations resulted in fewer double, but more single, infections than expected on the basis o ...200211886628
genetic structure of natural populations of the grass endophyte epichloë festucae in semiarid grasslands.plants of red fescue (festuca rubra), a commercially important turf grass, are infected by the fungal endophyte epichloë festucae in semiarid natural grasslands, known as dehesas, in western spain. we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers to analyse the genetic polymorphism existing in two natural populations of epichloë festucae. linkage disequilibrium and the presence of clonal lineages indicated that nonrecombinant asexual reproduction predominates in both populations. ho ...200211918775
distribution of locoweed toxin swainsonine in populations of oxytropis lambertii.oxytropis lambertii has been considered to be one of the major locoweeds responsible for livestock poisoning on rangelands, but there has been much confusion as to its taxonomic identity. the objective of this study was to conduct a field survey of several populations of each of the three varieties [var. lambertii pursh; var higelovii a. gray; var. articulata (e. greene) barneby] to document the presence or absence of the locoweed toxin, swainsonine. swainsonine was found at detectable levels (> ...200212035920
endocrine and respiratory responses to ergotamine in brahman and hereford steers.ergot alkaloids are considered causative agents of fescue toxicosis, a syndrome experienced by cattle consuming tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) infected with the fungal endophyte neotyphodium coenophialum. one sign of fescue toxicosis in cattle is severe hyperthermia. this study assessed hormonal responses to ergotamine in heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant cattle. seven hereford (heat-sensitive, bos taurus) and 7 brahman (heat-tolerant, bos indicus) steers on a fescue-free diet received ergotam ...200212046966
expressed sequence tags and genes associated with loline alkaloid expression by the fungal endophyte neotyphodium uncinatum.loline alkaloids (la), which are 1-aminopyrrolizidines with an oxygen bridge, are produced by epichloë (anamorph=neotyphodium) species, endophytes of grasses. la are insecticidal, thus, helping to protect host plants from insect herbivory. the objective of this study was to identify genes associated with la biosynthesis. suppression subtractive hybridization pcr was used to isolate transcripts up-regulated during la production in cultures of neotyphodium uncinatum. subtracted cdnas were cloned a ...200212135580
bioprotective alkaloids of grass-fungal endophyte symbioses. 199712223685
use of a rat model to evaluate tall fescue seed infected with introduced strains of neotyphodium coenophialum.experimental cultivars of the pasture grass tall fescue are infected with unique strains of the fungal endophyte neotyphodium coenophialum, which produce low concentrations of ergot alkaloids. a rat model was evaluated as a tool for rapid, initial screening of experimental cultivars considered to be nontoxic. rats were fed diets that included seed from experimental cultivars of tall fescue with introduced strains of n. coenophialum and a toxic control diet containing seed of the cultivar kentuck ...200212236708
environmental conditions and host genotype direct genetic diversity of venturia ditricha, a fungal endophyte of birch trees.we investigated whether genetic variation of a common foliar endophyte of birch trees, venturia ditricha, is affected by environmental conditions or host genotype. fungal samples were collected from 10 half-sibling families of mountain birch (betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) grown in two environmental conditions with different daily average temperatures: a forested river valley and an adjacent open tundra (altitudinal difference 180 m). genetic analysis of v. ditricha isolates was done using ...200212353749
molecular evidence for host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte epichloë bromicola after presumed host shifts of plant-feeding insects and parasites promote adaptational changes that may result in the formation of host races, an assumed intermediate stage in sympatric speciation. here, we report on genetically differentiated and host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte epichloë bromicola, which presumably emerged after a shift from the grass bromus erectus to other bromus hosts. fungi of the genus epichloë (ascomycota) and related anamorphs of neotyphodium are widespread endophytes of cool ...200312643566
identification of intermediate and branch metabolites resulting from biotransformation of 2-benzoxazolinone by fusarium verticillioides.detoxification of the maize (zea mays) antimicrobial compound 2-benzoxazolinone by the fungal endophyte fusarium verticillioides involves two genetic loci, fdb1 and fdb2, and results in the formation of n-(2-hydroxyphenyl)malonamic acid. intermediate and branch metabolites were previously suggested to be part of the biotransformation pathway. evidence is presented here in support of 2-aminophenol as the intermediate metabolite and 2-acetamidophenol as the branch metabolite, which was previously ...200312788712
influence of water stress on biomass production by isolates of an ericoid mycorrhizal endophyte of woollsia pungens and epacris microphylla (ericaceae).the influence of water stress on growth of six isolates of an anamorphic ericoid mycorrhizal fungal endophyte from two australian ericaceae hosts was investigated. biomass production was determined in liquid media amended with nacl or polyethylene glycol to give osmotic potentials of -0.05 to -2.24 mpa. regardless of the osmoticum, biomass yields of all isolates at the highest level of imposed water stress (-2.24 mpa) did not differ significantly from, or were significantly higher than, those at ...200312836087
does mowing height influence alkaloid production in endophytic tall fescue and perennial ryegrass?the mutualistic symbiosis following infection of tall fescue, festuca arundinacea, and perennial ryegrass, lolium perenne, by fungal endophyte (neotyphodium spp.) results in the production of alkaloids that are feeding deterrents or toxic to insects and livestock. if the levels of the alkaloids can be manipulated by cultural practices in the grasses that are used for home lawns and golf courses, this could alleviate the need for pesticide applications in urban environments. we evaluated the infl ...200312918918
production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.consumption of locoweeds, legumes endemic in arid western usa, has long been associated with locoism, a disease of ruminant animals. to explore the relationship between fungi associated with locoweed and locoweed toxicity, 11 locoweed populations from various sites in new mexico were assessed for endophytic fungi. endophytes were isolated from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds astragalus mollissimus, oxytropis lambertii, and o. sericea. fungal cult ...200314531620
contig assembly and microsynteny analysis using a bacterial artificial chromosome library for epichloë festucae, a mutualistic fungal endophyte of grasses.we constructed and characterized a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library for epichloë festucae, a genetically tractable fungal plant mutualist. the 6144 clone library with an average insert size of 87kb represents at least 18-fold coverage of the 29 mb genome. we used the library to assemble a 110kb contig spanning the putative ornithine decarboxylase (odc) ortholog and subsequently expanded it to 228kb with a single walking step in each direction. furthermore, we evaluated conservation ...200414643256
biologically active metabolites from fungi, 19: new isocoumarins and highly substituted benzoic acids from the endophytic fungus, scytalidium sp.six known metabolites, two new isocoumarins 4 and 8, and one new highly substituted benzoic acid derivative 9 were isolated from the ethyl acetate culture extract of a fungal endophyte, scytalidium sp. in addition, another new benzoic acid 10 with an unusual 1,2-dicarbonyl side chain was indirectly identified from its methylated derivatives 10a-10d.200415143840
bud endophytes of scots pine produce adenine derivatives and other compounds that affect morphology and mitigate browning of callus cultures.endophytes are found in meristematic bud tissues of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) especially prior to growth, which would suggest their involvement in growth of the bud. to test this hypothesis, production of phytohormones by two bacterial (methylobacterium extorquens, pseudomonas synxantha) and one fungal endophyte (rhodotorula minuta) was studied by mass spectrometry. the most common gibberellins, auxins, or cytokinins were not detected in the fractions studied. instead, m. extorquens and r ...200415153198
characterization of the melanin pigment of a cosmopolitan fungal endophyte.phyllosticta capitalensis (teleomorph guignardia mangiferae) occurs as a foliar endophyte in woody trees belonging to different families of both temperate and tropical regions. we isolated this endophyte from plants in different habitats, such as mangroves, dry deciduous forest, moist deciduous forest and semi-evergreen forest. this endophyte was found to produce a black pigment that was characterized to be melanin based on uv-visible, ir and esr spectra and chemical tests. tricyclazole, a speci ...200415449603
distribution of the fungal endophyte neotyphodium lolii is not a major determinant of the distribution of fungal alkaloids in lolium perenne plants.the relationships of the distributions of the insect and mammalian mycotoxins, lolitrem b and ergovaline, and the insect-feeding deterrent, peramine, with the distribution of fungal mycelium were investigated in three genotypes of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) infected with the endophyte neotyphodium lolii. in planta levels and distribution of the endophyte and of the three alkaloids were assessed in parallel, and different spatial or temporal concentration gradients were observed for e ...200515652576
a protocol for direct sequencing of multiple gene specific pcr products from discula umbrinella, a fungal endophyte, utilizing bufferless precast electrophoresis.a protocol for direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products from mycelia of discula umbrinella, a fungal endophyte, using bufferless electrophoresis is described. this improved method allows researchers to conduct high-capacity screening of multiple gene regions for fungal endophytes applicable to microbial ecology and population genetic studies.200515676203
fungal endophyte n-acetylglucosaminidase expression in the infected host grass.fungal endophytes of the genera neotyphodium and epichlolë are important mutualistic symbionts and pathogens of many cool-season grass species. here we report the characterization of a secreted n-acetylglucosaminidase from the neotyphodium sp. endophyte that infects the grass poa ampla. the enzyme was expressed at low levels within the host, and activity could be detected in the apoplastic protein fraction. low-level expression could also be detected in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass (lol ...200515912954
mutualistic fungus promotes plant invasion into diverse communities.reducing the biological diversity of a community may decrease its resistance to invasion by exotic species. manipulative experiments typically support this hypothesis but have focused mainly on one trophic level (i.e., primary producers). to date, we know little about how positive interactions among species may influence the relationship between diversity and invasibility, which suggests a need for research that addresses the question: under what conditions does diversity affect resistance to in ...200515942761
connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition.mutualisms can strongly affect the structure of communities, but their influence on ecosystem processes is not well resolved. here we show that a plant-microbial mutualism affects the rate of leaf litter decomposition using the widespread interaction between tall fescue grass (lolium arundinaceum) and the fungal endophyte neotyphodium coenophialum. in grasses, fungal endophytes live symbiotically in the aboveground tissues, where the fungi gain protection and nutrients from their host and often ...200516001218
a symbiosis expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from a mutualistic fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass confers protection to the symbiotum from insect herbivory.while much is known about the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi their biological role is often less clear. the assumption is these pathways have adaptive value to the organism but often the evidence to support this role is lacking. we provide the first genetic evidence that the fungal produced secondary metabolite, peramine, protects a host plant from insect herbivory. peramine is a potent insect feeding deterrent synthesized by epichloë/neotyphodium mutualistic endophyt ...200516091042
[fungal endophyte-epichloe and its secondary metabolites]. 200316276884
accumulation of new polypeptides in ri t-dna-transformed roots of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) during the development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae.root-inducing transferred-dna (ri t-dna)-transformed roots of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. about 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. control gels were run with proteins extr ...199416349273
the endophytic fungus trametes hirsuta as a novel alternative source of podophyllotoxin and related aryl tetralin lignans.the aryl tetralin lignans are synthesized by podophyllum sps. and are in great demand worldwide due to their use in synthesis of topoisomerase inhibitors. however, the sustained production of these aryl tetralin lignans requires large-scale harvesting from the natural environments, which has resulted in the plant-endangered status. in view of the difficulties in their total chemical synthesis, cultivation and failure of metabolic engineering approaches, there is a need to search for alternative ...200616375985
reactive oxygen species play a role in regulating a fungus-perennial ryegrass mutualistic interaction.although much is known about the signals and mechanisms that lead to pathogenic interactions between plants and fungi, comparatively little is known about fungus-plant mutualistic symbioses. we describe a novel role for reactive oxygen species (ros) in regulating the mutualistic interaction between a clavicipitaceous fungal endophyte, epichloë festucae, and its grass host, lolium perenne. in wild-type associations, e. festucae grows systemically in intercellular spaces of leaves as infrequently ...200616517760
interactions between nitrogen fixation, mycorrhizal colonization, and host-plant growth in the phaseolus-rhizobium-glomus symbiosis.bean (phaseolus vulgaris l. cv. dwarf) roots were inoculated with rhizobium phaseoli and colonized by the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (vam) fungus glomus fasciculatum gerd. and trappe or left uncolonized as controls. the symbiotic associations were grown in an inert substrate using 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams hydroxyapatite (hap) (ca(10)[po(4)](6)[oh](2)) per pot as a p amendment. plant and nodule dry weights and nodule activity increased for both vam and control plants with increasin ...198216662513
light effects in mycorrhizal soybeans.soybean (glycine max. l. merr.) plants were grown in an experiment with a 3 x 3 factorial design using different levels of light (170, 350, and 700 mue.m(-2).s(-1)) and p as factors. plants were grown in a greenhouse in pot cultures using a soil low in plant-available p under three p regimes: no additional p, p added as kh(2)po(4), or p uptake enhanced by colonization of the host plant with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (vam) fungus glomus fasciculatum (thaxt. sensu gerd.) gerd. and trapp ...198316663353
effects of the fungal endophyte acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue.infection by the fungal endophyte acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic n in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of ky 31 tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. a number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. infection resulted in higher sheath nh(4 ...199016667341
spiro-mamakone a: a unique relative of the spirobisnaphthalene class of compounds.[structure: see text] a spirobisnaphthalene derivative with a new spiro-nonadiene skeleton, spiro-mamakone a (1), has been isolated from the extract of a cultured nonsporulating fungal endophyte derived from the new zealand native tree knightia excelsa (rewarewa). the carbon skeleton of spiro-mamakone a represents a new structural entity and an intriguing addition to the structurally diverse spirobisnaphthalene group of compounds. spiro-mamakone a is potently cytotoxic and is also antimicrobial.200616671781
a fungal endophyte of black spruce (picea mariana) needles is also an aquatic aquatic hyphomycete, dwayaangam sp., was isolated from superficially sterilized black spruce (picea mariana) needles submerged in aerated water in a small glass chamber (microcosm). the internal transcribed spacer (its) sequence of this fungus and of a commonly encountered foliar endophyte isolated from p. mariana showed a high degree of similarity. when sporulation was induced in the microcosm, both the aquatic hyphomycete and the endophyte isolate produced similar aquatic conidia after 30 d ...200616689910
fungal endophyte assemblages from ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal trees.endophytic fungi represent an interesting group of microorganisms associated with the healthy tissues of terrestrial plants. they represent a large reservoir of genetic diversity. fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely terminalia arjuna, crataeva magna, azadirachta indica, holarrhena antidysenterica, terminalia chebula, and butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern india ...200616699567
fungal plant endosymbionts alter life history and reproductive success of aphid predators.endosymbionts occur in most plant species and may affect interactions among herbivores and their predators through the production of toxic alkaloids. here, we ask whether effects of mycotoxins produced by the symbiosis of the fungal endophyte neotyphodium lolii and the grass lolium perenne are transmitted to the aphidophagous ladybird coccinella septempunctata when feeding on cereal aphids rhopalosiphum padi on infected plants. the larval development of coccinellids was extended, while their sur ...200616720406
effect of feeding fungal endophyte (acremonium coenophialum )-infected tall fescue seed on reproductive performance in cd-1 mice through continuous breeding.this study was designed to assess the effect of endophyte-infected (acremonium coenophialum ) tall fescue (ky-31) seed (80% infected) on reproductive performance in cd-1 mice by continuous breeding. twenty-four pairs of 70-d-old cd-1 mice were randomly allocated to four diets: 1) mouse chow ad libitum; 2) 40% infected fescue seed and 60% chow (w/w); 3) reduced intake (100% chow) similar to the intake, adjusted daily, in diet 2; and 4) 60% infected fescue seed and 40% chow. males and females were ...198716726259
fertilization rates and embryonic development in cd-1 mice fed fungal endophyte-infected tall fescue seed.the objective of this study was to assess the effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue (ky-31) seed (80% infected, containing acremonium coenophialum ) on the fertilization rates and embryonic development of cd-1 mice. twenty-four pairs of mature cd-1 mice were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments containing 40% mouse chow and 1) 60% noninfected tall fescue seed or 2) 60% infected tall fescue seed (w/w). the mice were preconditioned on their respective diets for 60 d prior to 96 h of co ...198816726488
effects of the fungal endophyte, neotyphodium lolii, on net photosynthesis and growth rates of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) are independent of in planta endophyte concentration.neotyphodium lolii is a fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne), improving grass fitness through production of bioactive alkaloids. neotyphodium species can also affect growth and physiology of their host grasses (family poaceae, sub-family pooideae), but little is known about the mechanisms. this study examined the effect of n. lolii on net photosynthesis (p(n)) and growth rates in ryegrass genotypes differing in endophyte concentration in all leaf tissues.200616735403
sinusitis caused by the fungus xylaria enteroleuca in a lung transplant recipient.we report the 1st case of sinusitis and human infection by xylaria enteroleuca (anamorph nodulisporium sp.), a rare fungal endophyte of rain forest trees. the patient was a brazilian woman who had her lung transplanted. diagnosis was established by direct microscopic examination, computed tomographic scan, cultures, and sequencing of a ribosomal rna gene. the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate is provided.200616876373
host selectivity and genetic variation of discula umbrinella isolates from two oak species: analyses of intergenic spacer region sequences of ribosomal dna.discula umbrinella, a fungal endophyte of oak species, colonizes and reproduces on leaves of quercus alba and q. rubra in forest ecosystems. twenty-nine isolates collected from leaves of both oak species (16 from q. alba and 13 from q. rubra) were assayed for oak species preference and genetic variation based on primer-specific polymerase chain reactions for the intergenic spacer region (igs) of ribosomal dna. dna sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products revealed a 10-bp insertion (2 ...200616909350
vacuolar localization of phosphorus in hyphae of phialocephala fortinii, a dark septate fungal root endophyte.phialocephala fortinii is a dark septate fungal endophyte that colonizes roots of many host species. its effect on plant growth varies from being pathogenic to beneficial. the basic biology of this species has received little research, and thus the main objectives of this study were to determine cytological features of hyphae, including the nature of the vacuolar system, and whether polyphosphate was present in vacuoles. both living hyphae and hyphae that had been rapidly frozen and freeze subst ...200616917520
[the preparation of an elicitor from a fungal endophyte to enhance artemisinin production in hairy root cultures of artemisia annua l].the different components of crude mycelium of the predominant endophytic colletotrichum gloeosporioides of artemisa annua have been extracted by the methods of acid hydrolysate. we compared the effect of the isolated components on artemisin biosynthesis in hairy root cultures. therefore, the oligosaccharide elicitor from c. gloeosporioides has been partially purified by column chromatography of sephadex g25. the isolated oligosaccharide b ii (elicitor, mw < 2500) has been revealed to promote the ...200617037210
a p67phox-like regulator is recruited to control hyphal branching in a fungal-grass mutualistic symbiosis.key requirements for microbes to initiate and establish mutualistic symbiotic interactions with plants are evasion of potential host defense responses and strict control of microbial growth. reactive oxygen species (ros) produced by a specific nadph oxidase isoform, noxa, regulate hyphal growth in the mutualistic interaction between the fungal endophyte epichloë festucae and its grass host lolium perenne. unlike mammalian systems, little is known about the fungal nadph oxidase complex and its re ...200617041146
antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from garcinia species.the aim of the present study was to screen for antimicrobial activity in endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and branches of five garcinia plants, g. atroviridis, g. dulcis, g. mangostana, g. nigrolineata and g. scortechinii, found in southern thailand. fermentation broths from 377 isolated fungi were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) were obtained for crude ethyl acetate extracts. seventy isolates (18.6% ...200617052267
a totivirus infecting the mutualistic fungal endophyte epichloë festucae.epichloë festucae (ascomycota) infects the grass festuca rubra. infected plants may be more resistant to herbivores and obtain other benefits. the 5109bp dsrna genome of a virus which infects e. festucae was sequenced, and its incidence in natural populations and transmission were studied. the viral genome has characteristics of the family totiviridae. its two orfs are overlapped by four nucleotides; orf1 codes a 765 amino acid putative coat protein (cp); orf2 is in a -1 frameshift with respect ...200717081641
endophytic fungus decreases plant virus infections in meadow ryegrass (lolium pratense).we studied the effects of fungal endophyte infection of meadow ryegrass (lolium pratense=festuca pratensis) on the frequency of the barley yellow dwarf virus (bydv). the virus is transferred by aphids, which may be deterred by endophyte-origin alkaloids within the plant. in our experiment, we released viruliferous aphid vectors on endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants in a common garden. the number of aphids and the percentage of bydv infections were lower in endophyte-infected plants com ...200617148304
a virus in a fungus in a plant: three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance.a mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. we characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. the virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the ...200717255511
from the inside out: fungal endophyte-grass associations and grassland communities. 200717286815
high nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in lolium perenne.the relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) cultivars (aberdove, fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of neotyphodium lolii (ar1, ar37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. we grew endophyte-free an ...200717286827
age-specific response of the grass puccinellia distans to the presence of a fungal endophyte.asexual fungal endophytes, which do not produce reproductive structures, spread in host populations only vertically via the propagules of their hosts. with such a close relationship between the fitness of the asexual endophyte and that of the host, the relationship is traditionally thought to be mutualistic. here we present data showing that the positive effect of asexual endophytes may concern only a short period of the host's life and that its lifetime reproductive success may be reduced. we f ...200717295020
excelsione, a depsidone from an endophytic fungus isolated from the new zealand endemic tree knightia excelsa.a new tetracyclic depsidone, excelsione (1), was isolated from the extract of an unidentified fungal endophyte obtained from the new zealand endemic tree knightia excelsa. the structure was elucidated by x-ray crystallography and nmr spectroscopy.200717315967
forest succession suppressed by an introduced plant-fungal symbiosis.microbial symbionts can affect plant nutrition, defensive chemistry, and biodiversity. here we test the hypothesis that symbionts alter the speed and direction of plant succession in communities that are shifting from grasslands to forests. a widespread c3 grass introduced to the united states, lolium arundinaceum (tall fescue), hosts a fungal endophyte that is toxic to herbivores. in replicated experimental grasslands, the presence of the endophyte in tall fescue reduced tree abundance and size ...200717489448
white locoweed toxicity is facilitated by a fungal endophyte and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.mutualistic interactions with fungal endophytes and dinitrogen-fixing bacteria are known to exert key biological influences on the host plant. the influence of a fungal endophyte alkaloid on the toxicity of a plant has been documented in oxytropis sericea. oxytropis sericea is a perennial legume responsible for livestock poisoning in western north america. livestock poisoning is attributed to the alkaloid swainsonine, which is synthesized inside the plant by the fungal endophyte embellisia sp. i ...200717645031
biological activities of extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from garcinia plants.sixty-five crude extracts from 51 selected endophytic fungi isolated from garcinia species were tested for various bioactivities. eighty per cent of the fungal extracts from fermentation broths and mycelia displayed bioactivities: antimycobacterial (76.9%), antimalarial (14.1%), antiviral (16.7%), antioxidant (22.2%), antiproliferation (11.1% against nci-h187 and 12.7% against kb cells), and cytotoxicity to vero cells (40.0%). based on internal transcribed spacer rrna sequence analysis, 15 bioac ...200717888010
immunomodulatory activity of an extract of the novel fungal endophyte entrophospora infrequens isolated from nothapodytes foetida (wight) sleumer.a novel camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus viz., entrophospora infrequens was isolated from an important indian medicinal plant nothapodytes foetida. the present study reports evaluation ofbioactivities of two novel extracts viz., chloroform (ceei) and methanolic (meei) extracts of entrophospora infrequens with respect to their immunomodulatory potential in vitro and in vivo (in balb/c mice). the endophyte e. infrequens was found to synthesize camptothecin, which tested positive in ceei. t ...200717896474
relationship between the endophyte embellisia spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (astragalus and oxytropis).locoweeds (astragalus and oxytropis spp. that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine) cause widespread poisoning of livestock on western rangelands. there are 354 species of astragalus and 22 species of oxytropis in the us and canada. recently, a fungal endophyte, embellisia spp., was isolated from astragalus and oxytropis spp. and shown to produce swainsonine. we conducted a survey of the major locoweeds from areas where locoweed poisoning has occurred to verify the presence of the endophyte an ...200818060459
functional analysis of a fungal endophyte stress-activated map kinase.the ability of fungi to sense and respond rapidly to environmental stress is crucial for their survival in the wild. one of the most important pathways involved in this response is the stress-activated map (mitogen-activated protein) kinase pathway. we report here on the isolation of the stress-activated map kinase, saka, from the fungal endophyte epichloë festucae. complementation of the stress sensitivity and cell cycle defects of an schizosaccharomyces pombe sty1delta mutant with saka confirm ...200818188569
effects of host plant environment and ustilago maydis infection on the fungal endophyte community of maize (zea mays).the focus of many fungal endophyte studies has been how plants benefit from endophyte infection. few studies have investigated the role of the host plant as an environment in shaping endophyte community diversity and composition. the effects that different attributes of the host plant, that is, host genetic variation, host variation in resistance to the fungal pathogen ustilago maydis and u. maydis infection, have on the fungal endophyte communities in maize (zea mays) was examined. the internal ...200818194146
metabolic profiles of lolium perenne are differentially affected by nitrogen supply, carbohydrate content, and fungal endophyte infection.lolium perenne cultivars differing in their capacity to accumulate water soluble carbohydrates (wscs) were infected with three strains of fungal neotyphodium lolii endophytes or left uninfected. the endophyte strains differed in their alkaloid profiles. plants were grown at two different levels of nitrogen (n) supply in a controlled environment. metabolic profiles of blades were analyzed using a variety of analytical methods. a total of 66 response variables were subjected to a principle compone ...200818218971
geographic locality and host identity shape fungal endophyte communities in cupressaceous trees.understanding how fungal endophyte communities differ in abundance, diversity, taxonomic composition, and host affinity over the geographic ranges of their hosts is key to understanding the ecology and evolutionary context of endophyte-plant associations. we examined endophytes associated with healthy photosynthetic tissues of three closely related tree species in the cupressaceae (coniferales): two native species within their natural ranges [juniperus virginiana in a mesic semideciduous forest, ...200818308531
bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus ampelomyces sp. isolated from the medicinal plant urospermum picroides.extracts of cultures grown in liquid or on solid rice media of the fungal endophyte ampelomyces sp. isolated from the medicinal plant urospermum picroides exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against l5178y cells. chromatographic separation yielded 14 natural products that were unequivocally identified based on their 1h and 13c nmr as well as mass spectra and comparison with previously published data. six compounds (2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 11) were natural products. both fung ...200818400237
an invasive plant-fungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity.ecological theory holds that competition and predation are the most important biotic forces affecting the composition of communities. here, we expand this framework by demonstrating that mutualism can fundamentally alter community and food web structure. in large, replicated field plots, we manipulated the mutualism between a dominant plant (lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (neotyphodium coenophialum). the presence of the mutualism reduced arthropod abundance up to 70%, reduce ...200818479455
cytotoxic metabolites from the fungal endophyte alternaria sp. and their subsequent detection in its host plant polygonum senegalense.from the egyptian medicinal plant polygonum senegalense the fungal endophyte alternaria sp. was isolated. extracts of the fungus grown either in liquid culture or on solid rice media exhibited cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against l5178y cells. chromatographic separation of the extracts yielded 15 natural products, out of which seven were new compounds, with both fungal extracts differing considerably with regard to their secondary metabolites. compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 showed cytoto ...200818494522
acanthamoebicidal activity of fusarium sp. tlau3, an endophytic fungus from thunbergia laurifolia lindl.a fungal endophyte identified as fusarium sp. tlau3 was isolated from fresh twig of thunbergia laurifolia lindl., a thai medicinal plant collected from the forest of chiang mai province, northern thailand. the fungus was grown on a medium containing yeast extracts and sucrose. the fungal metabolites were isolated from the culture broth by dichloromethane extraction, isooctane/methanol then n-butanol/water partitions, and fractionation with sephadex lh 20 column chromatography. acanthamoebicidal ...200818633646
effects of methyl jasmonate and an endophytic fungus on plant resistance to insect herbivores.tall fescue (lolium arundinaceum) forms a mutualistic relationship with the fungal endophyte neotyphodium coenophialum. the endophyte provides constitutive resistance to herbivores through its production of alkaloid compounds. moreover, herbivore attack induces elevated synthesis of loline alkaloids, that is, the fungus also provides wound-inducible resistance for its host. jasmonic acid and its conjugates are key signaling compounds in many plant species and play a role systemically in the upre ...200818925382
control of verticillium yellows in chinese cabbage by the dark septate endophytic fungus ltvb3.abstract three hundred forty-nine fungal endophytes were obtained from a total of 1,214 root segments of eggplant, melon, barley, and chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils in alberta and british columbia, canada. three of the 349 isolates, when inoculated in axenically reared chinese cabbage seedlings grown in petri dishes, almost completely suppressed the effects of a postinoculated and virulent strain of verticillium longisporum. tw ...200418943758
taxol determination from pestalotiopsis pauciseta, a fungal endophyte of a medicinal plant.taxol is the most effective antitumor agent developed in the past three decades. it has been used for effective treatment of a variety of cancers. a taxol-producing endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis pauciseta (strain chp-11) was isolated from the leaves of cardiospermum helicacabum and screened for taxol production. the fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture and the characteristics of the spores and screened for taxol production. the amount of taxol produced by this e ...200818998547
influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (lolium perennel l.), when growing at two n supply levels. endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high n supply treatment. at high n supply, endophyte-infected (ei) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the ...200919166497
evidence for alteration of fungal endophyte community assembly by host defense compounds.* plant defense compounds are common stressors encountered by endophytes. fungi readily evolve tolerance to these compounds, yet few studies have addressed the influence of intraspecific variation in defense compound production on endophyte colonization. we compared the influence of defense compound production on the composition of fungal endophyte communities in replicated field experiments. * maize (zea mays) produces benzoxazinoids (bxs), compounds with antifungal byproducts persistent in the ...200919170900
proteomic analysis of a filamentous fungal endophyte using est datasets.proteomic analysis of many species of fungi, particularly filamentous fungi, is difficult due to the lack of publicly available genome sequence data and the problems associated with cross-species comparisons. furthermore, the detection of fungal proteins in biological systems where there are a greater number of proteins present from other eukaryote species provides additional challenges. we present an est-based approach for identifying proteins from a fungal endophyte of temperate grasses and de ...200919337992
mycorrhizal-like interaction between gametophytes and young sporophytes of the fern dryopteris muenchii (filicales) and its fungal endophyte.the morphology of a glomus-like fungus-host interaction in chlorophyllous gametophytes and young apogamic sporophytes of dryopteris muenchii a.r. sm. was studied from ferns cultivated in laboratory, using soil as substrate. an aseptate fungus colonized the gametophytes' tissue through the rhizoids, developing vesicles. the fungus penetrated the young sporophytes primary roots by developing appressoria. it spread forming inter- and intra-cellular hyphae through the epidermis and the outermost cor ...200819419031
polygalacturonase secreted by yeasts from brazilian semi-arid environments.microbial pectinolytic enzymes are known to play a commercially important role in a number of industrial processes. the objective of this study was to investigate the extracellular polygalacturonases of yeasts isolated from brazilian semi-arid environments. among the 250 colonies tested, only 33 produced extracellular polygalacturonases: aureobasidium pullulans (18 isolates), candida boidinii (one isolate), trichosporonoides sp. (three isolates), kluyveromyces marxianus (one isolate), cryptococc ...200919462328
fungal-fungal associations affect the assembly of endophyte communities in maize (zea mays).many factors can affect the assembly of communities, ranging from species pools to habitat effects to interspecific interactions. in microbial communities, the predominant focus has been on the well-touted ability of microbes to disperse and the environment acting as a selective filter to determine which species are present. in this study, we investigated the role of biotic interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) in fungal endophyte community assembly by examining endophyte species co-occ ...200919517158
quantitative pcr method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds.a fungal endophyte ( undifilum oxytropis ) has been implicated in the synthesis of swainsonine in oxytropis and astragalus species, commonly known as locoweeds. a quantitative pcr method has been developed to measure the amount of endophyte in oxytropis and astragalus species. the limit of quantitation was estimated to be 0.2 pg of endophyte/ng of total dna. this method of analysis was used to quantify the amount of endophyte in 10 plants each of oxytropis sericea (white point locoweed), astraga ...200919545150
high energy biofuel from endophytic fungi?a paper entitled 'the production of myco-diesel hydrocarbons and their derivatives by the endophytic fungus gliocladium roseum (nrrl 50072)' (strobel et al., microbiology 154, 3319-3328, 2008) demonstrated for the first time that a fungal endophyte can produce volatile hydrocarbons, which are major constituents of diesel fuel. the possible implications of this finding with regards to potential commercial applications and the ecological role of volatiles in endophyte-host relationships are discus ...200919556159
chemotaxis disruption in pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids.tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte neotyphodium coenophialum. endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. one objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue effected chemoreceptor activity of pratylenchus scribneri by using an in vitro chemoreception bioassay. another objective was to determine if specific ergot alkaloids (ergovaline, ergotamine, a-ergoc ...200919575265
endophyte-mediated resistance to herbivores depends on herbivore identity in the wild grass festuca subverticillata.understanding factors that affect the context dependency of species interactions has been identified as a critical research area in ecology. the presence of symbionts in host plants can be an important factor influencing the outcome of plant-insect interactions. similarly, herbivore identity can alter the outcome of plant-symbiont interactions. symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes confer resistance to herbivores in economically important agronomic grasses, in part through the production of alkaloi ...200919689887
endophytic fusarium verticillioides reduces disease severity caused by ustilago maydis on maize.endophytic fungi represent diverse taxa that inhabit plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. we used endophytic isolates of fusarium verticillioides (sacc.) nirenberg to understand how endophytic fungi interact with pathogens, in this case, the corn smut pathogen, ustilago maydis dc (corda). endophytic f. verticillioides strains were inoculated onto maize seedlings before, simultaneously, or after inoculation with u. maydis, and the effects on smut disease severity and on plant growth were ...200919694816
plant-endophyte-herbivore interactions: more than just alkaloids?a recent paper by rasmussen et al., (new phytol 2007; 173:787-97) describes the interactions between lolium perenne cultivars with contrasting carbohydrate content and the symbiotic fungal endophyte neotyphodium lolii at different levels of nitrogen supply. in a subsequent study undertaken by rasmussen et al., (plant physiol 2008; 146:1440-53) 66 metabolic variables were analysed in the same material, revealing widespread effects of endophyte infection, n supply and cultivar carbohydrate content ...200819704424
fungal endophyte production of reactive oxygen species is critical for maintaining the mutualistic symbiotic interaction between epichloë festucae and perennial ryegrass.key requirements for microbes to initiate and establish mutualistic symbiotic interactions with plants are evasion of potential host defense responses and strict control of microbial growth. we have recently shown that reactive oxygen species (ros) produced by a specific fungal nadph oxidase isoform noxa, have a critical role in regulating hyphal growth in the mutualistic interaction between epichloë festucae and perennial ryegrass. regulation of ros production in the symbiosis requires two addi ...200719704747
symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction.the growth and development of rice (oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. in contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. during that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (artemisia tridentata) ...200919704912
application of temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis for characterisation of fungal endophyte communities of salix caprea l. in a heavy metal polluted soil.fungal endophytes can affect the heavy metal uptake of their host plants and increase the tolerance of their host plants to heavy metal stress. therefore, in the present study, a wide-range screening of the fungal endophyte communities was conducted to determine the fungal distribution and diversity on s. caprea roots on a metal polluted site. fungal communities were screened using amplification with the 5.8s-its2-28s part of the rdna operon, with the resulting amplicons analysed by temporal tem ...200919772938
activity of scottish plant, lichen and fungal endophyte extracts against mycobacterium aurum and mycobacterium tuberculosis.with tuberculosis the leading bacterial killer worldwide and other mycobacterial diseases on the increase, the search for new antimycobacterial agents is timely. in this study, extracts from plants, lichens and fungal endophytes of scottish provenance were screened for activity against mycobacterium aurum and m. tuberculosis h(37)rv. the best activity against m. aurum was observed for extracts of juniperus communis roots and cladonia arbuscula (mic = 4 microg/ml), and a fungal endophyte isolated ...201019827032
swainsoninine concentrations and endophyte amounts of undifilum oxytropis in different plant parts of oxytropis sericea.locoweeds are astragalus and oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations found in the above ground parts. a fungal endophyte, undifilum oxytropis, found in locoweed plant species, is responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine. by using quantitative pcr, the endophyte can be quantified in locoweed species. endophyte amounts differ between plant parts and in some instances do not mirror the conce ...200919904570
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