defining the geographical range of the plasmodium knowlesi reservoir.the simian malaria parasite, plasmodium knowlesi, can cause severe and fatal disease in humans yet it is rarely included in routine public health reporting systems for malaria and its geographical range is largely unknown. because malaria caused by p. knowlesi is a truly neglected tropical disease, there are substantial obstacles to defining the geographical extent and risk of this disease. information is required on the occurrence of human cases in different locations, on which non-human primat ...201424676231
population genomic structure and adaptation in the zoonotic malaria parasite plasmodium knowlesi.malaria cases caused by the zoonotic parasite plasmodium knowlesi are being increasingly reported throughout southeast asia and in travelers returning from the region. to test for evidence of signatures of selection or unusual population structure in this parasite, we surveyed genome sequence diversity in 48 clinical isolates recently sampled from malaysian borneo and in five lines maintained in laboratory rhesus macaques after isolation in the 1960s from peninsular malaysia and the philippines. ...201526438871
partial mitochondrial dna sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the leucosphyrus group of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae), forest malaria vectors, in northern vietnam.during the last decade, southeast asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. however, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. the leucosphyrus group of the genus anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of southeast asia. in vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as an. dirus species a) among the leuc ...201020433694
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
predicting the geographical distributions of the macaque hosts and mosquito vectors of plasmodium knowlesi malaria in forested and non-forested areas.plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic pathogen, transmitted among macaques and to humans by anopheline mosquitoes. information on p. knowlesi malaria is lacking in most regions so the first step to understand the geographical distribution of disease risk is to define the distributions of the reservoir and vector species.201627125995
recent advances in the management of plasmodium knowlesi infection.plasmodium knowlesi (p. knowlesi) has been detected to be the fifth malarial parasite that can cause malaria in human beings. the parasite is known to commonly infect macaque monkeys. the infection is highly prevalent in south-east asia. it has morphologic similarities to plasmodium malariae and plasmodium falciparum. p. knowlesi is known to replicate every 24 h in the human host and hence, causes "quotidian malaria." it causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and sometimes can cause f ...024754024
human red blood cell-adapted plasmodium knowlesi parasites: a new model system for malaria research.plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite primarily infecting macaque species in southeast asia. although its capacity to infect humans has been recognized since the early part of the last century, it has recently become evident that human infections are widespread and potentially life threatening. historically, p.‚ÄČ knowlesi has proven to be a powerful tool in early studies of malaria parasites, providing key breakthroughs in understanding many aspects of plasmodium biology. however, the ...201424506567
parasitic pneumonia and lung involvement.parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. a number of new human parasites, such as plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urge ...201424995332
epidemiology of plasmodium knowlesi malaria in north-east sabah, malaysia: family clusters and wide age distribution.the simian parasite plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in malaysian borneo, with a particularly high incidence in kudat, sabah. little is known however about the epidemiology in this substantially deforested region.201223216947
high proportion of knowlesi malaria in recent malaria cases in malaysia.plasmodium knowlesi is a simian parasite that has been recognized as the fifth species causing human malaria. naturally-acquired p. knowlesi infection is widespread among human populations in southeast asia. the aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the incidence and distribution of malaria parasites, with a particular focus on human p. knowlesi infection in malaysia.201424886266
entomologic investigation of plasmodium knowlesi vectors in kuala lipis, pahang, malaysia.the first natural infection of plasmodium knowlesi in humans was recorded in 1965 in peninsular malaysia. extensive research was then conducted and it was postulated that it was a rare incident and that simian malaria will not be easily transmitted to humans. however, at the turn of the 21st century, knowlesi malaria was prevalent throughout southeast asia and is life threatening. thus, a longitudinal study was initiated to determine the vectors, their seasonal variation and preference to humans ...201222727041
transmission and control of plasmodium knowlesi: a mathematical modelling study.plasmodium knowlesi is now recognised as a leading cause of malaria in malaysia. as humans come into increasing contact with the reservoir host (long-tailed macaques) as a consequence of deforestation, assessing the potential for a shift from zoonotic to sustained p. knowlesi transmission between humans is critical.201425058400
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the asia-pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis.abstract: background: the final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (dvs) of malaria is presented here. the first publication examined the dvs from the americas, with the second covering those species present in africa, europe and the middle east. here we discuss the 19 dvs of the asian-pacific region. this region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence ...201121612587
plasmodium knowlesi malaria in children.plasmodium knowlesi can cause severe malaria in adults; however, descriptions of clinical disease in children are lacking. we reviewed case records of children (age <15 years) with a malaria diagnosis at kudat district hospital, serving a largely deforested area of sabah, malaysia, during january-november 2009. sixteen children with pcr-confirmed p. knowlesi monoinfection were compared with 14 children with p. falciparum monoinfection diagnosed by microscopy or pcr. four children with knowlesi m ...201121529389
molecular epidemiological investigation of plasmodium knowlesi in humans and macaques in singapore.singapore reported its first locally acquired human plasmodium knowlesi infection in 2007, involving a soldier who had undergone training in a forested area where long-tailed macaques are frequently seen. comprehensive disease surveillance and monitoring system that was set up after the initial case detected four additional human p. knowlesi cases in 2007 and one in 2008. all involved military personnel who had undergone training in the forested area, and none had traveled out of singapore 1 mon ...201120586605
plasmodium knowlesi in humans: a review on the role of its vectors in malaysia.plasmodium knowlesi in humans is life threatening, is on the increase and has been reported from most states in malaysia. anopheles latens and anopheles cracens have been incriminated as vectors. malaria is now a zoonoses and is occurring in malaria free areas of malaysia. it is also a threat to eco-tourism. the importance of the vectors and possible control measures is reviewed here.201020562807
plasmodium knowlesi in human, indonesian borneo.plasmodium knowlesi is now established as the fifth plasmodium species to cause malaria in humans. we describe a case of p. knowlesi infection acquired in indonesian borneo that was imported into australia. clinicians need to consider this diagnosis in a patient who has acquired malaria in forest areas of southeast asia.201020350383
spurious amplification of a plasmodium vivax small-subunit rna gene by use of primers currently used to detect p. knowlesi.the pcr primers commonly used to detect plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans were found to cross-react stochastically with p. vivax genomic dna. a nested primer set that targets one of the p. knowlesi small-subunit rrna genes was validated for specificity and for sensitivity of detection of <10 parasite genomes.200919812279
plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films: further evidence that human infections are widely distributed and not newly emergent in malaysian borneo.human infections with plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. although microscopy-identified p. malariae cases have been reported in the state of sarawak (malaysian borneo) as early as 1952, recent epidemiological studies suggest the absence of indigenous p. malariae infections. the present study aimed to determine the past incidence and distribution of p. knowlesi infections in the state of sarawak based on archiva ...200919358848
bionomics of anopheles latens in kapit, sarawak, malaysian borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite plasmodium knowlesi.a large focus of human infections with plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques was discovered in the kapit division of sarawak, malaysian borneo. a study was initiated to identify the vectors of malaria, to elucidate where transmission is taking place and to understand the bionomics of the vectors in kapit.200818377652
knowlesi malaria: newly emergent and of public health importance?several questions on public health impact have arisen from the discovery of a large focus of the simian malaria parasite, plasmodium knowlesi, in the human population. p. knowlesi malaria is not newly emergent and was overlooked until molecular tools to distinguish between p. knowlesi and the morphologically similar plasmodium malariae became available. knowlesi malaria is a zoonosis that is widely distributed in southeast asia and can be fatal. information on knowlesi malaria should be included ...200818678527
plasmodium knowlesi: reservoir hosts and tracking the emergence in humans and macaques.plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite originally thought to be restricted to macaques in southeast asia, has recently been recognized as a significant cause of human malaria. unlike the benign and morphologically similar p. malariae, these parasites can lead to fatal infections. malaria parasites, including p. knowlesi, have not yet been detected in macaques of the kapit division of malaysian borneo, where the majority of human knowlesi malaria cases have been reported. in order to extend our ...201121490952
imported plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a french tourist returning from thailand.we report a case of imported plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a french tourist following a vacation in thailand. this case shows, first, tourists may contract knowlesi malaria even only staying on the beach and second, the diagnosis remains difficult, even with polymerase chain reaction methods.201121460005
human plasmodium knowlesi infections in young children in central vietnam.considering increasing reports on human infections by plasmodium knowlesi in southeast asian countries, blood samples collected during two large cross-sectional malariometric surveys carried out in a forested area of central vietnam in 2004 and 2005 were screened for this parasite.200919878553
the emerging of the fifth malaria parasite (plasmodium knowlesi): a public health concern?after examining the most recent scientific evidences, which assessed the role of some malaria plasmodia that have monkeys as natural reservoirs, the authors focus their attention on plasmodium knowlesi. the infective foci attributable to this last plasmodium species have been identified during the last decade in malaysia, in particular in the states of sarawak and sabah (malaysian borneo), and in the pahang region (peninsular malaysia). the significant relevance of molecular biology assays (poly ...201020835518
in vivo study of human plasmodium knowlesi in macaca fascicularis.plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite of old world monkeys and is infectious to humans. in this study macaca fascicularis was used as a model to understand the host response to p. knowlesi using parasitological and haematological parameters. three m. fascicularis of either sex were experimentally infected with p. knowlesi erythrocytic parasites from humans. the pre-patent period for p. knowlesi infection in m. fascicularis ranged from seven to 14 days. the parasitemia observed was 13,686-24, ...201019765587
plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular malaysia.abstract:200818710577
natural transmission of plasmodium knowlesi to humans by anopheles latens in sarawak, malaysia.four species of malaria parasites are known to infect humans. a fifth species, plasmodium knowlesi, has been reported to infect humans in malaysian borneo. here we report for the first time the incrimination of anopheles latens as the vector of p. knowlesi among humans and monkeys in sarawak, malaysia.200616725166
comparison of three molecular methods for the detection and speciation of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum.accurate diagnosis of plasmodium spp. is essential for the rational treatment of malaria. despite its many disadvantages, microscopic examination of blood smears remains the current "gold standard" for malaria detection and speciation. pcr assays offer an alternative to microscopy which has been shown to have superior sensitivity and specificity. unfortunately few comparative studies have been done on the various molecular based speciation methods.200717868467
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