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cryptosporidium suis n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) in pigs (sus scrofa).molecular and biological characteristics of a new species of cryptosporidium from the feces of pigs (sus scrofa) is described. oocysts are structurally indistinguishable from those of cryptosporidium parvum; they are passed fully sporulated, lack sporocysts, and measure 4.9-4.4 microm (mean = 4.6 microm) x 4.0-4.3 microm (mean = 4.2 microm); length to width ratio 1.1 (n = 50). cryptosporidium suis is not transmissible to nude mice and is poorly infectious for cattle. molecular and phylogenetic a ...200415357067
prevalence of species and genotypes of cryptosporidium found in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern united states.the prevalence of cryptosporidium species in 1-2-year-old heifers was determined for 571 animals on 14 dairy farms in seven states on the east coast of the united states. a fecal specimen collected directly from each heifer was processed to concentrate oocysts that were then examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). for every pcr-positive specimen the 18s rrna gene of cryptosporidium was sequenced. cryptosporidium was identified by pcr from heifers on 13 of 14 farms. on all except four farms ...200616159697
genetic analysis of cryptosporidium from 2414 humans with diarrhoea in england between 1985 and 2000.the characterization of cryptosporidium using dna extracted from whole faecal samples collected from 2414 humans with diarrhoea in england between 1985 and 2000 where cryptosporidial oocysts were detected using conventional methods is described. characterization was achieved by pcr/rflp and dna sequencing of fragments of the cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein and the 18s rdna genes. cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 56.1 % of cases, cryptosporidium hominis in 41.7 % and a mixture of c. par ...200616687587
prevalence and pathogenicity of cryptosporidium suis in pre- and post-weaned pigs.a total of 4338 faecal samples, 135 of sows, 3368 of pre-weaned and 835 of post-weaned piglets from eight farms in south bohemia, czech republic were collected and examined for cryptosporidium infection. no sow, but 5.7% pre-weaned and 24.1% post-weaned piglets were positive for cryptosporidium infection. no relationship was found between diarrhoea and cryptosporidium infection in any of the different age groups (pre- and post-weaned piglets). four piglets, which were sporadically shedding crypt ...200616732883
prevalence of cryptosporidium species in intensively farmed pigs in ireland.natural cryptosporidium infections in pigs are widespread but generally apathogenic. this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of zoonotic cryptosporidium spp. in piggeries in ireland, where the drinking water supply is particularly vulnerable to contamination with zoonotic species. overall, infections were detected in 39 out of 342 animals (11.4%), with highest infection rates among weaners (15%) and sows (13.3%). twenty-nine positive samples were genotyped based on ssu rrna sequenc ...200717565758
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium isolates from pigs in zaragoza (northeastern spain).a total of 142 stool specimens from pigs on 24 farms from the province of zaragoza (northeastern spain) were screened for cryptosporidium spp. samples were first analysed by routine techniques (formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method and modified ziehl-neelsen stain) selecting those microscopically positive for genetic characterization. cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by a nested pcr-rflp technique at the 18s ribosomal dna locus and sequencing of the pcr-positive second ...200717683866
prevalence of cryptosporidium genotypes in pre and post-weaned pigs in australia.a total of 289 pig faecal samples were collected from pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets and sows from 1 indoor and 3 outdoor piggeries located in the south-west region of western australia and screened at the 18s rrna locus for the presence of cryptosporidium. an overall prevalence of 22.1% (64/289) was identified. cryptosporidium was more prevalent in post-weaned animals (p<0.05); 32.7% (51/156) versus 10.6% (13/123) for pre-weaned animals. sequence analysis identified cryptosporidium suis in ...200818486131
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium isolates from pigs at slaughterhouses in south bohemia, czech republic.a total of 123 fecal samples of slaughtered finisher pigs and 21 sows from 14 farms were screened for cryptosporidium spp. infection using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. positive samples were molecularly characterized by direct sequencing of partial small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) and gp60 partial genes and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism of ssu rrna. cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopically identified in 36 finishers (29%) and two ...200918850112
prevalence and age-related infection of cryptosporidium suis, c. muris and cryptosporidium pig genotype ii in pigs on a farm complex in the czech republic.a total of 413 pig faecal samples were collected from pre-weaners (119), starters (131), pre-growers (123) and sows (40) from a farm with a closed breeding system segmented into two breeding complexes and a growing complex in the region of vysocina, czech republic and screened for the presence of cryptosporidium using staining methods and genotyping (ssu rrna). cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by microscopy in the faeces of 21.1% of the samples (87/413). sequence analyses and rflp identifie ...200919091471
molecular characterization and assessment of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidium from dairy cattle in west bengal, india.few studies in the past have examined the genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in india. to assess the importance of these animals as a source of human cryptosporidium infections, fecal samples from 180 calves, heifers and adults and 51 farm workers on two dairy farms in west bengal, india were genotyped by pcr-rflp analysis of the 18s rrna gene of cryptosporidium followed by dna sequencing of the pcr products. phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the d ...201020356678
concentrations, viability, and distribution of cryptosporidium genotypes in lagoons of swine facilities in the southern piedmont and in coastal plain watersheds of georgia.waste lagoons of swine operations are a source of cryptosporidium oocysts. few studies, however, have reported on oocyst concentrations in swine waste lagoons; none have reported on oocyst viability status, nor has there been a systematic assessment of species/genotype distributions across different types of swine facilities. ten swine waste lagoons associated with farrowing, nursery, finishing, and gestation operations were each sampled once a month for a year. oocysts were extracted from tripl ...201020639363
prevalence and molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. in pigs in henan, china.the distribution and public health significance of cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pigs differ among geographic areas and studies. to characterize the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in pigs in henan, china, a total of 1,350 fecal samples from 14 farms in ten prefectures in henan province were examined. the overall prevalence of cryptosporidium was 8.2% (111/1,350), with the highest infection rate (79/383 or 20.6%) in 1-2-month-old piglets and the lowest infection rates in 3-6-month-old pig ...201020697908
new view on the age-specificity of pig cryptosporidium by species-specific primers for distinguishing cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium pig genotype ii.two species of cryptosporidium are commonly identified in pigs: cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium pig genotype ii. detection of cryptosporidium spp. is routinely based on molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) or gene sequencing. however, most of these methods are hampered by low sensitivity to mixed infections. as a solution of this problem, novel species-specific primers were designed and tested in the pre ...201021131129
prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. in pigs in shanghai, china.a survey on prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. in pigs at 12 farms in 8 suburban districts and 1 county of shanghai was conducted under sheather's sucrose flotation protocol and modified acid-fast stain methods from 2006 to 2009. a total of 2323 faecal samples were collected and cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 800 samples (34.4%). cryptosporidium was found in all 12 pig farms. significant variations of prevalence were observed in different farms ranging from 14.1% to 90.6%. a follo ...201121616599
occurrences and genotypes of cryptosporidium oocysts in river network of southern-eastern china.transportation of cryptosporidium oocysts in river type source water is of great concern in an area where extensive human activities exist. in this study, a total of 47 samples were collected from tongxiang, china, where drinking source water was taken from a complicated river network system, by three sampling campaigns over a rainy season in 2009, to reveal the presence, genotypes, and likely source of cryptosporidium oocysts in river water. immunofluorescence microscopy analyses show that 37 ( ...201122006191
the first report on cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium pig genotype ii in eurasian wild boars (sus scrofa) (czech republic).a total of 193 faecal samples of adult eurasian wild boars were collected at 12 enclosures across the czech republic and examined for cryptosporidium infection using both microscopic and molecular tools. cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 193 faecal samples examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. thirty-two positive cases of cryptosporidium infection were detected using either genus- or species-specific nested pcr. mono-infection with cryptosporidium ...201121917378
occurrence of cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the czech republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices.from 2009 to 2011, the occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. was investigated on 22 farms in the czech republic. a total of 1,620 individual faecal samples of pigs of all age categories (pre-weaned, starters, pre-growers, growers, and sows) were evaluated for presence of cryptosporidium spp. by standard microscopy and molecular tools. genotyping was done through pcr amplification and characterization of the ssu rrna (species-specific protocols) and gp60 loci. cryptosporidium spp. was found on 16 of ...201223271566
cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium scrofarum in eurasian wild boars (sus scrofa) in central europe.from 2011 to 2012, to identify cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in eurasian wild boars (sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the central european countries of austria, the czech republic, poland, and the slovak republic were investigated. cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. sixty-one cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that wer ...201323916060
occurrence, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of endoparasites infecting swiss pigs.in order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the pathopig project of the swiss federal food safety and veterinary office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; safc and ziehl-neelsen staining). samples microscopically positive for cryptosporidium wer ...201627639842
inactivation kinetics of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a swine waste lagoon and spray field.because of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in humans, some cryptosporidium spp. have become a public health concern. commercial swine operations can be a source of this protozoan parasite. although the species distribution of cryptosporidium is likely dominated by cryptosporidium suis , a fraction may be comprised of other cryptosporidium species infectious to humans such as cryptosporidium parvum . to better understand the survival dynamics of cryptosporidium spp., oocysts associated with swine ...201323016982
detection and identification of six cryptospordium species in livestock in slovakia by amplification of ssu and gp60 genes with the use of pcr analysis.in this study we examined 200 faecal samples from pigs and calves with suspected cryptosporidiosis were examined by the pcr methods: nested pcr for amplification of ssu region; nested pcr for amplification of gp60 region; and with restriction analysis of dna (pcr-rflp). the sequencing identified the following species: cryptosporidium muris (2), cryptosporidium andersoni (1), cryptosporidium bovis (4), cryptosporidium suis (2), cryptosporidium scrofarum (10), mixed infection caused by c. scrofaru ...201627294628
distribution of cryptosporidium species in tibetan sheep and yaks in qinghai, china.few data are available on the distribution of cryptosporidium species in tibetan sheep and yaks, which are free-range animals living in a cold, low oxygen, and high ultraviolet radiation habitat. in this study, 904 fecal specimens were collected from 350 tibetan sheep and 554 yaks in six counties. cryptosporidium spp. were detected and differentiated by pcr and sequence analyses. altogether, 43 (12.3%) tibetan sheep and 158 (28.5%) yaks were positive for cryptosporidium spp. in tibetan sheep, cr ...201626790738
occurrence and potential health risk of cryptosporidium and giardia in different water catchments in belgium.human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with cryptosporidium and giardia. in countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. our objective was to monitor the presence of cryptosporidium and giardia in different water catchment sites in belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. monthly samples wer ...201525616782
occurrence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. and enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in china.cryptosporidium spp. and enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. cattle are considered potential reservoirs of cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of e. bieneusi is not clear. in the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in china were examined for the presence of cryptosporidium spp. and e. bieneusi using nested pcr ta ...201525541482
complex epidemiology and zoonotic potential for cryptosporidium suis in rural madagascar.cryptosporidium spp. is the most important parasitic diarrheal agent in the world, is among the top four causes of moderate-to-severe diarrheal disease in young children in developing nations, and is problematic as an opportunistic co-infection with hiv. in addition, cryptosporidium is a persistent challenge for livestock production. despite its zoonotic potential, few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural systems characterized by high rates of overlap amon ...201525481280
first molecular characterisation of cryptosporidium and giardia from bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in victoria, australia.we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of cryptosporidium and giardia from bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in victoria, australia. faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a pcr-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal rna (designated pssu) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptp ...201323886616
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium species and giardia duodenalis from symptomatic cambodian children.in a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the angkor hospital for children, northwest cambodia, were examined for cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.201627387755
zoonotic cryptosporidium species and enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in hiv-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy.molecular diagnostic tools have been used increasingly in the characterization of the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in developing countries. however, few studies have examined the distribution of cryptosporidium species and enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in aids patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. in the present study, 683 hiv-positive patients in the national free antiretroviral therapy program in china and 683 matched hiv-negative controls were enrolled. cryp ...201323224097
age-related detection and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium scrofarum in pre- and post-weaned piglets and adult pigs in japan.we investigated the distribution of cryptosporidium in pigs in japan by immunofluorescence staining of fecal samples and characterization of isolates by multilocus sequencing. the 344 animals sampled on eight farms included pre-weaned piglets (<1 month old; n = 55), weaned piglets (1-2 months old; n = 65), finished pigs (2-4 months old, n = 105) and of 4-6 months old (n = 67), sows (n = 36), and boars (n = 16). average prevalence of cryptosporidium on farms was 32.6%, ranging from 4.9 to 58.1%, ...201424189974
presence of cryptosporidium scrofarum, c. suis and c. parvum subtypes iiaa16g2r1 and iiaa13g1r1 in eurasian wild boars (sus scrofa).the aim of the present study was to identify the species of cryptosporidium infecting eurasian wild boars (sus scrofa) in galicia (nw, spain). a sampling of 209 wild boars shot in different game preserves was carried out during the hunting season in 2009-2010. all samples were examined for cryptosporidium infection, using both immunological and molecular tools. cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples were identified using a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies (dfa). ...201323643454
cryptosporidium and giardia in danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes.although pigs are commonly infected with cryptosporidium spp. and giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems. therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of cryptosporidium and giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover co ...201526483166
rodents as a reservoir of infection caused by multiple zoonotic species/genotypes of c. parvum, c. hominis, c. suis, c. scrofarum, and the first evidence of c. muskrat genotypes i and ii of rodents in europe.cryptosporidium spp. is an important causative agent of intestinal parasitoses-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals worldwide. rodents (small mammals), the main reservoir of infections, are globally expanded and overpopulated, which increases the risk of transfer of human and zoonotic pathogens from the genus cryptosporidium. in this study, cryptosporidium was detected in wild immunocompetent asymptomatic small mammals. altogether 262 fecal samples were collected from five areas in eastern sl ...201728433573
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in pigs in central vietnam.little information is available on the epidemiology of cryptosporidium in pigs in central vietnam. the aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize the genotype distribution of cryptosporidium isolates in pigs in this region. a total of 193 pig fecal samples were screened for the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified ziehl-neelsen staining method, and 28 (overall prevalence 14.5 %) were identified as positive by microscopic observation. positive samp ...201323052759
age-related infection with cryptosporidium species and genotype in pigs in china.pigs, as hosts of zoonotic cryptosporidium species/genotypes, are domestic animals with public health significance. the present study was to characterize the infection rate and species/genotype of cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and post-weaned pigs from shanghai and shaoxing, china.201323816583
prevalence and genetic characterizations of cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets in heilongjiang province, china.cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoa of humans and animals. there have been few studies conducted on the molecular characterizations of pig-derived cryptosporidium isolates worldwide, especially in china. thus, the aim of the present study was to understand the prevalence, distribution and genotypes of cryptosporidium in pigs in heilongjiang province, china.201323844032
cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in shaanxi province, northwestern china.cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. the present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in shaanxi province, northwestern china. a total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of shaanxi province. the samples were examined by sheather's sugar flotati ...201525748718
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