tequila production.tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, m ...19957736598
detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence.greenhouse-grown plants of agave tequilana weber var. azul were inoculated with erwinia carotovora, the causal agent of stem soft rot. we investigated the laser-induced fluorescence (lif) of agave plants to determine whether lif can be used as a noninvasive sensing tool for pathological studies. the lif technique was also investigated as a means of detecting the effect of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine as a bactericide against the pathogenic bacterium erwinia car ...200212009165
increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x l(-1). in this work, the behaviour of the saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the agave tequilana weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at ...200212556124
fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. in this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from fiano (white) and aglianico (red) gr ...200616534541
effect of agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. the three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of agave tequilana juice and in ypd media (control). fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentrati ...200717120082
in vitro antagonism of thielaviopsis paradoxa by trichoderma longibrachiatum.seventy-nine trichoderma strains were isolated from soil taken from 28 commercial plantations of agave tequilana cv. 'azul' in the state of jalisco, mexico. nine of these isolates produced nonvolatile metabolites that completely inhibited the growth of thielaviopsis paradoxa on potato dextrose agar plates. these isolates were identified as trichoderma longibrachiatum on the basis of their morphology and dna sequence analysis of two genes (its rdna and translation elongation factor ef-1alpha). my ...200717216331
effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process.200717381756
physiological effects of dietary fructans extracted from agave tequilana gto. and dasylirion spp.recent data reported that inulin-type fructans extracted from chicory roots regulate appetite and lipid/glucose metabolism, namely, by promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 (glp-1) production in the colon. the agave genus growing in different regions of mexico also contains important amounts of original fructans, with interesting nutritional and technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. therefore, we decided to evaluate in parallel the effe ...200817711612
heterologous expression of fusarium oxysporum tomatinase in saccharomyces cerevisiae increases its resistance to saponins and improves ethanol production during the fermentation of agave tequilana weber var. azul and agave salmiana must.this paper describes the effect of the heterologous expression of tomatinase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the gene fotom1 under the control of the s. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk1) promoter was cloned into pyes2. s. cerevisiae strain y45 was transformed with this vector and ura3 transformant strains were selected for resistance to alpha-tomatine. two transformants were randomly selected for further study (designated y45-1 and y45-2). control s ...200817896184
overexpression of adh1 and hxt1 genes in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae improves the fermentative efficiency during tequila elaboration.this work assessed the effect of the overexpression of adh1 and hxt1 genes in the saccharomyces cerevisiae ar5 strain during fermentation of agave tequilana weber blue variety must. both genes were cloned individually and simultaneously into a yeast centromere plasmid. two transformant strains overexpressing adh1 and hxt1 individually and one strain overexpressing both genes were randomly selected and named a1, a3 and a5 respectively. overexpression effect on growth and ethanol production of the ...200818240006
agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.approximately 1 million tons of agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the mexican tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. two strains of aspergillus niger (ch-a-2010 and ch-a-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using agave tequilana waste as substrate. isolate ...200818833660
effect of agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.the effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. fermentations were carried out with agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (cf1 and cf2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (gu3 and ar5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of c ...200919238469
in vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of agave fructans.this study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the fermentation properties and the potential prebiotic activity of agave-fructans extracted from agave tequilana (predilife).201019941629
improvement of growth, fermentative efficiency and ethanol tolerance of kloeckera africana during the fermentation of agave tequilana juice by addition of yeast extract.the aim of this work was to improve the productivity and yield of tequila fermentation and to propose the use of a recently isolated non-saccharomyces yeast in order to obtain a greater diversity of flavour and aroma of the beverage. for that, the effects of the addition of different nitrogen (n) sources to agave tequilana juice on the growth, fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance of kloeckera africana and saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied and compared.201020355049
purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of mezcal.a fructanase, produced by a kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "mezcal de guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. the active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kda. the specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, agave tequilana fructan, levan and actilight® and compared with the activity of fructozyme®. the hydrolysis ...201021067917
efficient chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the lignocellulosic residue from agave tequilana bagasse to produce ethanol by pichia caribbica.bagasse of agave tequilana (bat) is the residual lignocellulosic waste that remains from tequila production. in this study we characterized the chemical composition of bat, which was further saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. bat was constituted by cellulose (42%), hemicellulose (20%), lignin (15%), and other (23%). saccharification of bat was carried out at 147°c with 2% sulfuric acid for 15 min, yielding 25.8 g/l of fermentable sugars, corresponding to 36.1% of saccharificable mate ...201021072557
loosenin, a novel protein with cellulose-disrupting activity from bjerkandera adusta.expansins and expansin-like proteins loosen cellulose microfibrils, possibly through the rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. together with the use of lignocellulolytic enzymes, these proteins are potential molecular tools to treat plant biomass to improve saccharification yields.201121314954
fermentation of agave tequilana juice by kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.this study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of kloeckera africana k1, in tequila fermentations. we investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous k. africana fermentations fed with agave tequilana juice. the addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. the preferen ...201121761236
Effect of dilution rate and nutrients addition on the fermentative capability and synthesis of aromatic compounds of two indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous cultures fed with Agave tequilana juice.Knowledge of physiological behavior of indigenous tequila yeast used in fermentation process is still limited. Yeasts have significant impact on the productivity fermentation process as well as the sensorial characteristics of the alcoholic beverage. For these reasons a better knowledge of the physiological and metabolic features of these yeasts is required. The effects of dilution rate, nitrogen and phosphorus source addition and micro-aeration on growth, fermentation and synthesis of volatile ...201121903290
cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.agave tequilana weber var. 'azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. in this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy agave tequilana plants. in plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million cfu/g of fresh plant tissue. three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rdna sequences grouped the bacteria into ...201425763038
bioconversion of agave tequilana fructans by exo-inulinases from indigenous aspergillus niger ch-a-2010 enhances ethanol production from raw agave tequilana juice.agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. we previously described the isolation of aspergillus niger ch-a-2010, an indigenous strain that produces extracellular inulinases. here we evaluated the potential application of a. niger ch-a-2010 inulinases for the bioconversion of a. ...201323160922
nitrogen acquisition in agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. it is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. in our experiments we employed agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)n-label ...201425374146
molecular variability among isolates of fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of agave this study, 115 isolates of fusarium oxysporum from roots of agave tequilana weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rdna (ardra) using haeiii and hinfi, and genetic diversity was determined using box-pcr molecular markers. box-pcr analysis generated 14 groups. the groups correlated highly with the geographic location o ...201323315087
fermentative capabilities and volatile compounds produced by kloeckera/hanseniaspora and saccharomyces yeast strains in pure and mixed cultures during agave tequilana juice fermentation.the fermentative and aromatic capabilities of kloeckera africana/hanseniaspora vineae k1, k. apiculata/h. uvarum k2, and saccharomyces cerevisiae s1 and s2 were studied in pure and mixed culture fermentations using agave tequila juice as the culture medium. in pure and mixed cultures, kloeckera/hanseniaspora strains showed limited growth and sugar consumption, as well as low ethanol yield and productivity, compared to s. cerevisiae, which yielded more biomass, ethanol and viable cell concentrati ...201526108494
simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of agave tequilana fructans by kluyveromyces marxianus yeasts for bioethanol and tequila production.agave tequilana fructans (atf) constitute a substrate for bioethanol and tequila industries. as kluyveromyces marxianus produces specific fructanases for atf hydrolysis, as well as ethanol, it can perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. in this work, fifteen k. marxianus yeasts were evaluated to develop inoculums with fructanase activity on atf. these inoculums were added to an atf medium for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. all the yeasts, showed exo-fructanhydrol ...201323941710
performance evaluation of pichia kluyveri, kluyveromyces marxianus and saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. despite the potential of non-saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. therefore, in this work, agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-saccharomyces yeasts (pichia kluyveri and kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. pichia kluyveri ...201323329062
fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of mezcal.fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). in this study, one hundred thirty non-saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "mezcal de oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. on solid medium, fifty isolates grew on agave tequilana fructans (atf), inulin or levan. in liquid media, inulin and atf induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27u/ml depending of yeast isolate. high f ...201222336744
autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.the aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. the pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure parr reactor under different severity factors (sf) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. the solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using saccharomyces cerevisiae ...201728325555
overexpression of smorf ynr034w-a/ego4 in saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the fermentative efficiency of agave tequilana weber must.fermentative processes are widely used to produce food, beverages and biofuels. saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient ethanol-producing microorganism. however, a concentration of high ethanol and other metabolites can affect yeast viability and decrease the ethanol yield. many studies have focused on improving the fermentative efficiency, mostly through the genetic engineering of genes that have a direct impact on specific metabolic pathways. in the present study, we characterized a small ope ...201727853904
improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by saccharomyces cerevisiae of agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.agave (agave tequilana weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. however, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative ...201627447701
prospecting for energy-rich renewable raw materials: agave leaf case study.plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. here, the compositions of agave americana and agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characte ...201526305101
production of fructanase by a wild strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae on tequila agave fructan.a new wild strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae (cf3) isolated from tequila must was evaluated for production of fructanase on agave tequilana weber fructan (ft). fructanase activity (f) was assessed by a 3(3) factorial design (substrate, temperature and ph). high enzymatic activity (31.1 u/ml) was found at 30 °c, ph 5, using ft (10 g/l) as substrate. the effect of initial substrate concentration on f (ft0, 5.7-66 g/l) was studied and it was found that f was highest (44.8 u/ml) at ft0 25 g/l. a 2( ...201525432071
transcriptome analysis identifies genes involved in ethanol response of saccharomyces cerevisiae in agave tequilana juice.during ethanol fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, cell growth is altered and the output of the target product is reduced. for agave beverages, like tequila, no reports have been published on the global gene expression under ethanol stress. in this work, we used microarray analysis to identify saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the ethanol response. gene expression of a tequila yeast strain of s. cerevisiae (ar5) was explored by comparing g ...201222535436
anti-inflammatory activity of different agave plants and the compound cantalasaponin-1.species of the agave genus, such as agave tequilana, agave angustifolia and agave americana are used in mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. these plants' leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. the goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema ...201323846754
morphological features of different polyploids for adaptation and molecular characterization of cc-nbs-lrr and lea gene families in agave l.polyploidy has been widely described in many agave l. species, but its influence on environmental response to stress is still unknown. with the objective of knowing the morphological adaptations and regulation responses of genes related to biotic (lea) and abiotic (nbs-lrr) stress in species of agave with different levels of ploidy, and how these factors contribute to major response of agave against environmental stresses, we analyzed 16 morphological trials on five accessions of three species ( ...201627016883
physical mapping of 5s and 18s ribosomal dna in three species of agave (asparagales, asparagaceae).agave linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of america and is considered one of the most important crops in mexico due to its key role in the country's economy. cytogenetic analysis was carried out in agave tequilana weber, 1902 'azul', agave cupreata trelease et berger, 1915 and agave angustifolia haworth, 1812. the analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. furthermore ...201324260700
meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in agave tequilana weber and agave angustifolia haw.a cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the agave tequilana and a. angustifolia species. several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. the morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. in both a. tequilana and a. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mecha ...201223961348
cytophotometric and biochemical analyses of dna in pentaploid and diploid agave species.nuclear dna content, chromatin structure, and dna composition were investigated in four agave species: two diploid, agave tequilana weber and agave angustifolia haworth var. marginata hort., and two pentaploid, agave fourcroydes lemaire and agave sisalana perrine. it was determined that the genome size of pentaploid species is nearly 2.5 times that of diploid ones. cytophotometric analyses of chromatin structure were performed following feulgen or dapi staining to determine optical density profi ...199618469892
the effect of agave tequilana weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin concentration in obese patients.this study was performed to investigate the effect of agave tequilana weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin levels in obese patients. a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was performed. a total of 14 patients were allocated into two groups: one group received a drink that contained 500 ml lemon water, 24 g of a. tequilana weber inulin, and 75 g glucose and the other group received a placebo drink with 500 ml lemon drink and 75 g of glucose. after a 7-day washout period, the groups were c ...201728005446
fructan active enzymes (fazy) activities and biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides in the vacuoles of agave tequilana weber blue variety plants of different age.biosynthesis of agave fructans occurs in mesontle vacuoles which showed fluctuations in fazy activities and synthesized a diverse spectrum of fructooligosaccharide isomers. agave tequilana weber blue variety is an important agronomic crop in mexico. fructan metabolism in a. tequilana exhibits changes in fructan content, type, degree of polymerization (dp), and molecular structure. specific activities of vacuolar fructan active enzymes (fazy) in a. tequilana plants of different age and the biosyn ...201727730409
fructans from agave tequilana with a lower degree of polymerization prevent weight gain, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. we have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (hfd) obese mice. fructans with a lower dp (hfd+scf) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglyc ...201627679439
use of agave tequilana-lignin and zinc oxide nanoparticles for skin photoprotection.the use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (zno) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block uva radiation. this ultraviolet (uv) protection might be enhanced to cover the uvb and uvc bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (tio2). in this work we evaluate the photoprotection properties of organic nanoparticles made from ligni ...201627573548
synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. these molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from agave tequilana. using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated a. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (dp). lipozyme 435 was the mo ...201626988522
arabidopsis thaliana gonidialess a/zuotin related factors (glsa/zrf) are essential for maintenance of meristem integrity.observation of a differential expression pattern, including strong expression in meristematic tissue of an agave tequilana glsa/zrf ortholog suggested an important role for this gene during bulbil formation and developmental changes in this species. in order to better understand this role, the two glsa/zfr orthologs present in the genome of arabidopsis thaliana were functionally characterized by analyzing expression patterns, double mutant phenotypes, promoter-gus fusions and expression of hormo ...201626826012
bagasse hydrolyzates from agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.the aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of agave tequilana weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with actinobacillus succinogenes. hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. the concentration of sugars obtained at optimal cond ...201626802183
application of a box-behnken design for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans (agave tequilana weber var. azul).agave (agave tequilana weber var. azul) is an industrially important crop in méxico since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. in this study, a box-behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extr ...201626689429
effects of fructans from mexican agave in newborns fed with infant formula: a randomized controlled trial.the importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. fructans derived from agave plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from agave tequilana (metlin(®) and metlos(®)) was demonstrated.201526529006
use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with eisenia fetida.agave tequilana weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. the main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with bjerkander ...201626508073
eddy covariance captures four-phase crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) gas exchange signature in agave.mass and energy fluxes were measured over a field of agave tequilana in mexico using eddy covariance (ec) methodology. data were gathered over 252 d, including the transition from wet to dry periods. net ecosystem exchanges (fn,ec ) displayed a crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) rhythm that alternated from co2 sink at night to co2 source during the day, and partitioned canopy fluxes (fa,ec ) showed a characteristic four-phase co2 exchange pattern. results were cross-validated against diel change ...201626177873
functionally different pin proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in agave agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of pin1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. analysis of agave transcriptom ...201525911746
methane production from acid hydrolysates of agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ansbr) were studied. results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/l a ...201525647030
embryo sac formation and early embryo development in agave tequilana (asparagaceae).agave tequilana is an angiosperm species that belongs to the family asparagaceae (formerly agavaceae). even though there is information regarding to some aspects related to the megagametogenesis of a. tequilana, this is the first report describing the complete process of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, the early embryo and endosperm development process in detail. the objective of this work was to study and characterize all the above processes and the distinctive morphological changes of the ...201425332875
effects of sodium hypochlorite on agave tequilana weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.waste bagasse of agave tequilana-weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. the bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. the effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. it was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 n/mm(2) to 56 ...201425063183
methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.the presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. in this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (zea mays pericarp, zmp; agave tequilana bagasse, atb; and medicago sativa waste, msw) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (mb) from aqueous solutions. the adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titr ...201424701903
an efficient immunodetection method for histone modifications in plants.epigenetic mechanisms can be highly dynamic, but the cross-talk among them and with the genome is still poorly understood. many of these mechanisms work at different places in the cell and at different times of organism development. covalent histone modifications are one of the most complex and studied epigenetic mechanisms involved in cellular reprogramming and development in plants. therefore, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of histone methylation in different tissues is important to ...201324341414
effects of consuming diets containing agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.dietary fibre (df) obtained from agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble df, and jamaica calyces (hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in df and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (cc, control), agave df (adf) or adf with jamaica calyces (adf-jc). after consuming the test diets ...201424262526
structure of fructo-oligosaccharides from leaves and stem of agave tequilana weber, var. azul.fructo-oligosaccharides (foss) of a six year old agave plant variety, agave tequilana, were isolated and fractionated by 2d preparative chromatography (sec and rphplc). structural analyses of different fos-fractions were performed by reductive methylation analysis connected to gc/fid identification and nmr-analysis. foss from leaves (d.p. 3-8) contain single α-d-glcp residues as well in terminal as internal position, however (2→1)-linked β-d-fruf residues only. foss from stem, however, contain a ...201324071527
a system dynamics model integrating physiology and biochemical regulation predicts extent of crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) phases.a system dynamics (sd) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. sd emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. these mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. previous empirical studies on cam have correlated biological constants (e.g. enzyme kinetic parameters) with expression over the cam diel cycle. the s ...201323992169
expression of the 1-sst and 1-fft genes and consequent fructan accumulation in agave tequilana and a. inaequidens is differentially induced by diverse (a)biotic-stress related elicitors.the expression of genes coding for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-sst; ec and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-fft; ec, both fructan biosynthesizing enzymes, characterization by tlc and hpaec-pad, as well as the quantification of the fructo-oligosaccharides (fos) accumulating in response to the exogenous application of sucrose, kinetin (cytokinin) or other plant hormones associated with (a)biotic stress responses were determined in two agave species grown ...201423988562
de novo transcriptome assembly of drought tolerant cam plants, agave deserti and agave tequilana.agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to xeric environments of north america. because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (cam, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis), and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. however, the lack of comprehensive agave sequence datasets limits the scope ...201323957668
effects of agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal lactobacilli/bifidobacteria in obese mice.fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. in vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from agave tequilana weber var. azul. additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (dp) profiles: agave fru ...201323759883
fructan metabolism in a. tequilana weber blue variety along its developmental cycle in the field.fructan, as reserve carbohydrate, supplies energy needs during vegetative development, thereby exhibiting variations in its content and composition. fructan metabolism in agave tequilana blue variety from 2- to 7-year-old plants was analyzed in this work. soluble carbohydrates were determined at all ages. fructan (328-711 mg/g), sucrose (14-39 mg/g), fructose (11-20 mg/g), glucose (4-14 mg/g), and starch (0.58-4.98 mg/g) were the most abundant carbohydrates. thin-layer chromatography exhibited t ...201223072425
molecular and functional characterization of novel fructosyltransferases and invertases from agave tequilana.fructans are the main storage polysaccharides found in agave species. the synthesis of these complex carbohydrates relies on the activities of specific fructosyltransferase enzymes closely related to the hydrolytic invertases. analysis of agave tequilana transcriptome data led to the identification of ests encoding putative fructosyltransferases and invertases. based on sequence alignments and structure/function relationships, two different genes were predicted to encode 1-sst and 6g-fft type fr ...201222558253
polymorphism and methylation patterns in agave tequilana weber var. 'azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated agave tequilana weber var. 'azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by aflp analysis. low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. no variation was observed between the original explant and fou ...201222325895
cellular and molecular changes associated with somatic embryogenesis induction in agave spite of the importance of somatic embryogenesis for basic research in plant embryology as well as for crop improvement and plant propagation, it is still unclear which mechanisms and cell signals are involved in acquiring embryogenic competence by a somatic cell. the aim of this work was to study cellular and molecular changes involved in the induction stage in calli of agave tequilana weber cultivar azul in order to gain more information on the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in thi ...201222270826
agave tequilana mads genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. when fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in mo ...201222012076
homoisoflavanones from agave tequilana weber.three homoisoflavanones were isolated from the "piña" and leaves of agave tequilana weber. the compounds were identified as: 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (1), 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (2) and 4'-demethyl-3,9-dihydro-punctatin (3). this is the first phytochemical study carried out to agave tequilana weber.201020657479
class i knox genes are associated with organogenesis during bulbil formation in agave tequilana.bulbil formation in agave tequilana was analysed with the objective of understanding this phenomenon at the molecular and cellular levels. bulbils formed 14-45 d after induction and were associated with rearrangements in tissue structure and accelerated cell multiplication. changes at the cellular level during bulbil development were documented by histological analysis. in addition, several cdna libraries produced from different stages of bulbil development were generated and partially sequenced ...201020627900
[description of melolonthidae (coleoptera) third instar larvae associated to agave tequilana var. azul and their population fluctuation in jalisco, mexico].third instars of white grubs of six species associated to agave tequilero in jalisco, méxico were described from 1,145 specimens collected from soil samples from september 2006 to august 2007, in the municipalities of ixtlahuacán del río, tepatitlán de morelos and san juan de escobedo, jalisco, méxico. diagnostic characters were illustrated and a key was also included. cyclocephala comata (bates) was the most abundant species (63.2%), followed by phyllophaga ravida (blanchard) (21.9%), phyllopha ...201020098923
small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in agave tequilana var. weber.agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. in agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. here, we report that the spike of agave tequilana is the most th ...200919703117
multivariate analysis of ftir and ion chromatographic data for the quality control of tequila.principal component analysis (pca) was applied to the chromatographic and spectroscopic data of authentic mexican tequilas (n = 14) and commercially available samples purchased in mexico and germany (n = 24). the scores scatter plot of the first two principal components (pc) of the anions chloride, nitrate, sulfate, acetate, and oxalate accounting for 78% of the variability allowed a classification between tequilas bottled in mexico and overseas; however, no discrimination between tequila catego ...200515769149
molecular structures of fructans from agave tequilana weber var. azul.agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) for co(2) fixation. fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. these carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. agave tequilana weber var. azul is an economically important cam species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in a. tequilana, ...200314690361
aberrant meiotic behavior in agave tequilana weber var. azul.agave tequilana weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in méxico to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. the objective of this work was to study the meiotic b ...200212396234
generation of maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of agave tequilana weber var. azul.during the cooking process of agave tequilana weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. maillard compounds were obtained b ...200211829648
utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. part 2: potential value of agave tequilana weber azul leaves.the leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. the usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. ...200111272015
irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave was found that needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03 ml) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500 microm in length, sharpened at both ends. in tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle the agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. in contrast, only 1/3 of workers in agave plantations who harvest agave plants, complain of the irritation. it is confirm ...200111205412
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