qualitative and quantitative analysis of triterpene saponins from tea seed pomace (camellia oleifera abel) and their activities against bacteria and fungi.a method using lc-esi-it-tof/ms and lc/uv-elsd was established to qualitatively analyze triterpene saponins obtained from the tea seed pomace (camellia oleifera abel). in addition, the quantitative analysis of oleiferasaponin a1 using lc/uv was developed. the purified total saponins did not exhibit any inhibitory effects at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/ml against the tested bacteria, except for staphyloccocus aureus and escherichia coli. by contrast, higher inhibitory activity was se ...201424914901
population genetic analyses of the fungal pathogen colletotrichum fructicola on tea-oil trees in china.the filamentous fungus colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. however, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. here we analyzed 167 isolates of c. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven chinese provinces. mu ...201627299731
synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers using acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer for the specific capture of tea saponins from the defatted cake extract of camellia oleifera.molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using mixed tea saponins as a template and acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer for the specific binding and purification of tea saponins from the defatted cake extract of camellia oleifera. the adsorption properties of the prepared polymers were systematically evaluated including adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and selective recognition characteristics. it showed that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo first-orde ...201627734586
two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins from roots of camellia oleifera and their cytotoxic activity.two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins, oleiferoside u (1), and oleiferoside v (2) were isolated from the 50% etoh extract of the roots of camellia oleifera c. abel. their structures were elucidated as camellenodiol 3β-o-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside and camellenodiol 3β-o-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside. their chemical structures were establ ...201626982333
characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.four polysaccharides, namely cop-1, cop-2, cop-3 and cop-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (cop-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kda, respectively. all cops showed the similar ft-ir spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. cop-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. cop-1 has the stronge ...201627341780
[bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the dominant plants growing in huayuan manganese and lead/zinc mineland, xiangxi].heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem of mine wasteland. finding out the tolerant plants, which can adapt to the local climate and the soil conditions, is the premise of vegetation restoration. an extensive vegetation survey and sampling were conducted in huayuan mn and pb/zn mineland, 76 species belonging to 69 genera and 39 families were recorded. the main dominant species and their associated soils were determined for heavy metal concentrations. the results showed that soil p ...201222946193
mutagenicity and safety evaluation of the water extract of camellia oleifera abel.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity and safety of water extract of the fruit hull of camellia oleifera abel (weco), which was prepared using hot-reflux method. the oral maximum tolerated dose (mtd) of weco was above 20 g/kg body weight both in rats and in mice, which can be regarded as virtually nontoxic. no mutagenicity was found in ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test. in the subacute study, the sd rats were administered or ...201121535866
effects of burrow condition and seed handling time on hoarding strategies of edward's long-tailed rat (leopoldamys edwardsi).many hoarding rodents use burrows not only for dwelling and protection from natural enemies, but also for food storage. however, little is known how burrows used by scatter-hoarding animals influence their foraging behaviors. in addition, handling time for a given food item has a fundamental impact on hoarding strategies of these hoarding animals: food items with longer handling time are more likely to be hoarded due to increasing predation risk because the animals spend more time outside their ...201020637267
two new triterpenoid glycosides from the stems of camellia oleifera abel.two new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides, 3-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-15α,16α,28-triol(1) and 3-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-21β-acetyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-16α,28-diol (2) were isolated from the stems of camellia oleifera abel. their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods and c ...201626610161
beneficial effects of camellia oil (camellia oleifera abel.) on hepatoprotective and gastroprotective activities.epidemiological studies have shown that increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants is beneficial for health because of their bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. camellia oil made from tea seed (camellia oleifera abel.) is commonly used as an edible oil and a traditional medicine in taiwan and china. until now, the camellia oil has been widely considered as a dietary oil for heath. in this review, we summarize the protective effects of camellia oil with antio ...201526598814
adult exposure to sasanguasaponin induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis in vivo through increased oxidative stress in male mice.effects of sasanguasaponin (sgs), a compound from defatted seeds of camellia oleifera, on abnormal spermatogenesis were studied in adult male mice using daily intragastric administration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) for 6 weeks. the sperm counts decreased and the number of abnormal spermatozoa increased in mice treated with sgs at 400 mg/kg dose level. testicular weight and seminiferous tubular area gradually decreased as dosage increased to 400 mg/kg sgs. germ cells were rarefied ...201020627992
quantitative thin layer chromatographic analysis of the saponins in tea seed meal.the defatted seed meal of camellia oleifera abel., which contains saponins, is used extensively in aquaculture to eliminate unwanted fish and harmful insects during the cultivation of prawns, and as a molluscicide to control pomacea canaliculata lamarck. for the quality control of such tea seed meal products, a method for the determination of saponin content is required.200919333916
[chemical constituents from camellia oleifera stem].to study the chemical constituents of stem of camellia oleifera.201527254924
transcriptomic and phytochemical analysis of the biosynthesis of characteristic constituents in tea (camellia sinensis) compared with oil tea (camellia oleifera).tea plants (camellia sinensis) are used to produce one of the most important beverages worldwide. the nutritional value and healthful properties of tea are closely related to the large amounts of three major characteristic constituents including polyphenols (mainly catechins), theanine and caffeine. although oil tea (camellia oleifera) belongs to the genus camellia, this plant lacks these three characteristic constituents. comparative analysis of tea and oil tea via rna-seq would help uncover th ...201526245644
low caffeine content in novel grafted tea with camellia sinensis as scions and camellia oleifera as stocks.caffeine, a purine alkaloid, is a major secondary metabolite in tea leaves. the demand for low caffeine tea is increasing in recent years, especially for health reasons. we report a novel grafted tea material with low caffeine content. the grafted tea plant had camellia sinensis as scions and c. oleifera as stocks. the content of purine alkaloids was determined in the leaves of one-year-old grafted tea plants by hplc. we also characterized caffeine synthase (cs), a key enzyme involved in caffein ...201526058159
[study on the theraputic effect of plants of camellia genus on osteoporosis].to observe anti-osteoporotic effect of plants of camelia genus induced by retinoic acid in rats, in adqulis crude drug dosage, and to compare activities of them.200819230411
cardioprotective effect of sasanquasaponin preconditioning via bradykinin-no pathway in isolated rat heart.sasanquasaponin (sqs) is an effective component of camellia oleifera abel. this study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of sqs against ischemia-reperfusion (i/r) injury and the possible mechanism in isolated rat hearts. these hearts were pretreated by sqs only or sqs and hoe140 in different groups, and then subjected to i/r injury. hemodynamic parameters, oxidative injury, and no level were measured. the results showed that sqs preconditioning could decrease the incidences ...200919165801
sasanquasaponin from camellia oleifera abel. induces apoptosis via bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 activation in hepg2 cells.the present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of cytotoxic effects by sasanquasaponin (sqs) in hepg2 cells. following sqs treatment, time- and dose-dependent increases in the apoptotic rate were observed. the induction of cell death by sqs mainly occurs via programmed cell death, as indicated by annexin v-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining, where up to 30% apoptotic cells were detected following 12 h sqs treatment. reverse transcript ...201525937271
triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin camellia oleifera, c. reticulata and c. sasanqua oils obtained from seeds of camellia oleifera (co), camellia reticulata (cr) and camellia sasanqua (cs) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. levels of fatty acids determined by ¹h-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%-84.47%; 5.69%-7.78%; 0.26%-0.41% and 8.04%-11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). the cr oil showed the best antioxidant potential ...201323599015
sasanquasaponin protects rat cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress induced by anoxia-reoxygenation injury.reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of anoxia-reoxygenation injury. sasanquasaponin (sqs) is a biologically active ingredient extracted from the chinese medicinal plant camellia oleifera abel. some studies have shown that sqs possesses potent antioxidant activities. however, it has not been elucidated whether sqs diminishes reactive oxygen species stress induced by anoxia-reoxygenation injury in cardiomyocytes. in this work, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes pretreat ...200717761161
the camelliagenin from defatted seeds of camellia oleifera as antibiotic substitute to treat chicken against infection of escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus.escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus are the main pathogens infectious to poultry, and their resistances against antibiotics have become troublesome currently. biofilm formation is an important reason for drug resistance. our previous research has found that the extract of camellia oleifera seeds has lots of pharmacological effects. in order to find the substitute for antibiotics, the saponin was isolated from the defatted c. oleifera seeds with structural identification. its efficacy was ...201526282272
medicinal flowers. xxvi. structures of acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, yuchasaponins a, b, c, and d, from the flower buds of camellia oleifera-gastroprotective, aldose reductase inhibitory, and radical scavenging effects-.the methanolic extract and its 1-butanol-soluble fraction from the flower buds of camellia oleifera abel were found to exhibit inhibitory effects on ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. the ethyl acetate- and 1-butanol-soluble fractions also showed inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase and scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenylpicryl-2-hydrazyl radical and superoxide. from the 1-butanol-soluble fraction, four new acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosid ...200919252318
effects of seed abundance on seed scatter-hoarding of edward's rat (leopoldamys edwardsi muridae) at the individual level.mast seeding is a common phenomenon, and has important effects on seed dispersal and hoarding by animals. at population level, the predator satiation hypothesis proposes that the satiating effect of a large amount of seeds on a relatively small number of predators benefits seed survival in mast-seeding years. however, the effect of mast seeding on the scatter-hoarding of rodents at the individual level is largely unknown. in this study, we investigated the effects of seed abundance (by simulatin ...200818661155
genetic relationships in a germplasm collection of camellia japonica and camellia oleifera using ssr analysis.camellia japonica produces different color and bigger flowers, widely being used for gardening green in southern china. however, cultivars were introduced from different regions, but their origin and pedigree information is either not available poorly documented, causing problems in authentication. many low-yield trees in camellia oleifera forests have been used as stocks for grafting c. japonica. however, the survival rate of grafts between these two species is related to genetic relationship b ...201728218787
[evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against plutella xylostella population].through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (iipc), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against plutella xylostella natural population. the experimental population life table of dbm showed that the index of population trend (i) was 69. 8964 in contro ...200516180759
identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (camellia oleifera).tea oil tree (camellia oleifera, co) provides a fine edible oil source in china. tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (fba) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. the objectives of this study were to identify fba genes and investigate the relationship between fba gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. i ...201425215538
anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from seeds of camellia oleifera abel. 201425189429
leaf transcriptome analysis of a subtropical evergreen broadleaf plant, wild oil-tea camellia (camellia oleifera), revealing candidate genes for cold acclimation.cold tolerance is a key determinant of the geographical distribution range of a plant species and crop production. cold acclimation can enhance freezing-tolerance of plant species through a period of exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures. as a subtropical evergreen broadleaf plant, oil-tea camellia demonstrates a relatively strong tolerance to freezing temperatures. moreover, wild oil-tea camellia is an essential genetic resource for the breeding of cultivated oil-tea camellia, one of the fou ...201728241790
development and cross-species transferability of unigene-derived microsatellite markers in an edible oil woody plant, camellia oleifera (theaceae).camellia oleifera is an important edible oil woody plant in china. lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research on this tree species. transcriptome sequencing of developing c. oleifera seeds generated 69,798 unigenes. a total of 6949 putative microsatellites were discovered among 6042 ssr-containing unigenes. then, 150 simple sequence repeats (ssrs) were evaluated in 20 varieties of c. oleifera. of these, 52 ssrs revealed polymorphism, with the number of alleles per locus ra ...201526125898
self-sterility in camellia oleifera may be due to the prezygotic late-acting this report, self-sterility in camellia oleifera was explored by comparing structural and statistical characteristics following self-pollination (sp) and cross-pollination (cp). although slightly delayed pollen germination and pollen tube growth in selfed ovaries compared to crossed ovaries was observed, there was no significant difference in the percentages of pollen that germinated and pollen tubes that grew to the base of the style. there was also no difference in morphological structure a ...201424926879
synthesis and neuroprotective effects of the complex nanoparticles of iron and sapogenin isolated from the defatted seeds of camellia oleifera.the defatted seeds of camellia oleifera var. monosperma hung t. chang (theaceae) are currently discarded without effective utilization. however, sapogenin has been isolated and shows antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities suggestive of its neuroprotective function.201727937035
[repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on plutella xylostella].based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on diamondback moth(dbm) plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. when the ethanol extracts(etho exts) of bauhinia variegata, eucalyptus tereticornis, euphorbia hirta, duranta repens, zanthoxylum bungeanum, magnolia grandiflora, and nicotiana tabacum were applied resp ...200415228000
insecticidal activity of melaleuca alternifolia essential oil and rna-seq analysis of sitophilus zeamais transcriptome in response to oil fumigation.the cereal weevil, sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. however, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant ...201627936192
development of an in vitro system to simulate the adsorption of self-emulsifying tea (camellia oleifera) seed this study, tea (camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (seof) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (span(®)80 and tween(®)80). the lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. the seof were investigated for physicochemic ...201627136528
[evaluation of three-dimensional flammability of eight forest fuels based on thermogravimetric analysis in nanchang region, china].pyrolysis characteristics of litter of eight tree species in nanchang were studied based on thermogarvimetric analysis results. three components of flammability of the eight species, i.e. ignitibility, combustibility and sustainability, were evaluated by pyrolysis parameters obtained from the analysis. results showed that the eight species could be grouped into two categories: the first one included camellia oleifera and cinnamomum camphora, which were highly ignitable but low combustible and su ...201527112002
beneficial effects of camellia oil (camellia oleifera abel.) on ketoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of ho-1 and vegf.nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ketoprofen, are generally used to treat pain and inflammation and as pyretic agents in clinical medicine. however, the usage of these drugs may lead to oxidative injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. camellia oil ( camellia oleifera abel.) is commonly used in taiwan and china as cooking oil. traditional remedies containing this oil exert beneficial health effects on the bowel, stomach, liver, and lungs. however, the effects of camellia oil on ketopr ...201424377395
hepatoprotection of tea seed oil (camellia oleifera abel.) against ccl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.the oil of tea seed (camellia oleifera abel.) is used extensively in china for cooking. this study was designed to evaluate the effects of tea seed oil on ccl(4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. male sd rats (200+/-10 g) were pre-treated with tea seed oil (50, 100, and 150 g/kg diet) for six weeks before treatment with a single dose of ccl(4) (50% ccl(4), 2 ml/kg of bw, intraperitoneally), the rats were sacrificed 24h later, and blood samples were collected for assaying serum biochemical pa ...200717188414
sasanquasaponin promotes cellular chloride efflux and elicits cardioprotection via the pkcε pathway.sasanquasaponin (sqs) is an active component of camellia oleifera abel. a recent study by our group demonstrated that sqs was able to inhibit ischemia/reperfusion‑induced elevation of the intracellular chloride ion concentration ([cl‑]i) and exerted cardioprotective effects; however, the underlying intracellular signal transduction mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. as protein kinase c ε (pkcε) is able to mediate cl‑ homeostasis, the present study investigated its possible involvement in the ...201626956211
comparison of oil content and fatty acid profile of ten new camellia oleifera cultivars.the oil contents and fatty acid (fa) compositions of ten new and one wild camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. oil contents in camellia seeds from new c. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common c. oleifera seeds (47.06%). new c. oleifera cultivars contained similar fa compositions which included palmitic acid (c16:0, pa), p ...201626942012
two new oleanane-type saponins with anti-proliferative activity from camellia oleifera abel. seed cake.two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins c₄ (1) and c₅ (2), were isolated from camellia oleifera abel. seed cake residue. their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-o-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-o-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1) and 16α-hydroxy-22α-o-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-o-[β-d-galactopyranosyl ...201626861265
nitrogen-doped porous carbon from camellia oleifera shells with enhanced electrochemical performance.nitrogen doped porous activated carbon was prepared by annealing treatment of camellia oleifera shell activated carbon under nh3. we found that nitrogen content of activated carbon up to 10.43 at.% when annealed in nh3 at 800 °c. at 600 °c or above, the n-doped carbon further reacts with nh3, leads to a low surface area down to 458 m(2)/g and low graphitization degree. x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (xps) analysis indicated that the nitrogen functional groups on the nitrogen-doped activated ca ...201626838871
prediction of fatty acid composition in camellia oleifera oil by near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (nits).under the serious circumstances of camellia oleifera adulteration, the accurate examination for quality trait of c. oleifera oil is extremely urgent. for rapid determination of fa composition in c. oleifera oil, the feasibility of nits was first studied. the quantitative models for fa were built based on pls regression. nits spectra is able to accurately predict for oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids (r(cv)>0.844, r(2)>0.886). r(cv) are 0.91987, 0.95755, and 0.84447, and r(2) are 0.9424, 0.9682 ...201323411295
molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel bccp subunit gene from aleurites moluccana.aleurites moluccana l. is grown as a roadside tree in southern china and the oil content of its seed is higher than other oil plants, such as jatropha curcas and camellia oleifera. a. moluccana is considered a promising energy plant because its seed oil could be used to produce biodiesel and bio-jet fuel. in addition, the bark, leaves, and kernels of a. moluccana have various medical and commercial uses. here, a novel gene coding the biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit (bccp) was cloned from ...201526345927
a cytological study of anther and pollen development in camellia oleifera.the plant species camellia oleifera is an important producer of edible oil in china. however, it suffers from a low fruit-setting rate. this study used high resolution scanning electron microscopy of semi-thin tissue sections to investigate anther development and pollen formation, and to determine whether problems in forming functional pollen cause low seed setting rates. during anther development, cell sizes within the epidermis and end othecium gradually increase, and at the beginning of the m ...201526345807
aluminum could be transported via phloem in camellia oleifera abel.aluminum (al) accumulation and long-distance transport in oil tea (camellia oleifera abel.), known to be an al accumulator, was investigated. the average al concentration in the embryo of oil tea seeds was 389 mg al kg(-1) dry weight, which was higher than seeds of other al accumulators. by partially suppressing leaf transpiration in the field, al accumulation in leaves was depressed, which clarified the importance of xylem transport to al accumulation in leaves. however, the effects of xylem tr ...201323192975
antioxidant activities and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from defatted camellia oleifera seed cake.seed cake protein (scp) from camellia oleifera was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases (flavorzyme, trypsin, neutrase, papain, alcalase). amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution, antioxidant activity and functional property of the seed cake protein hydrolysates (scph) were investigated. enzymatic hydrolysis improved protein solubility significantly but impaired the foaming and emulsifying property. hydrolysate generated by alcalase had the highest hydrolysis degree (dh) and ant ...201526344981
solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (camellia oleifera abel.). the effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. the solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol ...201525996147
novel triterpenoid saponins from residual seed cake of camellia oleifera abel. show anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells.four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seed cake of camellia oleifera abel.: camelliasaponin b1 and three new saponins, oleiferasaponin c1-c3 (1-3). their structures were identified as 22-o-angeloyl-camelliagenin b 3-o-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (1); 22-o-angeloyl-camelliagenin a 3-o-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-gl ...201525958771
increase of oleic acid content in phosphatidylcholine through lipase-catalyzed interesterification: optimization by response surface order to obtain phosphatidylcholine (pc) with higher amount of oleic acid, the interesterification between soybean pc and camellia oleifera oil (coo) rich in oleic acid catalyzed by lipase was studied in hexane. for this aim three commercially available immobilized lipases (novozym 435, lipozyme tlim and lipozyme rmim) were assayed and novozym 435 was finally selected for further optimization. the effects of the factors, such as pc concentration, substrate ratio, water amount, lipase dosage a ...201525891113
identification of rubisco rbcl and rbcs in camellia oleifera and their potential as molecular markers for selection of high tea oil cultivars.tea oil derived from seeds of camellia oleifera abel. is high-quality edible oil in china. this study isolated full-length cdnas of rubisco subunits rbcl and rbcs from c. oleifera. the rbcl has 1,522 bp with a 1,425 bp coding region, encoding 475 amino acids; and the rbcs has 615 bp containing a 528 bp coding region, encoding 176 amino acids. the expression level of the two genes, designated as co-rbcl and co-rbcs, was determined in three c. oleifera cultivars: hengchong 89, xianglin 1, and xian ...201525873921
formulation of intumescent flame retardant coatings containing natural-based tea saponin.natural product tea saponin (ts), extracted from the nutshell of camellia (camellia oleifera abel, theaceae), was introduced into intumescent flame retardant formulations as blowing agent and carbon source. the formulations of the flame retardant system were optimized to get the optimum proportion of ts, and intumescent flame retardant coatings containing tea saponin (ts-ifrcs) were then prepared. it was found that ts can significantly affect the combustion behavior and the thermal stability of ...201525721245
two triterpenoid glycosides from the roots of camellia oleifera and their cytotoxic activity.two new triterpenoid saponins, oleiferoside n and oleiferoside o, were isolated from the etoh extract from the roots of camellia oleifera c. abel. their structures were elucidated as 16α-acetoxy-21β,22α-o-diangeloyloxy-23,28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene 3β-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), 16α-acetoxy-21β-o-angeloyloxy-23,28-dihydroxy-22α-o-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)olean-12-ene 3β-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucuronopyran ...201525628037
[selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time pcr in six oil-tea camellia based on rna].qrt-pcr is becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study gene expression. it is nec- essary to find stable reference genes when performing qrt-pcr. the expression of genes cloned in oil-tea camellia currently can't be accurately analyzed because of a lack of suitable reference genes. we collected different tissues (including roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) from six oil-tea camellia species to determine stable reference genes. five novel and ten traditional reference gene sequenc ...201425509858
synthesis of dihydroresveratrol glycosides and evaluation of their activity against melanogenesis in b16f0 melanoma cells.dihydroresveratrol glucoside 1 isolated from camellia oleifera and its xyloside derivative 2 were synthesized for the first time in 5 steps from tbs-protected aldehyde 4. natural product 1 is a potent melanogenesis inhibitor in b16f0 melanoma cells (approximately 40 fold more potent than kojic acid). in contrast, the synthetic product 2 stimulates melanogenesis, suggesting that a single hydroxymethyl group in the glycoside substituent of dihydroresveratrols is responsible for inhibition or activ ...201425440886
inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of camellia oleifera abel.we isolated and purified polysaccharides from the camellia oleifera abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. our results revealed six polysaccharides (cfpa-1-5 & cfpb) from the aqueous extract from the defatted c. oleifera fruit hull. purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. two polysaccharides, cfpb and cfpa-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glu ...201525439865
transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich tea plant, camellia oleifera, reveals candidate genes related to lipid metabolism.rapidly driven by the need for developing sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids and the rising concerns about environmental impacts after using fossil oil, oil-plants have received increasing awareness nowadays. as an important oil-rich plant in china, camellia oleifera has played a vital role in providing nutritional applications, biofuel productions and chemical feedstocks. however, the lack of c. oleifera genome sequences and little genetic information have largely hamper ...201425136805
fate and risk assessment of heavy metals in residue from co-liquefaction of camellia oleifera cake and sewage sludge in supercritical ethanol.the fate and risk assessment of heavy metals (hms) in solid residue from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge (ss) and camellia oleifera cake (coc) in supercritical ethanol (sce) were investigated. sce effectively stabilized hms in solid residues and a better stabilization was presented on zn than cd. moreover, sce significantly transformed cd, cu and zn into f4, which reduced the risk to the environment. furthermore, risk assessments of igeo, er(i), ri and rac demonstrated that the addition of coc ...201425024099
isolation of the sapogenin from defatted seeds of camellia oleifera and its neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons.sasanqua saponin is a major active compound in the defatted seeds of camellia oleifera but is always discarded without effective utilization. the sapogenin from hydrolysis of sasanqua saponin was purified, and its amination derivative was investigated on its neuroprotective effects, which were evaluated by animal models of parkinson disease in mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (mptp). the results showed that the sapogenin and its derivative increased dopamine content i ...201424909656
cytotoxic triterpenoid glycosides from the roots of camellia oleifera.eight new triterpenoid saponins, oleiferosides a-h (1-8), were isolated from the etoh extract of the roots of camellia oleifera. their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1d and 2d nmr techniques, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. all were characterized to be oleanane-type saponins with sugar moieties linked to c-3 of the aglycone. cytotoxic activities of these saponins were evaluated against four human tumor cell lines (a549, b16, bel-7402, and mcf-7) by using the mtt in vitro ...201424841969
ultrasonic-assisted extraction and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from camellia oleifera leaves.polysaccharides from camellia oleifera leaves were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and optimized with response surface methodology. the optimal conditions of the extraction of polysaccharides were determined to be the extraction time of 1.6h, extraction temperature of 88°c and ratio of liquid to raw material of 20, which contributed to the highest yield of 3.77%. the crude polysaccharide was purified and three fractions (clp-1, clp-2 and clp-3) were obtained. their physicochemical pr ...201424769363
endophytic fungi associated with macrosolen tricolor and its host camellia oleifera.endophytic fungi play an important role in terrestrial ecosystem, while little is known about those in hemi-parasitic plants, a group of special plants which absorb nutrients from its hosts by haustoria. the relationship of the endophytes in the two parts of the bipartite systems (hemiparasites together with their hosts) is also poorly understood. endophytic fungi of a hemi-parasitic plant macrosolen tricolor, and its host plant camellia oleifera were investigated and compared in this study. m. ...201424442818
[effect of different host plants on the volatile components in taxillus sutchuenensis].to study the effect of different host plants on the volatile somponents in taxillus sutchuenensis.201324417148
soil characteristics and heavy metal accumulation by native plants in a mn mining area of guangxi, south china.revegetation and ecological restoration of a mn mineland are important concerns in southern china. to determine the major constraints for revegetation and select suitable plants for phytorestoration, pedological and botanical characteristics of a mn mine in guangxi, southern china were investigated. all the soils were characterized by low ph and low nitrogen and phosphorus levels except for the control soil, suggesting that soil acidity and poor nutrition were disadvantageous to plant growth. in ...201424271720
an integrated process to produce ethanol, vanillin, and xylooligosaccharides from camellia oleifera shell.this study aims to present an integrated process that can be used to produce ethanol, vanillin, and xylooligosaccharides from camellia oleifera shell. after the shell was pretreated with naoh, two fractions were obtained: solid and liquid fractions. the solid fraction was hydrolyzed with cellulase and then fermented with pichia stipitis to produce ethanol. the liquid fraction was subjected to oxidation to prepare vanillin or hydrolysis with xylanase to prepare xylooligosaccharides. the optimal p ...201324188806
preparative separation of conjugated linoleic acids (clas) from fermented camellia oleifera abel cake by β-cyclodextrin (β-cd) encapsulation using ph-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.this paper concentrates on the separation of three conjugated linoleic acid (cla) isomers (trans-9,trans-11 cla, trans-10,cis-12 cla and cis-9,trans-11 cla) by β-cyclodextrin (β-cd) encapsulation using countercurrent chromatography from camellia oleifera abel cake fermented by lactic acid bacteria lactobacillus sp. ll-zsds001. the elution sequence of the cla isomers, the mixing zones and mechanism of separation are discussed. the separation of 305.9mg of the crude sample yielded three isomeric c ...201424176364
hypolipidemic effect of a novel biflavonoid from shells of camellia oleifera (abel.).camellia oleifera abel. [c. oleosa (lour.) rehd.], an evergreen plant, is used for healthful oil production, but the shells are always discarded and need to be utilized. the present study was undertaken to explore the effect of extracts from the shells of c. oleifera on adjusting cardiovascular system. a flavonoid was obtained by reflux extraction of the shells in 70% methanol, hydrolysis in 2 m hydrochloric acid, and crystallization in acetone. its structure was identified as a novel biflavonoi ...201323926694
anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydrolyzed sasanquasaponins from the defatted seeds of camellia oleifera.the defatted seeds of camellia oleifera (abel.) are used for stopping itching and pain in old days, the effective compounds need to be investigated. sasanquasaponin as a rich fraction was extracted with 70% ethanol, purified by ab-8 macro-reticular resin, crystallized in 80% ethanol, and further hydrolyzed by 4% hydroxyl potassium or 2 m hydrochloride. anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mi ...201323625174
camellia fruit borer, neoblastobasis camelliae, a new species of blastobasinae in china (lepidoptera, blastobasidae).a new neoblastobasis kuznetzov & sinev, 1985, neoblastobasis camelliae chen & wu, sp. nov., is described from jiangxi, china, and reported feeding on the fruits of camellia oleifera abel (theaceae). illustrations of the adult antennal base, tergal spines on the posterior part of tergites, male genital structures, and notes on its biology are provided. a list of the blastobasidae known from china is also included. two species, blastobasis murcyae adamski & brown, 2002 and b. ianella adamski, 2003 ...201325243310
anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a novel biflavonoid from shells of camellia oleifera.shells are by-products of oil production from camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. the purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. the flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by uv, ms, 1h nmr and 13c nmr spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in camellia oleifera. it showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw o ...201223202905
antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (camellia oleifera abel.) oil.the oil of tea seed (camellia oleifera abel.) is used extensively in china as cooking oil. the objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidant activity of tea seed oil and its active compounds. of the five solvent extracts, methanol extract of tea seed oil exhibited the highest yield and the strongest antioxidant activity as determined by dpph scavenging activity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (teac). two peaks separated from the methanol extract by hplc contributed the ...200616448182
[study on skin toxicology and penetration enhancement of skin absorption of volatile oil extracted from tender branchers of camellia oleifera].to study the toxicity on skin and penetration effect of volatile oil from tender branchers of camellia oleifera on nitrendipine, baicalin, nimesulide for percutaneous obsorption.200717993001
[characteristics of soil ph and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].the characteristics of soil ph and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern hunan province, china. the soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil ph and exchangeable acidity. the results showed that, ph in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citru ...201526785544
histopathological changes in tissues of bithynia siamensis goniomphalos incubated in crude extracts of camellia seed and mangosteen pericarp.the present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (gastropoda, bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. as the positive control, snails incubated in vari ...201324327779
nanoencapsulation of the sasanquasaponin from camellia oleifera, its photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects.sasanquasaponin, a bioactive compound isolated from seeds of camellia oleifera, shows central effects in our previous research. in order to investigate its neuroprotective effects, a new kind of nanocapsule with photo responsiveness was designed to deliver sasanquasaponin into the brain and adjusted by red light. the nanocapsule was prepared using sasanquasaponin emulsified with soybean lecithin and cholesterol solution. the natural phaeophorbide from silkworm excrement as a photosensitizer was ...201425278752
antimicrobial activity of saponin-rich fraction from camellia oleifera cake and its effect on cell viability of mouse macrophage raw a by-product of oil production, several million tons of camellia oleifera cake is discarded every year in china. the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a saponin-rich fraction isolated from c. oleifera cake and investigate its effect on the cell viability of raw 264.7, a macrophage-like cell line present in almost all mouse tissues.201222430639
[analysis of differential proteins in nurse seed grafted unions of camellia oleifera at its different developmental stages].by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, this paper studied the changes of the proteome in nurse seed grafted unions of camellia oleifera at its different developmental stages (4, 8, 16, 22, 29, and 35 days after grafting). a total of 40 differential proteins were detected, 9 of which could be related to the healing of nurse seed grafted unions. grafting stimulated the grafted union's gene transcription and protein translation, signal transduction, energy metabolism, and c ...201223189679
sasanquasaponin from camellia oleifera abel. induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer mcf-7 cells.sasanquasaponin (sqs) is a triterpenoid extracted from the chinese medicinal plant camellia oleifera abel. little knowledge about the role of sqs in the prevention and treatment of cancer is available. recent studies have shown that sqs possesses potent anti-tumor activities in human leukemia jurkat cells and human hepatoma hepg2 cells. however, research on the effects and mechanisms of sqs on the treatment of breast cancer, a major cause of mortality in women worldwide, is not available. in thi ...201323164604
a new saponin from tea seed pomace (camellia oleifera abel) and its protective effect on pc12 cells.a new triterpenoid saponin, oleiferasaponin a₁, was isolated from tea seed pomace (camellia oleifera abel). the structure of oleiferasaponin a₁ was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and was found to be 22-o-cis-2-hexenoyl-a₁-barrigenol 3-o-[β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)] [β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. pc12 cells injured with h₂o₂ were used as the model to test the protective effects of oleiferasaponin a₁. the results ...201223027372
isolation and free radical scavenging activities of a novel biflavonoid from the shells of camellia oleifera abel.oil production from the seeds of camellia oleifera abel. causes a great waste of shells which contain a lot of bioactive components. the aim of this research was to isolate flavonoid from the shells of c. oleifera abel. and evaluate its uses. the shells were extracted by 70% methanol, hydrolyzed by 2m hydrochloric acid, and further crystallized in acetone, the corresponding yield of flavonoid was up to 2.1% (purity: 93.8%). the procedure is concise, quick and proper for industrial utilization of ...201222982330
antioxidant and antitumor activities of the polysaccharide from seed cake of camellia oleifera explore biomedical potential of the polysaccharide from seed cake of camellia oleifera abel, we investigated antioxidant and antitumor capacities of the polymer. the results showed that the polysaccharide is capable of scavenging both superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. the highest scavenging rate of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals is 85% and 76%, respectively. using the model animal, caenorhabditis elegans, we further show that the polysaccharide can increase antioxidant ...201222683896
mechanochemical-assisted extraction and antioxidant activities of kaempferol glycosides from camellia oleifera abel. meal.a mechanochemical-assisted extraction (mcae) method was proposed and investigated for the fast extraction of two kaempferol glycosides (kaempferol-3-o-[2-o-β-d-galactopyranosyl-6-o-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-o-[2-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl-6-o-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside) from camellia oleifera abel. meal. the effects of operating parameters in terms of naoh content, grinding time, extraction time, and ratio of solution to solid were evaluated by means of res ...201121410254
new bibenzyl glycosides from leaves of camellia oleifera abel. with cytotoxic activities.studies on the chemical constituents of leaves of camellia oleifera abel. led to the isolation of 3 new bibenzyl glycosides. their structures have been elucidated as 1-(3',5'-dihydroxy)phenyl-2-(4″-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl)phenylethane (1), 1-(3',5'-dimethoxy)phenyl-2-(4″-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl)phenylethane (2) and 1-(3',5'-dimethoxy)phenyl-2-[4″-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl(6→1)-o-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl]phenylethane (3) through spectral studies including hr-esi-ms, ((1))h nmr, ((13))c nmr and 2d nmr experiments ...201121219989
foam properties and detergent abilities of the saponins from camellia oleifera.the defatted seed meal of camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. the goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of c. oleifera. the crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of c. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). the foaming power of the 0.5 crude ...201021151446
bioactive saponin from tea seed pomace with inhibitory effects against rhizoctonia solani.the present study was aimed to characterize the antifungal principles in methanol extract of tea ( camellia oleifera ) seed pomace. totally, two flavonoids, camelliasides a (1) and b (2), and one saponin mixture composed of camelliasaponin b(1) (3) were identified from the methanol extract. these constituents were tested for their ability to reduce the infection of cabbage seedlings by rhizoctonia solani kuhn ag-4 and to inhibit growth of the pathogen on potato dextrose agar plates. the saponin ...201020681650
managing earthworm casts (oligochaeta: lumbricidae) in turfgrass using a natural byproduct of tea oil (camellia sp.) manufacture.earthworm casts are a worldwide problem on golf courses and sports fields when they disrupt the playability, aesthetics and maintenance of closely mowed playing surfaces. currently, no pesticides are labeled for earthworms in the united states. tea seed pellets (tsps), a saponin-rich byproduct of camellia oleifera abel oil manufacture, were tested for expelling earthworms and reducing casts on creeping bentgrass turf. the fate of expelled worms, methods for removing them and impacts on pest and ...201020024948
[effects of spider mite and two substitute diets on the development and reproduction of euseius nicholsi (ehara et lee) (acari: phytoseiidae)].three kinds of diets, i. e., two-spotted spider mite tetranychus urticae koch, camellia oleifera abel pollen, and mould mite tyrophagus putrescentiae (schrank), were used to feed euseius nicholsi (ehara et lee) in laboratory at 25 degrees c and 80% rh to study the effects of these diets on the development and reproduction of e. nicholsi. the e. nicholsi could prey on t. putrescentiae egg, but could not complete its natural development due to the deficiency of the egg. other two diets were the fa ...200919899462
a dimeric hydrolysable tannin from camellia oleifera.camellioferin a, a new dimeric ellagitannin, was isolated, together with 13 known tannins, including camellins a and b, from camellia oleifera. the structure of the new tannin elucidated by spectroscopic methods.19947765613
a single leaf of camellia oleifera has two types of carbon assimilation pathway, c(3) and crassulacean acid metabolism.the c(4) plants, whose first product of photosynthetic co(2) fixation is a four-carbon acid, have evolved independently many times. crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) is a biological mechanism known to exhibit some c(4) characteristics such as the c(3) cycle during daylight and demonstrates the c(4) cycle at night. there are also various c(3)-cam intermediates, whose cam pathway can be induced by environmental changes. however, neither fungus-induced cam nor theaceae cam have been reported previ ...201222337600
camellia oleifera abel shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions.this study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using camellia oleifera abel shell (coas), an agriculture product in middle-west region in china, for the adsorption of methylene blue (mb), a cationic dye. batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of contact time, ph, adsorbent dosage, temperature and initial concentration on the adsorption of mb. adsorption equilibrium studies showed that mb adsorption followed langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of ...201122179657
microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from camellia oleifera fruit hull.the abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (camellia oleifera) are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. in order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of c. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. a central composite design (ccd) was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters--liquid:solid ratio (ml/g), extraction time (min) and extr ...201121623313
synergism and foaming properties in binary mixtures of a biosurfactant derived from camellia oleifera abel and synthetic surfactants.a biosurfactant, named tea saponin (ts), was isolated and purified from the defatted seed of camellia oleifera abel. the characterization of ts including molecular weight, glycosyl composition, and thermal behavior as well as the surface and foaming properties was conducted. the synergistic interactions of binary systems of ctab-ts, sds-ts, and brij35-ts were investigated. the results show that ts had a weight-average molecular weight of 809.12 g mol(-1) and contained four aglycones of l-rhamnos ...201121543081
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