the relationship of pellagra to corn and the low availability of niacin in cereals.the poorest inhabitants of an area generally eat the narrowest range of foods, and one staple (which serves as a cheap source of calories) dominates. in turn, the specific type of malnutrition seen in that area depends upon that predominant staple and how it is processed before consumption. corn, used here in the sense of "indian corn" or maize, was brought to europe from america, and over the period 1750-1850 became the typical peasant's staple in many of the areas bordering the mediterranean. ...19836357846
the location of genes governing long first internode of corn.knowing breeding behavior and cytological location of traits helps breeders. my objective was to locate dominant genes for long first internode of corn (zea mays l.). i determined that hopi indian corn pi213733 (variety komona) displayed the trait and grew well in the u.s. corn belt. i crossed pi213733 to 26 translocation tester stocks in minnesota inbred a188 background, backcrossed semi-sterile plants carrying the translocation to a188 the next generation, and grew the segregating generation p ...19979093865
[effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of candida albicans test strain and streptococcus pyogenes test strain dick 1. sweatweed, licorice, aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shig ...200111871308
origin of corn: pollen evidence.the origin of indian corn remains controversial. its closest wild relative is teosinte, with which it hybridizes freely to produce fertile progeny. teosinte ears are smaller and simpler than those of corn. searches for a more likely living ancestor have failed, but nine of its assumed pollen grains have been recovered in deep drillcore samples obtained from a stratum of soil under mexico city, which is believed to antedate man in the western hemisphere. these nine largest grains are indistinguis ...198117775274
characterization of the monoterpene synthase gene tps26, the ortholog of a gene induced by insect herbivory in maize.plants damaged by insects can synthesize and release volatile chemicals that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. the maize (zea mays subsp. mays) terpene synthase gene stc1 is part of that indirect defense response, being induced in seedling blades in response to herbivory by beet army worm. many genes in maize are duplicated because of a past whole-genome duplication event, and several of these orthologs display different expression patterns. we report here the isolation and characterizat ...200818218975
a cellular study of teosinte zea mays subsp. parviglumis (poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize.the evolutionary history of maize (zea mays subsp. mays) is of general interest because of its economic and scientific importance. here we show that many cellular traits described previously in developing caryopses of maize are also seen in its wild progenitor teosinte (zea mays subsp. parviglumis). these features, each with a possible role in development, include (1) an early programmed cell death in the maternal placento-chalazal (p-c) layer that may lead to increased hydrolytic conductance to ...200921622300
kinetics of fumonisin b₁ formation in maize ears inoculated with fusarium verticillioides.the kinetics of fumonisin b₁ (fb₁) biosynthesis have been examined in ears of four botanical varieties zea mays var. indentata, zea mays var. indurata, zea mays var. saccharata and zea mays var. everta inoculated with f. verticillioides isolates at silking stage. the level of mycotoxin accumulated in kernels was correlated with sample harvest time (r = 0.73) and ergosterol content (r = 0.70). fb₁ biosynthesis was influenced by amylose, starch and moisture contents, which undergo dynamic changes ...201222916862
a large-scale screen for artificial selection in maize identifies candidate agronomic loci for domestication and crop improvement.maize (zea mays subsp mays) was domesticated from teosinte (z. mays subsp parviglumis) through a single domestication event in southern mexico between 6000 and 9000 years ago. this domestication event resulted in the original maize landrace varieties, which were spread throughout the americas by native americans and adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. starting with landraces, 20th century plant breeders selected inbred lines of maize for use in hybrid maize production. both dome ...200516227451
interactions among the predatory midge aphidoletes aphidimyza (diptera: cecidomyiidae), the fungal pathogen metarhizium brunneum (ascomycota: hypocreales), and maize-infesting aphids in greenhouse mesocosms.the generalist entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. the gall midge aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. however, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. as part of the eu-supported project inbiosoil, this ...201728417909
identification of downy mildew resistance gene candidates by positional cloning in maize (zea mays subsp. mays; poaceae).positional cloning in combination with phenotyping is a general approach to identify disease-resistance gene candidates in plants; however, it requires several time-consuming steps including population or fine mapping. therefore, in the present study, we suggest a new combined strategy to improve the identification of disease-resistance gene candidates.201728224059
sequence and comparative analysis of the maize nb mitochondrial genome.the nb mitochondrial genome found in most fertile varieties of commercial maize (zea mays subsp. mays) was sequenced. the 569,630-bp genome maps as a circle containing 58 identified genes encoding 33 known proteins, 3 ribosomal rnas, and 21 trnas that recognize 14 amino acids. among the 22 group ii introns identified, 7 are trans-spliced. there are 121 open reading frames (orfs) of at least 300 bp, only 3 of which exist in the mitochondrial genome of rice (oryza sativa). in total, the identified ...200415542500
surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic poaceae biomass feedstocks.understanding factors that govern lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance is a prerequisite for designing efficient 2nd generation biorefining processes. however, the reasons and mechanisms responsible for quantitative differences in enzymatic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in response to hydrothermal pretreatment at different severities are still not sufficiently understood.201728250817
plant phylogeny and life history shape rhizosphere bacterial microbiome of summer annuals in an agricultural field.rhizosphere microbial communities are critically important for soil nitrogen cycling and plant productivity. there is evidence that plant species and genotypes select distinct rhizosphere communities, however, knowledge of the drivers and extent of this variation remains limited. we grew 11 annual species and 11 maize (zea mays subsp. mays) inbred lines in a common garden experiment to assess the influence of host phylogeny, growth, and nitrogen metabolism on rhizosphere communities. growth char ...201729321763
modeling the morphometric evolution of the maize shoot apical meristem.the maize (zea mays subsp. mays l.) shoot apical meristem (sam) is a self-replenishing pool of stem cells that produces all above-ground plant tissues. improvements in image acquisition and processing techniques have allowed high-throughput, quantitative genetic analyses of sam morphology. as with other large-scale phenotyping efforts, meaningful descriptions of genetic architecture depend on the collection of relevant measures. in this study, we tested two quantitative image processing methods ...201627867389
effects of maydis stigma polysaccharide on the intestinal microflora in type-2 diabetes.diabetes is a serious endocrine and metabolic disorder. food supplements attract people's attention in mitigating health problems from the aspect of gastrointestinal microflora. maydis stigma (zea mays subsp. mays l. [poaceae]), has been used as water decoction for treating diabetes in folk medicine. it has great potential, and feasibly a stable form of maydis stigma commercial products could be developed to fulfil the health food market.201627558859
maternal gametophyte effects on seed development in maize.flowering plants, like placental mammals, have an extensive maternal contribution toward progeny development. plants are distinguished from animals by a genetically active haploid phase of growth and development between meiosis and fertilization, called the gametophyte. flowering plants are further distinguished by the process of double fertilization that produces sister progeny, the endosperm and the embryo, of the seed. because of this, there is substantial gene expression in the female gameto ...201627466227
genomic affinities revealed by gish suggests intergenomic restructuring between parental genomes of the paleopolyploid genus zea.the present work compares the molecular affinities, revealed by gish, with the analysis of meiotic pairing in intra- and interspecific hybrids between species of zea obtained in previous works. the joint analysis of these data provided evidence about the evolutionary relationships among the species from the paleopolyploid genus zea (maize and teosintes). gish and meiotic pairing of intraspecific hybrids revealed high genomic affinity between maize (zea mays subsp. mays) and both zea mays subsp. ...201526506040
positional cloning in maize (zea mays subsp. mays, poaceae). 201525606355
small auxin upregulated rna (saur) gene family in maize: identification, evolution, and its phylogenetic comparison with arabidopsis, rice, and sorghum.small auxin-up rnas (saurs) are the early auxin-responsive genes represented by a large multigene family in plants. here, we identified 79 saur gene family members from maize (zea mays subsp. mays) by a reiterative database search and manual annotation. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the saur proteins from arabidopsis, rice, sorghum, and maize had divided into 16 groups. these genes were non-randomly distributed across the maize chromosomes, and segmental duplication and tandem duplication ...201424472286
the genetic basis of natural variation for iron homeostasis in the maize ibm population.iron (fe) deficiency symptoms in maize (zea mays subsp. mays) express as leaf chlorosis, growth retardation, as well as yield reduction and are typically observed when plants grow in calcareous soils at alkaline ph. to improve our understanding of genotypical variability in the tolerance to fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, the objectives of this study were to (i) determine the natural genetic variation of traits related to fe homeostasis in the maize intermated b73 × mo17 (ibm) population, (ii) ...201424400634
flooding tolerance in interspecific introgression lines containing chromosome segments from teosinte (zea nicaraguensis) in maize (zea mays subsp. mays).nicaraguan teosinte (zea nicaraguensis), a species found in frequently flooded areas, provides useful germplasm for breeding flooding-tolerant maize (z. mays subsp. mays). the objective of this study was to select flooding-tolerant lines using a library of introgression lines (ils), each containing a chromosome segment from z. nicaraguensis in the maize inbred line mi29.201323877074
increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet corn.carotenoids are responsible for the yellow color of sweet corn (zea mays var. saccharata), but are also potentially the source of flavor compounds from the cleavage of carotenoid molecules. the carotenoid-derived volatile, β-ionone, was identified in both standard yellow sweet corn ('hybrix5') and a zeaxanthin-enhanced experimental variety ('hz') designed for sufferers of macular degeneration. as β-ionone is highly perceivable at extremely low concentration by humans, it was important to confirm ...201323767984
bs1, a new chimeric gene formed by retrotransposon-mediated exon shuffling in maize.transposons are major components of all eukaryotic genomes. although traditionally regarded as causes of detrimental mutations, recent evidence suggests that transposons may play a role in host gene diversification and evolution. for example, host gene transduction by retroelements has been suggested to be both common and to have the potential to create new chimeric genes by the shuffling of existing sequences. we have previously shown that the maize (zea mays subsp. mays) retrotransposon bs1 ha ...201020488894
possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. however, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. a model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (zea mays var. saccharata). in this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on n6 medium, contained 2, 4-d 2 mg l(-1) and sucrose 60 g l(-1) form the embryogenic callus. higher 2, 4-d lev ...200919943466
whole-genome validation of high-information-content fingerprinting.fluorescent-based high-information-content fingerprinting (hicf) techniques have recently been developed for physical mapping. these techniques make use of automated capillary dna sequencing instruments to enable both high-resolution and high-throughput fingerprinting. in this article, we report the construction of a whole-genome hicf fpc map for maize (zea mays subsp. mays cv b73), using a variant of hicf in which a type iis restriction enzyme is used to generate the fluorescently labeled fragm ...200516166258
rate and pattern of mutation at microsatellite loci in maize.microsatellites are important tools for plant breeding, genetics, and evolution, but few studies have analyzed their mutation pattern in plants. in this study, we estimated the mutation rate for 142 microsatellite loci in maize (zea mays subsp. mays) in two different experiments of mutation accumulation. the mutation rate per generation was estimated to be 7.7 x 10(-4) for microsatellites with dinucleotide repeat motifs, with a 95% confidence interval from 5.2 x 10(-4) to 1.1 x 10(-3). for micro ...200212140237
[incorporation of free glycerol during re-esterification of absorbed long-chain triglycerides].incorporation of 14c-glycerol in absorbed lct (via glycerophosphate) was measured in 16 volunteers. 1. supplied orally, 14c-incorporation was about 8-times higher than after i. v. injection. 2. after supply of 14c-glycerol and 3h-palmitate, dissolved in 1.0 indian corn oil/kg, during the first 10 hours 14c-incorporation was about 40% and during the first 3 hours about equal to the re-incorporation of 3h. 3. when compared with incorporation from 3h-glucose, 14c-glycerol incorporation was 3-6-fold ...19807424075
diagnosis of fat absorption with 14c-tripalmitate/3h-palmitic 44 normal subjects, in 89 patients with chronic pancreatitis, of whom 23 had elevated faecal fat, and in 19 patients with various diseases of the small gut investigations with 14c-tripalmitate and 3h-palmitic acid, dissolved in 1.0 g indian corn oil/kg, were performed. serum lipid activity of 14c and 3h was measured 4, 6, and 8 h later. compared with absolute values of triglyceride absorption (percentage dose of 14c-lipid activity/l serum), relative values (14c/3h ratio of the serum lipids) l ...1979497049
indian corn cultivation. 197517789137
[new procedure in the diagnosis of maldigestion. studies with 3-h palmitic acid and 14-c tripalmitate in normal subjects and patients with chronic pancreatitis].3h-palmitic acid and 14c-tripalmitate dissolved in 1.0 g indian corn oil/kg body weight were administered to 29 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 25 control subjects. for the following 8 h 3h and 14c radioactivity in serum lipids and 14co2 in expired air were measured at 2-hour intervals. triglyceride absorption was significantly lowered in the pancreatitis group, while the wide dispersion in healthy subjects precluded reliable information on 14c-triglyceride absorption alone in individual ...19751121660
[three cases of injury on a combine used for harvesting indian corn]. 19665913338
[two communications on indian corn and pellagra by carlo buccio at the accademia bresciana in 1804 and 1805]. 201414920721
hybrids of zea tunicata and zea ramosa. 191716586733
foreign body retained in the nose for fourteen years; a grain of indian corn, which is germinating. 191219976035
toxic effect of o and oh ions on seedlings of indian corn. 190317819680
the toxic effect of h and oh ions on seedlings of indian corn. 190317828989
influence of light on the length of the hypocotyl in indian corn. 190117801123
"curious ears of indian corn.". 189317811701
a curious ear of indian corn. 189317751890
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