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molecular and morphologic characterization of a cryptosporidium genotype identified in lemurs.this study reports the molecular and morphologic characterization of a cryptosporidium sp., identified in stools of captive lemurs propithecus verreauxi coquereli. stool samples were collected from seven animals (n=7) presenting episodes of diarrhea. bright-field light microscopy of stool smears stained with modified acid-fast technique revealed the presence of cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in four of the stool samples analyzed. all microscopically positive samples were confirmed by pcr using prim ...200312559709
infant transport and mother-infant contact from 1 to 26 weeks postnatal in coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli) in northwestern madagascar.lactating females face energetic constraints absent in conspecifics and must compensate for higher energy requirements. infant transport is the most energetically costly mammalian activity after lactation. nonetheless, infant transport and mother-infant contact are seldom measured. the extreme seasonality characteristic of madagascar coupled with lactation costs and infant transport is a trifold energetic challenge encountered by lemur mothers. we hypothesized that coquerel's sifaka (propithecus ...201626798957
down for the count: cryptosporidium infection depletes the gut microbiome in coquerel's sifakas.background: the gut microbiome (gmb) is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, which are a leading cause of disease and mortality worldwide. one such pathogen, the protozoan cryptosporidium, causes a variety of digestive disorders that can be devastating and even lethal. the coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli) - an endangered, folivorous primate endemic to madagascar - is precariously susceptible to cryptosporidiosis under captive conditions. if left untreated, infection can ...201728740461
comparative rna sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates.comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. to date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. for the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. in this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by seque ...201222207615
variation in the meaning of alarm calls in verreaux's and coquerel's sifakas (propithecus verreauxi, p. coquereli).the comprehension and usage of primate alarm calls appear to be influenced by social learning. thus, alarm calls provide flexible behavioral mechanisms that may allow animals to develop appropriate responses to locally present predators. to study this potential flexibility, we compared the usage and function of 3 alarm calls common to 2 closely related sifaka species (propithecus verreauxi and p. coquereli), in each of 2 different populations with different sets of predators. playback studies re ...201121475394
next-generation approaches to advancing eco-immunogenomic research in critically endangered primates.high-throughput sequencing platforms are generating massive amounts of genomic data from nonmodel species, and these data sets are valuable resources that can be mined to advance a number of research areas. an example is the growing amount of transcriptome data that allow for examination of gene expression in nonmodel species. here, we show how publicly available transcriptome data from nonmodel primates can be used to design novel research focused on immunogenomics. we mined transcriptome data ...201424890011
intraspecific variation in maximum ingested food size and body mass in varecia rubra and propithecus coquereli.in a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (v(b))-the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole-and found that v(b) scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. the current study examines the relationship between v(b) and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous varecia rubra and the folivorous propithecus coquereli. we found no overlap in v(b) between the species (all v. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relativ ...201122567300
environmental and physiological factors contributing to outbreaks of cryptosporidium in coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli) at the duke lemur center: 1999-2007.this population-based, retrospective study examined the susceptibility of a prosimian primate, coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli), to cryptosporidium spp. over a 9-yr period from 1999 to 2007 at the duke lemur center (dlc) located in durham, north carolina. the investigation examined potential epidemiologic risk factors that could be correlated to infectious outbreaks at the center, such as prevalence, signalment (species, age, and sex), seasonality of occurrence, recurrence rate, family ...201020945641
opsin gene and photopigment polymorphism in a prosimian primate.a recent genetic investigation found some species of prosimian to have an opsin gene polymorphism [nature 402 (1999) 36]. in the present study the functional implications of this finding were explored in a correlated investigation of opsin genes and spectral sensitivity measurements of a diurnal prosimian, coquerel's sifaka (propithecus verreauxi coquereli). spectra recorded using electroretinogram (erg) flicker photometry reveal a cone photopigment polymorphism paralleling an opsin gene polymor ...200211804627
the birth and early development of a captive sifaka, propithecus verreauxi coquereli.we report here our observations on parturition and infant development up to five months in a captive sifaka, propithecus verreauxi coquereli. comparisons are made with other reports of propithecus. in describing the acquisition of developmental landmarks, a distinction is made between the first sighting of a behavior pattern and its regular occurrence in the infant's repertoire. we describe the development of locomotor abilities, grooming, feeding, play, and social interactions. in general, matu ...1978102572
new density estimates of a threatened sifaka species (propithecus coquereli) in ankarafantsika national park.propithecus coquereli is one of the last sifaka species for which no reliable and extensive density estimates are yet available. despite its endangered conservation status [iucn, 2012] and recognition as a flagship species of the northwestern dry forests of madagascar, its population in its last main refugium, the ankarafantsika national park (anp), is still poorly known. using line transect distance sampling surveys we estimated population density and abundance in the anp. furthermore, we inves ...201424443250
a comparison of activity patterns for captive propithecus tattersalli and propithecus coquereli.the activity patterns and social interactions of two species of captive sifaka were observed during a 2-year period. allogrooming was not observed in golden-crowned sifaka and they spent significantly more time resting than the coquerel's sifaka. females of both species were found to be dominant to males. the golden-crowned sifaka (propithecus tattersalli) spent significantly less time feeding than the coquerel's sifaka. temperature, time of day, species, and interpair comparisons for the golden ...201626802736
getting into shape: limb bone strength in perinatal lemur catta and propithecus coquereli.functional studies of skeletal anatomy are predicated on the fundamental assumption that form will follow function. for instance, previous studies have shown that the femora of specialized leaping primates are more robust than those of more generalized primate quadrupeds. are such differences solely a plastic response to differential loading patterns during postnatal life, or might they also reflect more canalized developmental mechanisms present at birth? here, we show that perinatal lemur catt ...202030548126
reach and posture hand preferences during arboreal feeding in sifakas (propithecus sp.): a test of the postural origins theory of behavioral lateralization.sixteen sifakas (11 propithecus verreauxi coquereli, 2 propithecus verreauxi verreauxi form majori, and 3 propithecus tattersalli) were videotaped as they fed on leaves in an arboreal context. the hand used to feed and the hand used to maintain postural stability was coded. for each subject, the lateral bias of the hand used to feed was opposite the hand used in postural support. seven sifakas displayed no bias for feeding or posture-related hand use, 7 sifakas displayed significant feeding-rela ...200516366776
dermatophytosis (trichophyton mentagrophytes) in a coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli).a 19-yr-old intact male coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli) was evaluated for a crusting facial dermatopathy. fungal culture and histopathology of skin biopsies were consistent with dermatophytosis caused by trichophyton mentagrophytes, and treatment with the antifungal medication terbinafine was initiated. after 1 mo of treatment, all clinical signs had resolved and a fungal culture of the skin was negative. the sifaka was treated with terbinafine for a total of 81 days. two additional fu ...201122204079
patterns of quadrupedal locomotion in a vertical clinging and leaping primate (propithecus coquereli) with implications for understanding the functional demands of primate quadrupedal locomotion.many primates exhibit a suite of characteristics that distinguish their quadrupedal gaits from non-primate mammals including the use of a diagonal sequence gait, a relatively protracted humerus at touchdown, and relatively high peak vertical forces on the hindlimbs compared to the forelimbs. these characteristics are thought to have evolved together in early, small-bodied primates possibly in response to the mechanical demands of navigating and foraging in a complex arboreal environment. it rema ...201627062049
the anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of lemur catta and propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms lemur catta (lemuridae) and propithecus coquereli (indriidae). these two species belong to the suborder strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features wit ...201424757163
sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. in a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous coquerel's sifakas (propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). we us ...201222870229
social inhibitory control in five lemur species.we tested five lemur species-ring-tailed lemurs, ruffed lemurs, mongoose lemurs, black lemurs, and coquerel's sifakas-(n = 52) in an experiment that evaluated skills for inhibitory control in a social context. first, two human experimenters presented identical food rewards; the "generous" experimenter allowed the subject to eat from her hand, whereas the "competitive" experimenter always withheld the reward. lemurs quickly learned to approach the generous experimenter and avoid the competitive o ...201525822664
patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate species.host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. during development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. however, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. in this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characte ...201525970595
anogenital gland secretions of lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi coquereli: a preliminary chemical examination.although prosimians are greatly olfaction-oriented, little is known about the specifics of how they use scent to communicate. in this preliminary study we attempted to delineate intra- and interspecific differences among the anogenital gland secretions of two lemur species (lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi coquereli) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the results indicate that the two species are discernible through scent. furthermore, we were able to identify reproductive ...200415195327
cooperative rescue and predator fatality involving a group-living strepsirrhine, coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli), and a madagascar ground boa (acrantophis madagascariensis).the interactions between primates and their snake predators are of interest because snakes have influenced the evolution of primate visual systems and predation has driven the evolution of primate behaviour, including group living. however, there are few accounts of primate-snake interactions in the wild. we report an incident from northwest madagascar in which a large female madagascar ground boa (acrantophis madagascariensis) captured an adult female coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli); ...201525737055
the critical role of dietary foliage in maintaining the gut microbiome and metabolome of folivorous sifakas.the gut microbiome (gmb) of folivores metabolizes dietary fiber into nutrients, including short-chain fatty acids (scfas); however, experiments probing the consequences of foliage quality on host gmbs are lacking. we therefore examined gmb structure and function via amplicon sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 31 captive sifakas (propithecus coquereli) during dietary manipulations associated with husbandry. supplementing standard diets with diverse foliage blends, versus wi ...201830262842
activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: evidence of cathemerality in varecia and lemur catta?cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. however, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. for example, lemur catta and varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. to investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemu ...201728257553
opsin gene polymorphism predicts trichromacy in a cathemeral lemur.recent research has identified polymorphic trichromacy in three diurnal strepsirrhines: coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli), black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata), and red ruffed lemurs (v. rubra). current hypotheses suggest that the transitions to diurnality experienced by propithecus and varecia were necessary precursors to their independent acquisitions of trichromacy. accordingly, cathemeral lemurs are thought to lack the m/l opsin gene polymorphism necessary for trichromac ...200918837042
infanticide and partial cannibalism in free-ranging coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli).infanticide has been observed across many primate taxa, but the extent of its occurrence is not fully understood due to difficulty in observation and uneven reporting. several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why infanticide occurs in primates and whether it benefits some individuals within a social group. here we report on a case of infanticide, followed by partial consumption of the infant, in a population of coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli) at mariarano, northwest madagascar. ...202032424537
lactating coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli) exhibit reduced stress responses in comparison to males and nonlactating females.cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that plays a principal role in metabolic function and stress responses in wild primates. stressors are ubiquitous in environments and elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral responses. while stress responses are adaptive in the short-term, they can have negative effects when experienced over longer durations. as a physiological stressor, the process of lactation is an energetically expensive activity for mammals. milk production increases water loss ...202031994758
stable and transient structural variation in lemur vaginal, labial and axillary microbiomes: patterns by species, body site, ovarian hormones and forest access.host-associated microbiomes shape and are shaped by myriad processes that ultimately delineate their symbiotic functions. whereas a host's stable traits, such as its lineage, relate to gross aspects of its microbiome structure, transient factors, such as its varying physiological state, relate to shorter term, structural variation. our understanding of these relationships in primates derives principally from anthropoid studies and would benefit from a broader, comparative perspective. we thus ex ...202032401310
eulerian videography technology improves classification of sleep architecture in primates.sleep is a critically important dimension of primate behavior, ecology, and evolution, yet primate sleep is under-studied because current methods of analyzing sleep are expensive, invasive, and time-consuming. in contrast to electroencephalography (eeg) and actigraphy, videography is a cost-effective and non-invasive method to study sleep architecture in animals. with video data, however, it is challenging to score subtle changes that occur in different sleep states, and technology has lagged be ...201931456082
mortality in coquerel's sifakas ( propithecus coquereli) under human care: a retrospective survey from the duke lemur center 1990-2015.coquerel's sifakas ( propithecus coquereli) are diurnal, folivorous lemurs native to madagascar and one of only two members of the genus propithecus currently housed in human care settings outside of madagascar. this species has a lifespan of approximately 30 yr but minimal information exists regarding morbidity and mortality in human care settings. in this retrospective study, medical records, postmortem exam, and autopsy reports from 56 animals housed at the duke lemur center from 1990 to 2015 ...201829900793
behavioral responses of three lemur species to different food enrichment devices.environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. we studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [varecia rubra], and coque ...201829722911
clonal spread of yersinia enterocolitica 1b/o:8 in multiple zoo species.yersinia enterocolitica (ye) bioserotype 1b/o:8 (ye 1b/o:8) was identified in routine culture of a variety of zoo species housed at omaha's henry doorly zoo and aquarium (ohdza) from april to july 2011. animal cases representing 12 species had ye detected from 34 cases during routine fecal monitoring and/or during postmortem examination: coquerel's sifakas (propithecus coquereli, two cases), black & white (bw) ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata, six cases), red ruffed lemurs (varecia rub ...202032212560
the ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species.evolutionary theories suggest that ecology is a major factor shaping cognition in primates. however, there have been few systematic tests of spatial memory abilities involving multiple primate species. here, we examine spatial memory skills in four strepsirrhine primates that vary in level of frugivory: ruffed lemurs (varecia sp.), ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), mongoose lemurs (eulemur mongoz), and coquerel's sifakas (propithecus coquereli). we compare these species across three studies targ ...201424469310
lemur species-specific metapopulation responses to habitat loss and fragmentation.determining what factors affect species occurrence is vital to the study of primate biogeography. we investigated the metapopulation dynamics of a lemur community consisting of eight species (avahi occidentalis, propithecus coquereli, microcebus murinus, microcebus ravelobensis, lepilemur edwardsi, cheirogaleus medius, eulemur mongoz, and eulemur fulvus) within fragmented tropical dry deciduous forest habitat in ankarafantsika national park, madagascar. we measured fragment size and isolation of ...201829742108
daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center.light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center (eulemur mongoz, lemur catta, propithecus coquereli, ...201424318943
comparing chromosomal and mitochondrial phylogenies of the indriidae (primates, lemuriformes).the malagasy primate family indriidae comprises three genera with up to 19 species. cytogenetic and molecular phylogenies of the indriidae have been performed with special attention to the genus propithecus. comparative r-banding and fish with human paints were applied to karyotypes of representatives of all three genera and confirmed most of the earlier r-banding results. however, additional chromosomal rearrangements were detected. a reticulated and a cladistic phylogeny, the latter including ...201121336668
use of total dietary fiber across four lemur species (propithecus verreauxi coquereli, hapalemur griseus griseus, varecia variegata, and eulemur fulvus): does fiber type affect digestive efficiency?in vivo digestibility and transit of two experimental diets were compared across four lemur species for which gastrointestinal morphology and preliminary data on physiology differ:varecia variegata (vv), eulemur fulvus (ef), propithecus verreauxi (pv), and hapalemur griseus (hg). since free-ranging groups consume varied amounts of slowly fermentable insoluble fiber (if) and rapidly fermentable soluble fiber (sf), differences in digestibility may be related to variation in the fiber types consume ...200415538767
description of the gastrointestinal tract of five lemur species: propithecus tattersalli, propithecus verreauxi coquereli, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, and lemur catta.the objective of this project was to better define the similarities and differences in gastrointestinal morphology present in lemur species. measurements of the gastrointestinal tract of lemurs were obtained at necropsy from the captive population at duke university primate center. measurements of body length and weight, as well as gastrointestinal length, were recorded from five prosimian species: propithecus tattersalli, propithecus verreauxi, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, and lemur ca ...200011078027
relative growth of the limbs and trunk in sifakas: heterochronic, ecological, and functional considerations.limb, trunk, and body weight measurements were obtained for growth series of milne-edwards's diademed sifaka, propithecus diadema edwardsi, and the golden-crowned sifaka, propithecus tattersalli. similar measures were obtained also for primarily adults of two subspecies of the western sifaka: propithecus verreauxi coquereli, coquerel's sifaka, and propithecus verreauxi verreauxi, verreaux's sifaka. ontogenetic series for the larger-bodied p. d. edwardsi and the smaller-bodied p. tattersalli were ...19938296878
structural characterization of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhine primates: greater galago, aye-aye, coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur.the structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (galagidae: otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (daubentoniidae: daubentonia madagascariensis), coquerel's sifaka (indriidae: propithecus coquereli) and mongoose lemur (lemuridae: eulemur mongoz), and their chemical structures were characteriz ...201222311613
social relations in semi-free-ranging sifakas (propithecus verreauxi coquereli) and the question of female dominance.female social dominance over males is thought to characterize most of the prosimian primates of madagascar. it has been reported in propithecus verreauxi coquereli in the wild but intersexual relations were not fully characterized. in this paper we examine female-male spatial and agonistic relations in semi-free-ranging p. v. coquereli in order to evaluate intersexual social dominance and related behavioral asymmetries. two hundred hours of focal sampling were conducted on two pairs of p. v. coq ...199231941220
effects of aging on the biomechanics of coquerel's sifaka (propithecus coquereli): evidence of robustness to senescence.it is well-known that as humans age they experience significant changes in gait including reduction in velocity and ground reaction forces and changes in leg mechanics. progressive changes in gait can lead to disability and frailty, defined as an inability to carry out activities of daily living. this topic is relevant to basic understanding of the aging process and for clinical intervention. as such, studies of frailty can benefit from nonhuman animal models, yet little is known about gait frai ...201830071287
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