enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose.the potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a high arctic ecosystem was investigated. we analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in northeast greenland - muskox (ovibos moschatus), barnacle goose (branta leucopsis), arctic fox (alopex lagopus) and arctic hare (lepus arcticus). high numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. seeds of m ...200817990003
different responses of alpine plants to nitrogen addition: effects on plant-plant interactions.the different responses of plant species to resource stress are keys to understand the dynamics of plant community in a changing environment. to test the hypothesis that nitrogen (n) increase would benefit n competitive species, rather than n stress-tolerant species, to compete with neighbours, we conducted an experiment with neighbour removal, n addition and soil moisture as treatments in an alpine grassland on the southeastern tibetan plateau. both growths and competitive-response abilities (c ...201627922131
effects of temperature and light on the formation of chloroplast protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of high alpine plants.chloroplasts of many alpine plants have the ability to form marked, stroma-filled protrusions that do not contain thylakoids. effects of temperature and light intensity on the frequency of chloroplasts with such protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of nine different alpine plant species (carex curvula all., leontodon helveticus merat., oxyria digyna (l.) hill., poa alpina l. ssp. vivipara, polygonum viviparum l., ranunculus glacialis l., ranunculus alpestris l., silene acaulis l. and soldanella p ...200717897406
new, rare or remarkable microfungi in the italian alps (carnic alps)--part ii--other addition to the collection of ascomycotina in the carnic alps (see new, rare or remarkable microfungi in the italian alps (carnic alps) part i ) we were able to treasure about 300 species of parasitic and saprophytic microfungi. among them basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and deuteromycets like bostrichonema polygoni (unger) schrot. on polygonum viviparum l., chrysomyxa rhododendri de by on picea abies (l.) karsten, coleosporium tussilaginis (pers.) berk. i=c. cacaliae otth.] on adenostyles glabra ...200415756827
balancing positive and negative plant interactions: how mosses structure vascular plant communities.our understanding of positive and negative plant interactions is primarily based on vascular plants, as is the prediction that facilitative effects dominate in harsh environments. it remains unclear whether this understanding is also applicable to moss-vascular plant interactions, which are likely to be influential in low-temperature environments with extensive moss ground cover such as boreal forest and arctic tundra. in a field experiment in high-arctic tundra, we investigated positive and neg ...201121279654
polygonum viviparum mycobionts on an alpine primary successional glacier forefront.polygonum viviparum is one of the first ectomycorrhizal (em) plant species colonising primary successional sites at the rotmoos glacier forefront (tyrolean alps, austria). on a site with soil development of about 150 years (2,400 m above sea level), mycobionts of p. viviparum were identified by morphotyping and fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer sequencing. for studying seasonal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity, ectomycorrhizae were sampled on five plots during ...200818064497
high consistency between replicate 454 pyrosequencing analyses of ectomycorrhizal plant root this methodological study, we compare 454 sequencing and a conventional cloning and sanger sequencing approach in their ability to characterize fungal communities pcr amplified from four root systems of the ectomycorrhizal plant bistorta vivipara. to examine variation introduced by stochastic processes during the laboratory work, we replicated all analyses using two independently obtained dna extractions from the same root systems. the its1 region was used as dna barcode and the sequences wer ...201221779811
changes in the root-associated fungal communities along a primary succession gradient analysed by 454 pyrosequencing.we investigated changes in the root-associated fungal communities associated with the ectomycorrhizal herb bistorta vivipara along a primary succession gradient using 454 amplicon sequencing. our main objective was to assess the degree of variation in fungal richness and community composition as vegetation cover increases along the chronosequence. sixty root systems of b. vivipara were sampled in vegetation zones delimited by dated moraines in front of a retreating glacier in norway. we extracte ...201222590726
barriers to sexual reproduction in polygonum viviparum: a comparative developmental analysis of p. viviparum and p. bistortoides.polygonum viviparum is widely distributed in arctic and alpine regions of the northern hemisphere. fruit set has never been observed in north american populations and has been reported only very rarely in europe. although this species is extremely well studied, the impediments to successful fruit production are unknown. we investigated the sexual reproductive process in p. viviparum growing in the southern colorado rocky mountains. for comparison, we also examined this process in the sympatric c ...200212099345
genetic diversity in populations of plants with different breeding and dispersal strategies in a free-flowing boreal river system.we have studied the genetic diversity of three plant species: angelica archangelica (apiacieae), bistorta vivipara (polygonaceae) and viscaria alpina (caryophyllaceae) along the free-flowing vindel river in northern sweden. the plants differ in reproductive strategy. a archangelica and v. alpina are insect pollinated outbreeders while b. vivipara reproduces with apomixis through bulbils. the seeds of a. archangelica may float for over a year, while the propagules (seeds and bulbils, respectively ...200112035618
microsatellite markers for bistorta vivipara (polygonaceae).using genomic shotgun 454 sequencing, 50 candidate microsatellite markers were targeted for the arctic-alpine polyploid perennial herb bistorta vivipara to distinguish between individual genets and ramets within a population.201222615303
polygonum viviparum l. inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in raw264.7 macrophages through haem oxygenase-1 induction and activation of the nrf2 pathway.polygonum viviparum l. (pv) is a member of the family polygonaceae and is widely distributed in high-elevation areas. it is used as a folk remedy to treat inflammation-related diseases. this study was focused on the anti-inflammatory response of pv against lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced inflammation in raw264.7 macrophages.201323129114
the digestion of bulbils (polygonum viviparum l.) and berries (vaccinium myrtillus l. and empetrum sp.) by captive ptarmigan (lagopus mutus).1. the digestion of three foods favoured by ptarmigan (lagopus mutus) in the wild was studied using captive birds. 2. bulbils of polygonum viviparum l. were a good source of metabolizable energy, protein and phosphorus, but were deficient in sodium. berries of vaccinium myrtillus l. were the most digestible of the three foods, contained enough protein and p for maintenance, but were probably deficient in na. a diet of empetrum sp. berries caused the birds to be in negative nitrogen and p balance ...19751167787
[chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under six chinese herbal medicines on mt. taibai of qinling mountains, northwest china].this paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six chinese herbal medicines, including pyrola decorata, cephalotaxus fortunei, polygonatum odoratum, potentilla glabra, polygonum viviparum, and potentilla fruticosa, on the mt. taibai of qinling mountains. in the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exch ...201223359927
substantial compositional turnover of fungal communities in an alpine ridge-to-snowbed gradient.the main gradient in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species composition in alpine areas, structured by the topographic gradient from wind-exposed ridges to snowbeds, has been extensively studied. tolerance to environmental stress, resulting from wind abrasion and desiccation towards windswept ridges or reduced growing season due to prolonged snow cover towards snowbeds, is an important ecological mechanism in this gradient. the extent to which belowground fungal communities are structured ...201323962113
arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.there is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in arctic ecosystems. here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb bistorta vivipara on the arctic archipelago of svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. we sampled 160 plants of b. vivipara from 32 localities across svalbard. dna was extracted from enti ...201424320873
different bacterial communities in ectomycorrhizae and surrounding soil.several eukaryotic symbioses have shown to host a rich diversity of prokaryotes that interact with their hosts. here, we study bacterial communities associated with ectomycorrhizal root systems of bistorta vivipara compared to bacterial communities in bulk soil using pyrosequencing of 16s rrna amplicons. a high richness of operational taxonomic units (otus) was found in plant roots (3,571 otus) and surrounding soil (3,476 otus). the community composition differed markedly between these two envir ...201324326907
low host specificity of root-associated fungi at an arctic high arctic ecosystems, plant growth and reproduction are limited by low soil moisture and nutrient availability, low soil and air temperatures, and a short growing season. mycorrhizal associations facilitate plant nutrient acquisition and water uptake and may therefore be particularly ecologically important in nutrition-poor and dry environments, such as parts of the arctic. similarly, endophytic root associates are thought to play a protective role, increasing plants' stress tolerance, and ...201424382270
communities of endophytic sebacinales associated with roots of herbaceous plants in agricultural and grassland ecosystems are dominated by serendipita herbamans sp. nov.endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. to explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), transmission electron microscopy ...201424743185
unravelling the architecture of functional variability in wild populations of polygonum viviparum l.functional variability (fv) of populations can be decomposed into three main features: the individual variability of multiple traits, the strength of correlations between those traits and the main direction of these correlations, the latter two being known as 'phenotypic integration'. evolutionary biology has long recognized that fv in natural populations is key to determining potential evolutionary responses, but this topic has been little studied in functional we focus on the arct ...201324790285
polygonum viviparum l. induces vasorelaxation in the rat thoracic aorta via activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial the past several decades, polygonum viviparum l. (pv) was reported to have antibacterial, antiulcer, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiarthritic properties. the anti-inflammatory pathway was recently elucidated through cytosolic nuclear factor e2-related factor 2 (nrf2) activation and heme oxygenase (ho)-1 protein expression. pv is a perennial herb and widely distributed in high-elevation mountain regions, such as the tibetan plateau. in tibetan traditional medicine, pv is us ...201424885446
arctic fungal communities associated with roots of bistorta vivipara do not respond to the same fine-scale edaphic gradients as the aboveground vegetation.soil conditions and microclimate are important determinants of the fine-scale distribution of plant species in the arctic, creating locally heterogeneous vegetation. we hypothesize that root-associated fungal (raf) communities respond to the same fine-scale environmental gradients as the aboveground vegetation, creating a coherent pattern between aboveground vegetation and raf. we explored how raf communities of the ectomycorrhizal (ecm) plant bistorta vivipara and aboveground vegetation structu ...201525483568
xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of extracts prepared from polygonaceae species.the xanthine oxidase (xo) inhibitory activity of aqueous and organic extracts of 27 selected species belonging in five genera (fallopia, oxyria, persicaria, polygonum and rumex) of the family polygonaceae occurring in the carpathian basin were tested in vitro. from different plant parts (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots), a total of 196 extracts were prepared by subsequent extraction with methanol and hot h2o and solvent-solvent partition of the meoh extract yielding n-hexane, chl ...201525510560
primary succession of bistorta vivipara (l.) delabre (polygonaceae) root-associated fungi mirrors plant succession in two glacial chronosequences.glacier chronosequences are important sites for primary succession studies and have yielded well-defined primary succession models for plants that identify environmental resistance as an important determinant of the successional trajectory. whether plant-associated fungal communities follow those same successional trajectories and also respond to environmental resistance is an open question. in this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to compare the root-associated fungal communities of ...201525580779
[phenological characteristics of introduced polygonum viviparum from high altitude to low altitude area].to explore the phenological characteristics of polygonum viviparum introduced from high altitude to low altitude area.201425895376
local plant adaptation across a subarctic elevational gradient.predicting how plants will respond to global warming necessitates understanding of local plant adaptation to temperature. temperature may exert selective effects on plants directly, and also indirectly through environmental factors that covary with temperature, notably soil properties. however, studies on the interactive effects of temperature and soil properties on plant adaptation are rare, and the role of abiotic versus biotic soil properties in plant adaptation to temperature remains unteste ...201426064553
environmental and genetic correlates of allocation to sexual reproduction in the circumpolar plant bistorta vivipara.201526199372
temporal variation of bistorta vivipara-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the high arctic.ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi are important for efficient nutrient uptake of several widespread arctic plant species. knowledge of temporal variation of ecm fungi, and the relationship of these patterns to environmental variables, is essential to understand energy and nutrient cycling in arctic ecosystems. we sampled roots of bistorta vivipara ten times over two years; three times during the growing-season (june, july and september) and twice during winter (november and april) of both years. we fo ...201526547806
alpine bistort (bistorta vivipara) in edge habitat associates with fewer but distinct ectomycorrhizal fungal species: a comparative study of three contrasting soil environments in svalbard.bistorta vivipara is a widespread arctic-alpine ectomycorrhizal (ecm) plant species. recent findings suggest that fungal communities associated with b. vivipara roots appear random over short distances, but at larger scales, environmental filtering structure fungal communities. habitats in highly stressful environments where specialist species with narrower niches may have an advantage represent unique opportunity to test the effect of environmental filtering. we utilised high-throughput amplico ...201627325524
the dynamics of leaf extension in plants with diverse altitudinal ranges : i. field observations on temperature responses at one altitude.rates of leaf extension have been studied with electronic auxanometers at mid-altitude in the austrian alps, where both low and high altitude species co-occur. the results demonstrate a clear differentiation in the temperature responses of extension between these two groups of species. for the low or mid-altitude species of achillea millefolium, agrostis stolonifera, poa alpina and rumex arifolius, the average rate of leaf extension increases from 0.1 to 0.4 mm h(-1) between 10 and 20° c. for th ...198628311661
altitudinal variations in flower and bulbil production of an alpine perennial, polygonum viviparum l. (polygonaceae).two opposite views exist regarding sexual versus asexual reproductive performance of polygonum viviparum. one suggests that increasing altitude favors flower production, while the other suggests that increasing altitude increases bulbil production. in this study, we present an investigation of the reproductive performance of 13 populations of p. viviparum on the qinghai-tibet plateau (qtp). our results show that, with increasing altitude, the height of inflorescence and total number of flowers a ...200919470121
are heat and cold resistance of arctic species affected by successive extreme temperature events?extreme temperature events are projected to increase in frequency in a future climate. as successive extremes could occur more frequently, patches of vulnerable tundra vegetation were exposed to two consecutive heat waves (hws) of 10 d each, with a 5-d recovery period in between. surface temperatures during the hws were increased approximately 6 degrees c using infrared irradiation sources. in three of the four target species (pyrola grandiflora, polygonum viviparum and carex bigelowii), plant c ...200616608454
response of polygonum viviparum species and community level to long-term livestock grazing in alpine shrub meadow in qinghai-tibet plateau.grazing by domestic herbivores is generally recognized as a major ecological factor and an important evolutionary force in grasslands. grazing has both extensive and profound effects on individual plants and communities. we investigated the response patterns of polygonum viviparum species and the species diversity of an alpine shrub meadow in response to long-term livestock grazing by a field manipulative experiment controlling livestock numbers on the qinghai-tibet plateau in china. here, we hy ...200818713406
rediscovery of alnicola cholea (cortinariaceae): taxonomic revision and description of its mycorrhiza with polygonum viviparum (polygonaceae).alnicola cholea, a little-known species so far reported only from the two original localities in the french alps, is redefined here based on revision of herbarium materials and studies of recent field collections. a detailed morphological and anatomical description of fruit bodies of alnicola cholea, including a discussion on its taxonomic status and distribution data is provided. due to the unique combination of characters of alnicola cholea within the genus, a new monospecific section is intro ...200617040076
[study on the plant community of fritillaria cirrhosa].to provide scientific basis for natural cultivation of fritillaria cirrhosa.200315139120
extreme preformation in alpine polygonum viviparum: an architectural and developmental analysis.preformation, the initiation of organs one or more years prior to maturation and function, is reported to be common and crucial for plant survival in arctic and alpine environments, yet the phenomenon is remarkably little studied. in order to understand the role of preformation in the ecology and evolution of tundra species, this investigation takes a developmental and architectural approach to the analysis of plant growth and reproduction in the alpine perennial polygonum viviparam l. analyses ...199721712195
[identification of yi nationality's secret recipe for treating snakebite].the authors have investigated and found an effective secret recipe for the treatment of snakebite in mabian, an autonomous county of the yi nationality in sichuan province. morphologic identification has shown that the recipe is composed of the herb of pedicularis muscicola and the rhizome of polygonum viviparum in the ratio of one to one. to facilitate further application, popularization and improvement of the recipe, its histological characteristics have also been studied microscopically.19911786091
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