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digestive proteases during development of larvae of red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier, 1790) (coleoptera: curculionidae).the evolution of digestive proteases during larval development of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier, 1790) has been studied. a progressive increase of protease activity has been found. the optimum ph for proteolytic activity against azocasein was determined. caseinograms revealed an active complex of alkaline proteases from the early stages of the development. from the apparent molecular masses, three groups of proteases have been found - high molecular-mass proteases, medium molecular-mass pro ...200211804798
respiratory metabolic responsiveness during the pupal stage of the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) to certain plant extracts.the prepupae of rhynchophorus ferrugineous were topically applied with one of three dose-levels (0.1, 0.005 or 0.001 microgram/insect) of jojoba oil (joj) or azadirachtin (azt). the daily o2 consumption and co2 respiratory output were determined and the respiratory quotient (rq) was calculated. after joj treatments, o2 consumption of early- and late pupae increased as the dose-level was decreased. the respiration curve did not assume an u-shaped pattern as common in the pupal stage of many insec ...200112425070
a rapid decision sampling plan for implementing area-wide management of the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in coconut plantations of india.the red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (curculionidae/rhynchophoridae/dryophthoridae) is a lethal pest of young coconut palms, cocos nucifera l. (arecales: arecaceae), with a highly aggregated population distribution pattern. r. ferrugineus is managed in several coconut growing countries using area-wide pheromone based programmes that need a substantial commitment of funds over a period of time. often, decisions to implement area-wide management of r. ferrugineus are based on pher ...200820337561
detection of insect immunity substances (lectins) in the midgut extracts from larvae and adult red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) in al-ahsa, saudi arabia.the hemagglutination activities of midgut (mg) fractions of red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus against mammalian erythrocytes (rbc) from man (abo), rabbit, horse and sheep were studied. the highest titers were seen with rabbit rbc (p < 0.05) followed by human group b, human group o, horse, human group a, human group ab and sheep, respectively. insect age and nutritional status significantly influenced the agglutinating activities. some of the unfed insects were having low activities (p > ...201020464944
effect of temperature on the population growth of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) on sugarcane.the effect of temperature on the developmental time, survival, and reproduction of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) reared on sugarcane was studied at seven constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 degrees c). the developmental threshold temperatures and effective accumulated temperatures for the whole generation were 17.41 degrees c and 1,590.72 dd, respectively. one generation had the highest survival rate (26.67%) at 28 degrees c. the egg failed to survive at 16 and 40 degrees ...201020550815
Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontar ...201222136175
seasonally variable intestinal metagenomes of the red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus).the intestinal microbes residing in the red palm weevil (rpw, rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larva consume tender interior fibrous tissues of date palm trunks. the understanding of such microbiota at molecular level provides vital clues for the biological control of this devastating pest. using pyrosequencing and shotgun strategy, we first study taxonomic profiles of the microbiota sampled at different months (march, july and november), and then confirm the impact of high-temperature stress on the m ...201324102776
effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (coleoptera: dryophthoridae).rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with rpw, which was compared with the microbiota as ...201525635833
the gut microbiota of larvae of rhynchophorus ferrugineus oliver (coleoptera: curculionidae).the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae) is one of the major pests of palms. the larvae bore into the palm trunk and feed on the palm tender tissues and sap, leading the host tree to death. the gut microbiota of insects plays a remarkable role in the host life and understanding the relationship dynamics between insects and their microbiota may improve the biological control of insect pests. the purpose of this study was to analyse the diversity of t ...201424884866
functional compounds from the integument of adult red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus.this study deals with the analysis of the integument of the red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus of both sexes using the gc-ms technique. the results of the study revealed many promising compounds. these include aspidofractinine-3-methanol (kopsinyl alcohol) which was found in the acetone extract of the sternum of females, and 3-buten-2-ol (32-b) which was found in the extracts of sternum and tergum of males. this compound the aggregation pheromone was secreted by males. additionally, compo ...201324955013
silencing the olfactory co-receptor rferorco reduces the response to pheromones in the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus.the red palm weevil (rpw, rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. rpw exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the asian palm weevil (r. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of southeast asia. although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed ...201627606688
identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis.the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus (oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. this weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. rpws locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the rpw antennal transcriptome and present a ...201626800671
inducible factors with antimicrobial activity after immune challenge in the haemolymph of red palm weevil (insecta).insects are capable of innate immune responses elicited after microbial infection. in this process, the receptor-mediated recognition of foreign bodies and the subsequent activation of immunocompetent cells lead to the synthesis ex novo of a peptide pool with antimicrobial activity. we investigated the inducible immune response of a coleopteran, rhynchophorus ferrugineus, challenged with both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. after immunization, we evaluated the presence of antimicrobial ...201525114180
an entomopathogenic bacterium strain, bacillus thuringiensis, as a biological control agent against the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae).the red palm weevil (rpw), rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is an invasive wood-boring insect that damages palms and sugarcane. bacillus thuringiensis (bt) is an entomopathogenic bacterium which has been modified into various strains and widely used in pest management. the aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of rpw to the ha strain of bt.201627862867
synthesis, insecticidal, and fungicidal screening of some new synthetic quinoline derivatives.this paper describes the synthesis of a series of quinolines graphted with hydrazones, pyrazoles, pyridazine, phthalazine, triazepinone, semicarbazide, and thiomorpholide moieties and four metal complexes. these derivatives were screened against fusarium oxysporum and the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus oliver (coleopteran: curculionidae) as palm pathogens. only chlorinated quinolines were active against these organisms with hydrazones being good fungicides, while those modified ...201525895344
pseudomonas aeruginosa, a facultative pathogen of red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus.pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified as a facultative pathogen of red palm weevil. intra-haemocoelic injection of the pathogen within larvae and pre-pupae was more effective at killing the insects [with a median lethal dose (ld50) of 9×10(2) to 2×10(3) bacteria/insect] than inoculation by force feeding (ld50 of 10(5) to 4×10(5) bacteria/insect) or by wading the insects in a suspension of the pathogen (ld50 of 10(5) to 2×10(5) bacteria/insect). injection of 3×10(3) bacteria/insect killed 69% of ...199524415007
effects of an entomopathogen nematode on the immune response of the insect pest red palm weevil: focus on the host antimicrobial response.relationships between parasites and hosts can be drastic, depending on the balance between parasite strategies and the efficiency of the host immune response. in the case of entomopathogenic nematodes and their insect hosts, we must also consider the role of bacterial symbionts, as the interaction among them is tripartite and each component plays a critical role in death or survival. we analyzed the effects induced by the nematode-bacteria complex steinernema carpocapsae, against red palm weevil ...201626549224
rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils.cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. in this study, a midgut cell line, developed from rhynchophorus ferrugineus (rpw-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 50 ...201525381034
characterization and comparison of metarhizium strains isolated from rhynchophorus ferrugineus.rhynchophorus ferrugineus is considered the worst pest of palm species, and few natural enemies are reported for this parasite in its area of origin. here, we report the first recovery of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium pingshaense associated with r. ferrugineus from vietnam. the morphological, biochemical, and toxicological features of this strain were studied and compared with those of another metarhizium strain associated with this weevil in sicily (italy), an area of recent introduct ...201424831464
hemocytes of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: curculionidae) and their response to saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacillus thuringiensis.originally from tropical asia, the red palm weevil (rpw rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier)) is the most dangerous and deadly pest of many palm trees, and there have been reports of its recent detection in france, greece and italy. at present, emphasis is on the development of integrated pest management based on biological control rather than on chemical insecticides, however the success of both systems is often insufficient. in this regard, rpw appears to be one pest that is very difficult to c ...201021147119
basic bio-ecological parameters of the invasive red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae), in phoenix canariensis under mediterranean climate.the invasive red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera, curculionidae), is one of the most destructive pests of palms in the world. since its detection in the mediterranean basin, the ornamental phoenix canariensis hort. ex chabaud has become its main host. this study was aimed at determining the life cycle of r. ferrugineus in live p. canariensis palms. egg lethal temperature threshold and thermal constant were determined in the laboratory and resulted in 13.1°c and 40.4 de ...201120822555
potential of an indigenous strain of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana as a biological control agent against the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus.the potential of a strain of beauveria bassiana (ascomycota: clavicipitaceae) obtained from a naturally infected rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) pupa as a biological control agent against this weevil was evaluated both in the laboratory and in semi-field assays. laboratory results indicate that this strain of b. bassiana can infect eggs, larvae and adults of r. ferrugineus (lc(50) from 6.3 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(9) conidia per ml). however, mortality was not the only indicator ...201020398670
effectiveness of igrs (cga-184699) and (cga-259205) on the respiratory metabolism of the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae).prepupae of rhynchophorus ferrugineus were topically applied with one of three dose-levels (1.00, 0.10 or 0.01 microgram/insect) of lufenuron (cga-184699) or diofenolan (cga-259205). the daily o2 consumption and co2-output were determined and the respiratory quotient (rq) was calculated. lufenuron prohibited the pupae to consume o2, regardless of their age. considering the co2 release, this igr exerted an inhibitory action on pupae increasingly correlated with the increasing dose-level. volumes ...200112425062
lower temperature thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching of the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae), in a mediterranean climate.the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae), is an economically important pest of palms worldwide. to better understand the phenology of r. ferrugineus populations in the mediterranean basin, the objective of the present work has been to estimate the effect of temperatures within the range 10-25°c on the reproductive parameters of r. ferrugineus and to determine its lower temperature thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching. our results confirm that ovip ...201221854685
infection of the red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus) by the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana: a sem study.the red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is a devastating pest of palms in the mediterranean, middle east, and eastern countries. no effective control measures are available. r. ferrugineus has been found naturally infected by the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana, but its infection process in this host is unknown. we have studied the infection of r. ferrugineus larvae and adults by b. bassiana using dry conidia and conidia suspensions using scanning electron microscopy (sem). in ...201020025054
a waveguide irradiation chamber for destruction of red palm weevils (rhynchophorus ferrugineus) inside a block sample of a palm tree trunk.a simple waveguide irradiation chamber at 2.45 ghz. was locally constructed for controlled laboratory experiments to assess the potentiality of using microwave heating for irradiation of weevils (rpw) inside healthy and infected palm tree trunks. the chamber consists of an aluminum rectangular waveguide with one of its broad sides removed for easy insertion of the block samples of the palm tree trunk. a rectangular aluminum plate, with the same dimensions as the removed wall section was made to ...200315007867
screening of tropical isolates of metarhizium anisopliae for virulence to the red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae).the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae) is a serious pest of the palm tree in tropical regions of the world. one strain of metarhizium sp. zj-1, isolated from chinese soils, was evaluated for growth characteristics, and screened for its virulence to r. ferrugineus larvae in laboratory conditions. an approximately 685-bp fragment was amplified by its (its1-5.8s-its2) pcr from strain zj-1, further phylogenetic analysis revealed that 93 % similarity to met ...201627468401
frozen section and electron microscopy studies of the infection of the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera:curculionidae) by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.this study determined the pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae strain sd-3 against invasive red palm weevil (rpw), rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera:curculionidae) larvae in hainan province, china. inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml caused 100 % mortality of r. ferrugineus, indicating that the conidia of strain sd-3 were highly virulent. the process of invasion mechanism was showed by scanning electron microscopy (sem) and frozen section as follows. once r. ferrugineus was infect ...201627795891
biological responses of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) to steinernema carpocapsae (nematoda: steinernematidae).rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier 1790) (coleoptera: curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the united states (california). the infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of euros are spent to control it. the effects of the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema carpocapsae (nematoda: steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of r. ferr ...201324020269
identification of pigmented serratia marcescens symbiotically associated with rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae).to characterize red pigment-producing bacteria (rppb) regularly released during oviposition by red palm weevil (rpw), rppb were recovered from eggs deposited in apples supplied as substrate for oviposition. the presence of rppb was also detected from gut, the reproductive apparatus of dissected adult and virgin insects and from pupal cases collected within infested palms. rppb were also identified all along the tissue of these palms. analysis of the 16s rdna, gyrb, rpob, reca, and groel sequence ...201627250586
could sterile males be used to vector a microbiological control agent? the case of rhynchophorus ferrugineus and beauveria bassiana.rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera, curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. the potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana (ascomycota: clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. first, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. although male longevity decreased after irradia ...201323034248
pathogenicity bioassays of isolates of beauveria bassiana on rhynchophorus ferrugineus.the control of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier), the main palm pest in the mediterranean basin, is problematic because of its biology and the current restrictions in many european countries on the use of chemical insecticides in urban areas. entomopathogenic fungi have been studied as potential biological control agents, but information on their natural incidence is limited. strains of beauveria bassiana (balsamo) vuillemin were isolated from symptomatic insects collected on dead palms, and t ...201524990249
new approach of beauveria bassiana to control the red palm weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) by trapping technique.this work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of beauveria bassiana (broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier)). this fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. the result showed that the lc50 of b. bassiana (broadband) was 2.19×10(7) an ...201526470153
acoustic assessment of beauveria bassiana (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) effects on rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality.rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) is an economically important pest of palm trees in the subtropics. beauveria bassiana (balsamo-crivelli) vuillemin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae), has been shown to be pathogenic against r. ferrugineus in laboratory and field studies. however, because they remain inside the trunks until adulthood, the slowing of feeding and increases in mortality of internally feeding r. ferrugineus larvae over time after b. bassiana treatment has ...201526470155
evaluation of the efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation against rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae).the weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: curculionidae) is an important pest of palms. it has recently colonized the mediterranean basin where it is a serious problem on ornamental phoenix canariensis (hort. ex chabaud) palms. the efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation (inesfly igr fito, industrias químicas inesba s.l., paiporta, spain) against this weevil has been studied. laboratory results proved that pyri ...201020429455
biological control of the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: curculionidae) by the parasitoid mite, rhynchopolipus rhynchophori (ewing) (acarina: podapolipidae).the parasitoid mite, rhynchopolipus rhynchophori was released against the red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus stages. released of this mite applied at four levels of treatment, a (30 parasitic mites: 1 prey), b (60 parasitic mites: 1 prey), c (90 parasitic mites: 1 prey) and d (120 parasitic mites: 1 prey). the parasitoid mites successfully suppressed population density of the red palm weevil, r. ferrugineus stages within two weeks. the killing of different developmental stages of the red ...200919795774
evaluation of an oil dispersion formulation of imidacloprid as a drench against rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera, curculionidae) in young palm trees.background: the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier), is a phytophagous insect that feeds on soft succulent tissues of most palm species and is considered the main palm pest in the middle east and the mediterranean basin. the aim of this study was to test the efficacy of imidacloprid oil dispersion (od) as a drench in preventive and curative treatments against r. ferrugineus in phoenix canariensis, washingtonia robusta, washingtonia filifera and trachycarpus fortunei. results: le ...201122262504
effect of bait quantity and trap color on the trapping efficacy of the pheromone trap for the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus.the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (curculionidae: coleoptera), is not native to the united arab emirates (uae). since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. a primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. the objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of r. ferrugineus under field conditions in the uae. traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dates ...201223451836
field efficacy of imidacloprid and steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the red palm weevil rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) in phoenix canariensis.the invasive red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier), has become the major pest of palms in the mediterranean basin. chemical control against this species is difficult because of its cryptic habits and is mainly based on the repeated application of large quantities of synthetic insecticides. the aim of this work has been to evaluate in the field the efficacy of imidacloprid (confidor 240 od) and steinernema carpocapsae weiser with chitosan (biorend r palmeras) as soil and stipe trea ...201019924729
on automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of rhynchophorus ferrugineus and sitophilus oryzae.the present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. after acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. specifically, we in ...200919736784
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