isolation and characterization of the genes for two small rnas of herpesvirus papio and their comparison with epstein-barr virus-encoded eber rnas.genes for the epstein-barr virus-encoded rnas (ebers), two low-molecular-weight rnas encoded by the human gammaherpesvirus epstein-barr virus (ebv), hybridize to two small rnas in a baboon cell line that contains a similar virus, herpesvirus papio (hvp). the genes for the hvp rnas (hvp-1 and hvp-2) are located together in the small unique region at the left end of the viral genome and are transcribed by rna polymerase iii in a rightward direction, similar to the ebers. there is significant simil ...19882839701
herpesvirus papio 2, an sa8-like alpha-herpesvirus of baboons.several sa8 isolates obtained from baboons were compared to the prototype sa8 herpesvirus of african green monkeys. sds-page and restriction enzyme analyses revealed definite differences between green monkey and baboon isolates. dna and amino acid sequences of the gb, gd and gj glycoprotein genes exhibited substantial differences in variable regions. for the gb and gd, the amount of amino acid substitutions between sa8 and the baboon viruses was comparable to levels observed between analogous ge ...19957733825
prevalence of herpesvirus papio 2 in baboons and identification of immunogenic viral polypeptides.the prevalence of herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2) in several groups of captive and wild-caught baboons was determined by detection of anti-hvp2 antibodies in 133 sera of adult baboons. over 90% of newly imported (wild-caught) adult olive baboons (papio anubis) from kenya and chacma baboons (p. ursinus) from south africa were found to have anti-hvp2 titers. similarly, approximately 85% of captive breeding colony baboons (p. anubis and p. cynocephalus) were seropositive for hvp2. infected animals were ...19979241626
detection and differentiation of primate alpha-herpesviruses by pcr.a rapid method for detection and differentiation of 5 primate alpha-herpesviruses (human herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 [hsv1, hsv2], green monkey simian agent 8, baboon herpesvirus 2 [hvp2], and macaque b virus [bv]) was developed utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). pcr primers were located in conserved regions of the gene encoding the glycoprotein b, which flanks an intervening region that is highly divergent among the 5 viruses. amplified pcr products from the 5 viruses were re ...19979249159
shedding and transmission of baboon herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2) in a breeding colony.baboons in a captive breeding colony were monitored twice a year, and new additions were screened on arrival for shedding of herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2) and serologic reactivity to the agent. for 128 individual animals tested over a period of 1.5 years, shedding of infective virus was detected in 13 of 342 swab specimens (3.8%), each of these incidents representing shedding by a different animal. among long-term colony animals, infective virus was recovered on only two occasions (5 of 236 swab sp ...19989517885
development of a competitive elisa for detection of primates infected with monkey b virus (herpesvirus simiae).two competitive elisas (c-elisas) are described that allow detection of antibodies against monkey b virus (bv, cercopithecine herpesvirus 1). the assays utilize monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the bv glycoprotein b (gb). two of these mabs specifically recognize bv gb while a third mab also reacts with the gb homologues of other primate alpha-herpesviruses (herpes simplexvirus-1, hsv-1: hsv-2; simian agent-8, sa8; and herpesvirus papio-2, hvp2). a c-elisa using the single cross-reac ...199910029325
herpesvirus papio 2: alternative antigen for use in monkey b virus diagnostic assays.serologic testing for antibody to monkey b virus (bv) in macaque sera is problematic due to the biohazardous nature of bv and bv antigens. herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2), a herpesvirus of baboons, is more closely related genetically and antigenically to bv than is human herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv1). the potential for use of hvp2 relative to hsv1 as an alternative test antigen for detection of anti-bv antibody in macaque sera was assessed.199910638495
alphaherpesvirus antigen quantitation to optimize the diagnosis of herpes b virus infection.standardized, quantified virus antigen stocks are essential for dependable quality control of diagnostic assays. five simple, rapid and economical direct enzyme linked immunoassays (delisa) were developed to standardize and optimize antigen from five major cross-reacting alphaherpesviruses: herpes b virus, herpesvirus papio 2, langur monkey herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus-1 and herpes simplex virus-2. each delisa relied on pools of convalescent sera from rhesus monkeys, baboons, langurs and hu ...200211906729
one-step pcr to distinguish b virus from related primate adding betaine to the pcr mixture, we previously established a pcr method to amplify a dna segment of the glycoprotein g gene of b virus (bv) derived from a rhesus macaque. we have found that dna of other bv strains derived from cynomolgus, pigtail, and lion-tailed macaques can also serve as the template in our pcr assay. under the same conditions no product was obtained with dna of simian agent 8 of green monkeys and herpesvirus papio 2 of baboons, or the human herpes simplex viruses types 1 ...200211986284
serological evidence of alpha herpesvirus infection in sooty between sooty mangabeys (sms) and a pigtailed macaque prompted the serological screening of sms for evidence of infection with b virus. serological tests detected sm antibodies that reacted with b virus polypeptides. additional testing was performed with sera from sms with no previous contact with macaques. results from these tests indicated that 56% (33/59) of the sms had antibodies that reacted with b virus and sa8. sm antibodies also reacted with herpesvirus papio 2 and to a lesser ex ...200212190852
comparative pathology of infections with baboon and african green monkey alpha-herpesviruses in mice.the comparative pathology of herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2) of baboons and sa8 virus of african green monkeys relative to that of herpes simplex virus (hsv1) of man was investigated in young adult mice inoculated intramuscularly and observed for 21 days. the 50% infectious dose (id(50)) for hvp2 was approximately 10(2.0) plaque-forming units (pfu), while the id(50) for hsv1 and sa8 was 10(2.5) and 10(3.8), respectively. there were marked differences in the ability of these three viruses to invade th ...200212354526
herpesvirus papio 2 encodes a virion host shutoff function.infection of baboons with herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp-2) produces a disease that is similar to human infection with herpes simplex viruses (hsv). molecular characterization of hvp-2 has demonstrated that the virion contains a factor which rapidly shuts off host cell protein synthesis after infection. reduction of host cell protein synthesis occurs in parallel with the degradation of mrna species. a homolog of the hsv virion host shutoff (vhs) gene was identified by southern and dna sequence analysi ...200212490401
the genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses.infection of baboons (papio species) with herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp-2) produces a disease that is clinically similar to herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 and hsv-2) infection of humans. the development of a primate model of simplexvirus infection based on hvp-2 would provide a powerful resource to study virus biology and test vaccine strategies. in order to characterize the molecular biology of hvp-2 and justify further development of this model system we have constructed a physical map of the hvp-2 ge ...200312771408
fatal herpes simplex infection in a group of common marmosets (callithrix jacchus).an outbreak of classical herpetic infection causing vesicoulcerative stomatitis in a family group (eight animals) of callithrix jacchus is described. in all eight infected animals, human herpesvirus 1 (hhv-1) was identified as the causative agent. this was confirmed by histologic, immunohistologic, and molecular biologic investigations, as well as by virus isolation. the clinical picture, the macroscopic appearance, and the histologic results indicated a herpes infection as the cause of mortalit ...200312824512
pathogenicity of different baboon herpesvirus papio 2 isolates is characterized by either extreme neurovirulence or complete comparisons of the pathogenicity of simian alphaherpesviruses in mice, two isolates of the baboon virus hvp2 were nearly as lethal as monkey b virus, a biological safety level 4 agent (j. w. ritchey, k. a. ealey, m. payton, and r. eberle, j. comp. pathol. 127:150-161, 2002). to confirm these results, mice were inoculated intramuscularly with 10(5) pfu of hvp2 isolates obtained from different baboon subspecies and primate centers. some of the hvp2 isolates (6 of 13) caused paralysis and death ...200314512523
use of herpesvirus papio 2 as an alternative antigen in immunoblotting assay for b virus diagnosis.herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2), which infects baboons, is much more closely related genetically and antigenically to monkey b virus (bv) than to human herpes simplex virus 1(hsv1) and other related herpes viruses. the usefulness of hvp2 as an alternative test antigen in immunoblotting assays to detect bv-antibody in macaque monkey sera was assessed. six hvp2 proteins reacted with bv-positive sera in immunoblotting. no specific bands could be detected with bv-negative sera. these results show the use ...200415187363
comparative transmission of multiple herpesviruses and simian virus 40 in a baboon breeding colony.little is known about the natural history of herpesviruses indigenous in baboons. here, we describe the development of elisas for five herpesviruses. these assays were used to test more than 950 serum samples collected from approximately 210 infant/juvenile and 130 adult baboons in a captive breeding colony over a period of seven years. results indicated that baboon cytomegalovirus, lymphocryptovirus, and rhadinovirus are transmitted efficiently within the colony and are acquired at an early age ...200415679269
validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit using herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2) antigen for detection of herpesvirus simiae (b virus) infection in rhesus monkeys.serologic testing for antibody to monkey b virus (bv) in macaque sera is problematic due to the biohazardous nature of bv antigens. herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2), a herpesvirus of baboons, is nonpathogenic to humans and is genetically and antigenically more closely related to bv than is human herpes simplex virus 1. this paper describes the results of our in-house laboratory that compared a bv antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) by commercial testing laboratory and an hvp2-based ...200516089172
experimental infection of baboons (papio cynocephalus anubis) with apathogenic and neurovirulent subtypes of herpesvirus papio 2.cercopithecine herpesvirus 16 (herpesvirus papio 2; hvp2) is an alpha-herpesvirus of baboons (papio spp.) that generally causes minimal to inapparent disease in the natural host species. hvp2 is very closely related genetically and antigenically to cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (monkey b virus; bv) of macaques, which is well known for its extreme lethality in nonmacaque species including humans. preliminary evidence suggests that a mouse model of hvp2 would be an excellent tool for studying zoono ...200516270898
the complete genome sequence of herpesvirus papio 2 (cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) shows evidence of recombination events among various progenitor herpesviruses.we have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp-2; cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain x313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as sa8, monkey b virus, and herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2. the genome of hvp-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall gc content of 76.5%. the genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by i ...200616414998
neuropathogenesis of herpesvirus papio 2 in mice parallels infection with cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (b virus) in humans.cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (monkey b virus; bv) produces extremely severe and usually fatal infections when transmitted from macaque monkeys to humans. cercopithecine herpesvirus 16 (herpesvirus papio 2; hvp2) is very closely related to bv, yet cases of human hvp2 infection are unknown. however, following intramuscular inoculation of mice, hvp2 rapidly invades the peripheral nervous system and ascends the central nervous system (cns) resulting in death, very much like human bv infections. in t ...200616432011
a naturally occurring fatal case of herpesvirus papio 2 pneumonia in an infant baboon (papio hamadryas anubis).here we describe the unusual finding of herpesvirus pneumonia in a 7-d-old infant baboon (papio hamadryas anubis). this animal had been separated from its dam the morning of its birth and was being hand-reared for inclusion in a specific pathogen-free colony. the baboon was presented for anorexia and depression of 2 d duration. physical examination revealed a slightly decreased body temperature, lethargy, and dyspnea. the baboon was placed on a warm-water blanket and was given amoxicillin-clavul ...200616539338
in vivo experimentation with simian herpesviruses: assessment of biosafety and molecular vivo studies with highly pathogenic viruses prompt concerns regarding the persistence of infectious virus in pathology specimens. although formalin fixation of tissues may inactivate infectious virus, fixation may also degrade viral nucleic acid and antigens, thereby limiting detection of virus in tissues by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification or immunohistochemistry (ihc). we sought to: 1) assess the rate of inactivation of infectious virus in tissue specimens during formalin fixat ...200616542036
herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2): sequence analysis of the unique short (us) region. 200616604454
primary mouse dermal fibroblast cell cultures as an in vitro model system for the differential pathogenicity of cross-species herpesvirus papio 2 infections.infection of mice with herpesvirus papio 2 (hvp2) parallels zoonotic monkey b virus infections. a major benefit of the hvp2/mouse model is the existence of two hvp2 subtypes: hvp2nv rapidly invades and destroys the cns while hvp2ap produces no clinical signs and mild histopathological lesions. however, in the natural baboon host, no difference in pathogenicity of hvp2 subtypes is evident. primary dermal fibroblast cells were evaluated as a model system for defining virus-host interactions that i ...200717122896
naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.a 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence.200718081530
pathology of the male baboon (papio spp.) urogenital system.comprehensive reports on male baboon urogenital pathology are not available.200818194219
an in-silico study of alphaherpesviruses icp0 genes: positive selection or strong mutational gc-pressure?the purpose of our work was to analyze the case of the strong mutational gc-pressure influence on the ratio between nonsynonymous (dn) and synonymous (ds) distances (dn/ds ratio). we have used as the material the genes coding for icp0 from five completely sequenced genomes of simplexviruses. dn/ds ratio, total gc-content (g + c), and gc-content in first, second, and third codon positions (1gc, 2gc, and 3gc, respectively) have been calculated separately for exon 2, nonconserved part of exon 3, an ...200818465795
type i ifn response to papiine herpesvirus 2 (herpesvirus papio 2; hvp2) determines neuropathogenicity in mice.isolates of baboon alpha-herpesvirus papiine herpesvirus 2 (hvp2) exhibit one of two distinct phenotypes in mice: extremely neurovirulent or apathogenic. previous studies implicated the type i interferon (ifn) response as being a major factor in controlling infection by apathogenic isolates. to further investigate the possibility that the host ifn-beta response underlies the pathogenicity of the two hvp2 subtypes, the susceptibility of mice lacking the ifn-beta receptor (ifnar(-/-)) to infection ...200919215952
rna binding properties of the us11 protein from four primate simplexviruses.the protein encoded by the us11 gene of herpes simplex viruses is a dsrna binding protein which inhibits protein kinase r activity, thereby preventing the interferon-induced shut down of protein synthesis following viral infection. us11 protein is not essential for infectivity in vitro and in mice in herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1), however this virus has a second, and apparently more important, inhibitor of pkr activity, the γ134.5 protein. recently sequenced simian simplexviruses sa8, hvp2 ...201122054255
reassessing the detection of b-virus-specific serum antibodies.b virus, a natural pathogen of macaques, can cause a fatal zoonotic disease in humans. serologic screening of macaques by titration elisa (telisa, screening test) and by western blot analysis (wba, confirmatory test) is one of the principle measures to prevent human infection. here we slightly modified these 2 tests and reevaluated their correlation. we developed a high-throughput telisa and used it to screen 278 sera simultaneously against the homologous bv antigen and the heterologous antigens ...201223561886
papiine herpesvirus 2 as a predictive model for drug sensitivity of macacine herpesvirus 1 (monkey b virus).monkey b virus (macacine herpesvirus 1; bv) is endemic in macaques. bv (a bsl4 agent) is the primary zoonotic concern for persons working with macaques in research, and human bv infections frequently are fatal. we assessed the use of a bsl2 baboon herpesvirus (papiine herpesvirus 1; hvp2) for predicting the drug sensitivity of bv by comparing the sensitivity of the 2 viruses to 12 antiherpetic drugs. plaque reduction assays showed that 4 drugs (hbpg, bvdu, pfa, and brdu) were ineffective against ...201425402179
a single viral gene determines lethal cross-species neurovirulence of baboon herpesvirus hvp2.alpha-herpesviruses can produce more severe infections in non-natural host species than in their natural host. isolates of the baboon alpha-herpesvirus papiine herpesvirus 2 (hvp2) are either very neurovirulent in mice (subtype nv) or non-virulent (subtype ap), but no such difference is evident in the natural baboon host. comparative genome sequencing was used to identify subtype-specific sequence differences (ssds) between hvp2nv and hvp2ap isolates. some genes were identified that despite exhi ...201424606686
detection systems for antibody responses against herpes b virus.herpes b virus (bv) infection is highly prevalent among adult asian macaques and rarely causes severe disease in infected animals. in contrast, bv infection of humans can induce fatal encephalitis in the absence of treatment. therefore, the development of diagnostic tests for specific and sensitive detection of antibodies against bv is an important task. the cross-reactivity of antibodies against bv with related simplex viruses of other primates may afford an opportunity to obtain sensitive dete ...201732110687
genomic nucleotide-based distance analysis for delimiting old world monkey derived herpes simplex virus species.herpes simplex viruses form a genus within the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, with three identified viral species isolated from old world monkeys (owm); macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 (mchv-1; herpes b), cercopithecine alphaherpesvirus 2 (sa8), and papiine alphaherpesvirus 2 (pahv-2; herpes papio). herpes b is endemic to macaques, while pahv-2 and sa8 appear endemic to baboons. all three viruses are genetically and antigenically similar, with sa8 and pahv-2 thought to be avirulent in humans, while her ...202032590937
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