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protection of cats against lethal influenza h5n1 challenge infection.highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) h5n1 of asian origin continues to circulate in poultry and wild birds, causing considerable concern for veterinary and public health in asia, europe and africa. natural transmission of hpaiv h5n1 from poultry to humans, resulting in infections associated with high mortality, and from poultry or wild birds to large felids and domestic cats has been reported. experimental infection of cats with hpaiv h5n1 derived from a human patient resulted in leth ...200818343838
identification of inonotus obliquus polysaccharide with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multi-feline viruses.inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (iops) are a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiopathy, diabetes, aids, pancreatitis and other diseases. in this study, we found that iop can act as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against feline viruses in the in vitro experiment. using cell models of feline calicivirus (fcv), we demonstrated that iop treatment was capable of exhibiting anti-fcv strain f9 activity in cell-based assays and also showed low cytotoxicity. investigation ...201727865960
clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first detected human case of avian influenza a(h5n6) virus.a human infection with novel avian influenza a h5n6 virus emerged in changsha city, china in february, 2014. this is the first detected human case among all human cases identified from 2014 to early 2016. we obtained and summarized clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from this patient. complete genome of the virus was determined and compared to other avian influenza viruses via the construction of phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining approach. a girl aged five and half years ...201626973295
emergence and evolution of h10 subtype influenza viruses in poultry in china.the cases of human infections with h10n8 viruses identified in late 2013 and early 2014 in jiangxi, china, have raised concerns over the origin, prevalence, and development of these viruses in this region. our long-term influenza surveillance of poultry and migratory birds in southern china in the past 12 years showed that h10 influenza viruses have been introduced from migratory to domestic ducks over several winter seasons at sentinel duck farms at poyang lake, where domestic ducks share their ...201525589662
the complexity of human infected aiv h5n6 isolated from china.novel avian influenza viruses (aivs) of h7n9, h10n8, and h5n6 are currently circulating in china's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting human and other mammals. human infected aiv h5n6 in china during 2014-2015 is believed to be a triple reassortant originated from h6n6 and two clades of h5 viruses. the current report suggests that its reassortment history is more complicated.201627782815
the ecology and adaptive evolution of influenza a interspecies transmission.since 2013, there have been several alarming influenza-related events; the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5 viruses into north america, the detection of h10n8 and h5n6 zoonotic infections, the ongoing h7n9 infections in china and the continued zoonosis of h5n1 viruses in parts of asia and the middle east. the risk of a new influenza pandemic increases with the repeated interspecies transmission events that facilitate reassortment between animal influenza strains; thus, it is of utm ...201727426214
prevalence and diversity of h9n2 avian influenza in chickens of northern vietnam, 2014.despite their classification as low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (lpaiv), a/h9n2 viruses cause significant losses in poultry in many countries throughout asia, the middle east and north africa. to date, poultry surveillance in vietnam has focused on detection of influenza h5 viruses, and there is limited understanding of influenza h9 epidemiology and transmission dynamics. we determined prevalence and diversity of influenza a viruses in chickens from live bird markets (lbm) of 7 norther ...201627340015
avian influenza virus in pregnancy.the unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as h5n1, h5n6, h7n1 and h10n8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. in 2013, another novel influenza a (h7n9) virus emerged in china, and 30% of those patients died. pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus verti ...201627187752
epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of avian influenza virus in china.novel reassortants of h7n9, h10n8, and h5n6 avian influenza viruses (aivs) are currently circulating in china's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. combined with the sometimes enzootic h5n1 and h9n2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse aivs pose significant risks to public health. here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of aivs in china, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel aivs, and identify warning ...201526063419
identification of two novel reassortant avian influenza a (h5n6) viruses in whooper swans in korea, 2016.on november 20, 2016 two novel strains of h5n6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaivs) were isolated from three whooper swans (cygnus cygnus) at gangjin bay in south jeolla province, south korea. identification of hpaivs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans.201728327168
genetic characterisation of novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n6 viruses isolated in birds, south korea, november 2016.a novel genotype of h5n6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in south korea during november 2016. domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in chungbuk province, central south korea. genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the korean h5n6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (h5n6, h4n2 and h1n1).201728079520
protective efficacy of an h5n1 inactivated vaccine against challenge with lethal h5n1, h5n2, h5n6, and h5n8 influenza viruses in chickens.the goose/guangdong-lineage h5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (ha) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. since late 2013, the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. different subtypes of the clade 2.3.4.4 h5 viruses, including h5n1, h5n2, h5n6, and h5n8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in asia, europe, and north america. in this study, we developed a ...201627309064
post-mortem findings in a patient with avian influenza a (h5n6) virus infection.avian influenza a (h5n6) has been found to infect humans, and has resulted in ten cases with six deaths in china since 2014. here, we describe the systematic post-mortem pathology of a patient fatally infected with h5n6 virus and evaluate the associated pathogenesis compared with h1n1 pdm09 fatal cases. the most prominent histopathological features were diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary vasculitis in the lungs of the patient. the virus disseminated to extrapulmonary organs, including the bra ...201627040806
characterization of the whole-genome sequence of an h3n6 avian influenza virus, isolated from a domestic duck in guangxi, southern china.a field strain of h3n6 avian influenza virus (aiv), a/duck/guangxi/175d12/2014(h3n6), was isolated from a native duck in guangxi province, southern china, in 2014. all of the eight aiv gene segments were sequenced, and sequence results revealed that there were 11 amino acid deletions at the na stalk region. the na, pb2, and np genes showed highest homology to h5n6 aiv, and the pa gene showed highest homology to h7n2 aiv. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the eight aiv gene segments belonged t ...201526472834
tropism and innate host responses of influenza a/h5n6 virus: an analysis of ex vivo and in vitro cultures of the human respiratory tract.since their first isolation in 2013, influenza a/h5n6 viruses have spread amongst poultry across multiple provinces in china and to laos, vietnam and myanmar. so far, there have been 14 human h5n6 infections with 10 fatalities.we investigated the tropism, replication competence and cytokine induction of one human and two avian h5n6 isolates in ex vivo and in vitro cultures derived from the human respiratory tract. virus tropism and replication were studied in ex vivo cultures of human nasopharyn ...201728275173
comparative epidemiology of human fatal infections with novel, high (h5n6 and h5n1) and low (h7n9 and h9n2) pathogenicity avian influenza a viruses.this study aimed to assess the mortality risks for human infection with high (hpai) and low (lpai) pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. the hpai case fatality rate (cfr) was far higher than the lpai cfr [66.0% (293/444) vs. 68.75% (11/16) vs. 40.4% (265/656) vs. 0.0% (0/18) in the cases with h5n1, h5n6, h7n9, and h9n2 viruses, respectively; p < 0.001]. similarly, the cfr of the index cases was greater than the secondary cases with h5n1 [100% (43/43) vs. 43.3% (42/97), p < 0.001]. old age [22.5 ...201728273867
genesis and dissemination of highly pathogenic h5n6 avian influenza viruses.clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (h5nx) have spread from asia to other parts of the world. since 2014, human infections with clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n6 viruses have been continuously reported in china. to investigate the genesis of the virus, we analyzed 123 h5 or n6 environmental viruses sampled from live-poultry markets or farms from 2012 to 2015 in mainland china. our results indicated that clade 2.3.4.4 h5n2/n6/n8 viruses shared the same hemag ...201728003485
shifting clade distribution, reassortment, and emergence of new subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5) viruses collected from vietnamese poultry from 2012 to 2015.whole-genome sequences of representative highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5) viruses from vietnam were generated, comprising samples from poultry outbreaks and active market surveillance collected from january 2012 to august 2015. six hemagglutinin gene clades were characterized. clade 1.1.2 was predominant in southern mekong provinces throughout 2012 and 2013 but gradually disappeared and was not detected after april 2014. clade 2.3.2.1c viruses spread rapidly during 2012 and were detected ...201728003481
genesis, evolution and prevalence of h5n6 avian influenza viruses in china.constant surveillance of live poultry markets (lpms) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (aivs) that pose a potential threat to public health. through surveillance of lpms from 16 provinces and municipalities in china during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 aiv-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 aivs covering 31 subtypes. our analysis shows that h5n6 has replaced h5n1 as one of the dominant aiv subtypes in southern china, especially in ...201627916476
novel h7n2 and h5n6 avian influenza a viruses in sentinel chickens: a sentinel chicken surveillance study.in 2014, a sentinel chicken surveillance for avian influenza viruses was conducted in aquatic bird habitat near wuxi city, jiangsu province, china. two h7n2, one h5n6, and two h9n2 viruses were isolated. sequence analysis revealed that the h7n2 virus is a novel reassortant of h7n9 and h9n2 viruses and h5n6 virus is a reassortant of h5n1 clade 2.3.4 and h6n6 viruses. substitutions v186 and l226 (h3 numbering) in the hemagglutinin (ha) gene protein was found in two h7n2 viruses but not in the h5n6 ...201627899915
novel reassortant h5n6 influenza a virus from the lao people's democratic republic is highly pathogenic in chickens.avian influenza viruses of h5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. in march 2014, a new reassortant h5n6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in lao people's democratic republic. we have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. high virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spl ...201627631618
genetic and antigenic characterization of h5, h6 and h9 avian influenza viruses circulating in live bird markets with intervention in the center part of vietnam.a total of 3,045 environmental samples and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy poultry have been collected at three live bird markets (lbms) at which practices were applied to reduce avian influenza (ai) virus transmission (intervention lbms) and six conventional lbms (non-intervention lbms) in thua thien hue province in 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention lbms. the 178 ai viruses, including h3 (19 viruses), h4 (2), h5 (8), h6 (30), h9 (114), and h11 (5), were i ...201627527783
novel avian influenza a (h5n6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in china, 2014.in may 2014, china formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel h5n6 avian influenza virus (aiv) in sichuan province. before the first human case was reported, surveillance of aivs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three h5n6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in chenhu wetlands, hubei province, china. genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the h5n6 virus that has caused human infections in china s ...201627431568
new reassortant h5n6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in southern china, 2014.new reassortant h5n6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (aivs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in southern china in 2014. our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. they were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. the viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. blast analysis revealed that their ha gene was most closely related to a/wild ...201627242767
novel highly pathogenic avian h5 influenza a viruses in live poultry markets, wuxi city, china, 2013-2014.during 12 recent months of periodic influenza virus surveillance at 9 live poultry markets in wuxi city china, we identified multiple highly pathogenic h5n6, h5n8, h5n2, and h5n1 avian influenza viruses. the variety of potentially pandemic viruses in this low-risk area is disconcerting and portends an increased pandemic threat.201627186580
continuing reassortant of h5n6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in guangdong.first identified in may 2014 in china's sichuan province, initial cases of h5n6 avian influenza virus (aiv) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. to evaluate both aiv contamination in live poultry markets (lpms) and the risk of aiv infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of lpms in guangdong province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. with environmental samples associated with these lpms, we performed gene ...201627148209
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n6 viruses exhibit enhanced affinity for human type sialic acid receptor and in-contact transmission in model ferrets.since may 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n6 virus has been reported to cause six severe human infections three of which were fatal. the biological properties of this subtype, in particular its relative pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals, are not known. we characterized the virus receptor-binding affinity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in mice and ferrets of four h5n6 isolates derived from waterfowl in china from 2013-2014. all four h5n6 viruses have acquired a binding ...201627122581
molecular characterizations of surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from recent h5nx avian influenza viruses.during 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5n8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. in late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in canada and the united states, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral rna segments (vrnas) from both eurasian and north american lineages. in particular, viruses were found with n1, n2, and n8 neuraminidase vrnas, and these are collectively referred to as h5nx viruses. ...201627053557
characterization of clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic h5 avian influenza viruses in ducks and chickens.worldwide dissemination of reassortant variants of h5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses has posed a great threat to the poultry industry. here, we systematically characterized the h5n2, h5n6 and h5n8 influenza viruses in poultry and compared them with those of previous clade 2.3.4 h5n1 virus. all the three h5 subtype reassortants caused systematic infection in ducks, and exhibited efficient direct transmission in ducks. all of them were highly pathogenic in chickens; ...201626711037
genetic and biological characterization of two novel reassortant h5n6 swine influenza viruses in mice and chickens.novel h5n6 influenza a viruses have infected birds and human beings and caused four human clinical cases in china since 2014. the pig, as a mixing vessel, plays an important role for influenza virus reassortment and transmission. towards this, routine surveillance for swine influenza in guangdong province was conducted in 2014. in this study, we reported the biological characterization of two h5n6 influenza viruses isolated from healthy pigs in guangdong province. genetic analysis indicates that ...201526296602
human infection with a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza a (h5n6) virus: virological and clinical findings.severe infection with avian influenza a (h5n6) virus in humans was identified first in 2014 in china. before that, it was unknown or unclear if the disease or the pathogen affected people. this study illustrates the virological and clinical findings of a fatal h5n6 virus infection in a human patient.201626143617
nomenclature updates resulting from the evolution of avian influenza a(h5) virus clades 2.1.3.2a, 2.2.1, and 2.3.4 during 2013-2014.the a/goose/guangdong/1/96-like hemagglutinin (ha) genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5) viruses have continued to rapidly evolve since the most recent update to the h5 clade nomenclature by the who/oie/fao h5n1 evolution working group. new clades diverging beyond established boundaries need to be identified and designated accordingly.201525966311
emergence of novel clade 2.3.4 influenza a (h5n1) virus subgroups in yunnan province, china.from december 2013 to march 2014, a major wave of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak occurred in poultry in yunnan province, china. we isolated and characterized eight highly pathogenic avian influenza a (h5n1) viruses from poultry. full genome influenza sequences and analyses have been performed. sequence analyses revealed that they belonged to clade 2.3.4 but did not fit within the three defined subclades. the isolated viruses were provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e. the provisional subclad ...201525917492
detection of highly pathogenic zoonotic influenza virus h5n6 by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction.variant high pathogenicity avian influenza (hpai) h5 viruses have recently emerged as a result of reassortment of the h5 haemagglutinin (ha) gene with different neuraminidase (na) genes, including na1, na2, na5, na6 and na8. these viruses form a newly proposed ha clade 2.3.4.4 (previously provisionally referred to as clade 2.3.4.6), and have been implicated in disease outbreaks in poultry in china, south korea, laos, japan and vietnam and a human fatality in china. there is real concern that thi ...201525889293
reassortant highly pathogenic influenza a(h5n6) virus in laos.in march 2014, avian influenza in poultry in laos was caused by an emergent influenza a(h5n6) virus. genetic analysis indicated that the virus had originated from reassortment of influenza a(h5n1) clade 2.3.2.1b, variant clade 2.3.4, and influenza a(h6n6) viruses that circulate broadly in duck populations in southern and eastern china.201525695754
outbreaks of avian influenza a (h5n2), (h5n8), and (h5n1) among birds--united states, december 2014-january 2015.during december 15, 2014-january 16, 2015, the u.s. department of agriculture received 14 reports of birds infected with asian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza a (hpai) (h5n2), (h5n8), and (h5n1) viruses. these reports represent the first reported infections with these viruses in u.s. wild or domestic birds. although these viruses are not known to have caused disease in humans, their appearance in north america might increase the likelihood of human infection in the united states. human ...201525654614
two novel reassortants of avian influenza a (h5n6) virus in china.eight avian influenza a (h5n6) viruses were isolated from live poultry markets (lpms) in sichuan and jiangxi provinces in china in 2014, including those close to the county where the human h5n6 infection occurred. genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these h5n6 viruses were novel reassortants between h5n1 clade 2.3.4 and h6n6 viruses, and had evolved into two distinct lineages (sichuan and jiangxi). moreover, the human h5n6 virus was closely related to the avian-source viruses of sich ...201525604926
whole-genome sequence of a reassortant h5n6 avian influenza virus isolated from a live poultry market in china, 2013.an avian influenza virus, a/environment/zhenjiang/c13/2013(h5n6), was isolated from a live poultry market in eastern china. phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was a novel reassortant virus with a neuraminidase (na) gene from h6n6 viruses and the other seven genes from h5n1 viruses, which may pose a potential threat to human and animal health.201425212611
highly pathogenic influenza a(h5nx) viruses with altered h5 receptor-binding specificity.emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5nx) virus clade 2.3.4.4 is unprecedented. h5n8 and h5n2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in europe and north america, and lethal human infections with h5n6 virus have occurred in asia. knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. we report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in rec ...201727869615
cross-protection of newly emerging hpai h5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: a viable alternative to oseltamivir.newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n2, h5n3, h5n5, h5n6, h5n8 and h5n9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. the h5n6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in china. here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a hpai h5n8 virus, a/chicken/netherlands/14015526/2014 (ne14) and a hpai h5n6 virus, a/sichuan/26221/2014 (sc14). the former was isolated from a ...201727167234
characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus a(h5n6), japan, november 2016.highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) a(h5n6) were concurrently introduced into several distant regions of japan in november 2016. these viruses were classified into the genetic clade 2.3.4.4c and were genetically closely related to h5n6 hpaivs recently isolated in south korea and china. in addition, these hpaivs showed further antigenic drift.201728322695
highly pathogenic h5n6 influenza a viruses recovered from wild birds in guangdong, southern china, 2014-2015.since 2013, highly pathogenic (hp) h5n6 influenza a viruses (iavs) have emerged in poultry in asia, especially southeast asia. these viruses have also caused sporadic infections in humans within the same geographic areas. active iav surveillance in wild birds sampled in guangdong province, china from august 2014 through february 2015 resulted in the recovery of three h5n6 iavs. these h5n6 iav isolates possess the basic amino acid motif at the ha1-ha2 cleavage site that is associated with highly ...201728294126
genetic characterization of continually evolving highly pathogenic h5n6 influenza viruses in china, 2012-2016.h5n6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in east asia. at least 155 h5n6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in china. these repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the h5n6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. in february, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. post-mortem examinations, including rt-pcr, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly ...201728293218
multiple novel h5n6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, south korea, 2016.we report the identification of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype h5n6, clade 2.3.4.4, that presumably originated from china. in addition, reassortant strains with eurasian lineage low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated in wild birds and poultry in south korea. the emergence of these novel h5n6 viruses and their circulation among bird populations are of great concern because of the potential for virus dissemination with intercontinental wild bird migration.201728284997
reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza a(h5n6) virus in a wild mandarin duck, south korea, 2016.a reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza a(h5n6) virus was isolated from a fecal sample of a mandarin duck (aix galericulata) in south korea during october 2016. this virus was genetically similar to h5n6 subtype virus isolates from china, vietnam, laos, and hong kong, including human isolates.201728240976
diversity, evolution and population dynamics of avian influenza viruses circulating in the live poultry markets in china.live poultry markets (lpms) are an important source of novel avian influenza viruses (aiv). during 2015-2016 we surveyed aiv diversity in ten lpms in hubei, zhejiang and jiangxi provinces, china. a high diversity and prevalence of aivs (totaling 12 subtypes) was observed in lpms in these provinces. strikingly, however, the subtypes discovered during 2015-2016 were markedly different to those reported by us in these same localities one year previously, suggesting a dynamic shift in viral genetic ...201728222327
molecular characterization of a novel reassortant h7n6 subtype avian influenza virus from poultry in eastern china, in 2016.during the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (aivs) in live poultry markets in eastern china, in 2016, a novel reassortant h7n6 aiv was isolated from a chicken. phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain received its genes from h9n2, h7n9 and h5n6 aivs infecting poultry in china. this strain showed moderate pathogenicity in mice and was able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. considering that this novel reassorted h7n6 virus was isolated from poultry in this study, it is po ...201728105530
[molecular analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza virus h5n6 subtype in the border of yunnan province from 2014 to 2015]. 201628057117
isolation of h5n6, h7n9 and h9n2 avian influenza a viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in china, 2014 and 2015.zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human-poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. we assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in guangzhou city and in hong kong special administrative region (sar), china, during 2014 and 2015. viral genome and infectious avian influenza a viruses of h5n6, h7n9, and h9n2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diamet ...201627608369
aerosolized avian influenza a (h5n6) virus isolated from a live poultry market, china. 201727519618
sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a (h5n6) virus have been reported in different provinces in china since april 2014. from june 2015 to january 2016, routine live poultry market (lpm) surveillance was conducted in shenzhen, guangdong province. h5n6 viruses were not detected until november 2015. the h5n6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in december 2015, and viruses were detected in lpms in all districts of the city. coincidently, two huma ...201627485495
clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a patient infected with h5n6 avian influenza a virus. 201627395033
human infections by avian influenza virus h5n6: increasing risk by dynamic reassortment? 201627094862
human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza a (h5n6) virus in yunnan province, china.highly pathogenic avian influenza a h5n6 virus has caused four human infections in china. this study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of h5n6 in yunnan province. the patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 january 2015. the disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 february. virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to h5 c ...201627030920
amino acid substitutions occurring during adaptation of an emergent h5n6 avian influenza virus to mammals.avian influenza viruses (aivs) are known to cross species barriers, and emergent highly pathogenic h5n6 aivs pose a serious threat to human health and the poultry industry. here, we serially passaged an h5n6 virus 10 times in balb/c mice. the pathogenicity of the wild-type 6d2 (wt-6d2) and mammal-adapted 6d2 strain (ma-6d2) were compared. the viral titer in multiple organs and the death rate for ma-6d2 were significantly higher than for wt-6d2. we provide evidence that the mutations ha a150v, na ...201626997612
emergence of triple-subtype reassortants of fatal human h5n6 avian influenza virus in yunnan, china. 201626994688
clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a case of avian influenza a h5n6 virus infection. 201626940503
a fatal case of infection with a further reassortant, highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n6 virus in yunnan, china. 201626911643
genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n6) virus, guangdong, china. 201526584075
human infection with a novel avian influenza a(h5n6) virus. 201526222578
influenza a(h5n6) virus reassortant, southern china, 2014. 201526079430
fatal h5n6 avian influenza virus infection in a domestic cat and wild birds in china.h5n6 avian influenza viruses (aivs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human h5n6 virus infection in 2014. here, we report the first cases of fatal h5n6 avian influenza virus (aiv) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. these cases followed human h5n6 infections in china and preceded an h5n6 outbreak in chickens. the extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of h5n6 aivs and pose a risk to humans and ...201526034886
novel reassortant highly pathogenic h5n6 avian influenza viruses in poultry in china.we characterized two novel highly pathogenic h5n6 influenza viruses isolated from chinese poultry in 2013. genomic analysis showed that both isolates were reassortants, and derived their genes from h5 and h6 subtype viruses found in poultry in china. the virulence of the two isolates was examined in chickens and mice, and both isolates were found to be highly pathogenic in chickens and only moderately virulent for mice. our results show that continued circulation of these viruses could endanger ...201525653129
first human case of avian influenza a (h5n6) in yunnan province, china.to report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a h5n6 avian influenza virus in yunnan province, china.201527489694
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