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fluid secretion and microvillar ultrastructure in mosquito malpighian tubules.the malpighian tubules of fourth instar larvae, pupae, and female adults of the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus were examined with regard to in vitro fluid secretion rate and the ultrastructural features of the microvillar border of the primary cells. in vitro fluid secretion rates were determined after stimulation with 5-hydroxytryptamine. while larval tubules are capable of rapid fluid secretion, the tubules of pupae exhibit very low rates of secretion, indistinguishable from 0 nl/h. the capacit ...19892589535
evaluation of ulv naled applied simultaneously against caged adult aedes taeniorhynchus and culicoides furens.two experiments were conducted to test application of ulv naled against adult aedes taeniorhynchus and culicoides furens exposed simultaneously in cages hung on poles at selected heights and distances from the spray source. ulv spray was released at 0.14 oz active ingredient/acre, droplet size 13.5 micron mmd. in both experiments, insecticide largely carried over the first poles. the greatest mortality occurred at the second pole position, 18.3 and 25.7 m, respectively, from the spray origin, an ...19883199122
carbon dioxide and 1-octen-3-ol as mosquito attractants.interval suction traps were used to study the attractant effect of co2 and 1-octen-3-ol on trap catches of mosquito populations at 2 different locations in florida. there was no significant increase in the numbers of mosquitoes caught when the concentration of co2 was increased from 200 to 1,000 cc/min. one-octen-3-ol used by itself attracted mosquitoes in numbers similar to co2 released at 200 cc/min. one-octen-3-ol and co2 acted synergistically in attracting significantly greater numbers of ae ...19892573687
an ultrastructural study of dirofilaria immitis infection in the malpighian tubules of anopheles quadrimaculatus.an ultrastructural study was conducted of the malpighian tubules of anopheles quadrimaculatus, both uninfected and following infection with dirofilaria immitis. the malpighian tubules in anopheles are composed of primary and stellate cells. the primary cells are the predominant cell type and are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound, intracellular, mineralized concretions and large apical microvilli containing mitochondria. following the infective blood meal, the microfilariae enter th ...19873655998
mechanical transmission of rift valley fever virus by hematophagous diptera.experimental studies were conducted to determine if hematophagous diptera were capable of mechanical transmission of rift valley fever (rvf) virus to laboratory animals. all species tested (glossina morsitans, aedes aegypti, aedes taeniorhynchus, culex pipiens, stomoxys calcitrans, lutzomyia longipalpis, and culicoides variipennis) mechanically transmitted the virus to hamsters. mechanical transmission rates for g. morsitans ranged from 0-100%, with the probability of mechanical transmission pos ...19853970308
cache valley virus in the del mar va peninsula. iv. biological transmission of the virus by aedes sollicitans and aedes taeniorhynchus. 19704392809
mosquito studies on the isla de la juventud, cuba, at the beginning of rain period.a total of 8418 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected in 11 localities of the isla de la juventud. the most abundant species was aedes taeniorhynchus (92% of specimens collected). the species wyeomyia vanduzeei and mansonia nigricans were encountered on the island for the first time.19846146558
the effectiveness of permethrin and deet, alone or in combination, for protection against aedes taeniorhynchus.field tests were conducted to compare the degree of protection from bites by the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) provided by wearing clothing treated with permethrin [(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (+/-) cis/trans 3-(2-dichloroethenyl)2, 2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] with that provided by applying deet (n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide) to exposed skin or by applying deet and wearing the treated clothing. human test subjects were exposed to natural populations of mosquitoes for a 9-hour daytime p ...19846148024
increased mosquito feeding on rift valley fever virus-infected lambs.experiments were conducted to determine whether or not mosquitoes exhibited an increase in feeding on rift valley fever (rvf) virus-infected lambs as compared to uninfected ones. overall, when given a choice between a viremic lamb, or its uninfected twin, 65% (1,264/1,943) of the engorged female culex pipiens obtained blood from the viremic lamb. this excess of feedings on viremic lambs was demonstrated regardless of the age of the lambs, or the time period between inoculation of the lambs and e ...19846150656
dissociation of insect malpighian tubules into single, viable cells.the malpighian tubules of insects are generally composed of more than one cell type. in the hemipteran rhodnius prolixus, the tubules are divided into two regions, termed the upper and lower tubules, each of which is composed of a distinct cell type. in the dipteran aedes taeniorhynchus, primary and stellate cells are interspersed throughout the length of the tubules. we report here techniques for the dissociation of the malpighian tubules of both of these species into single cells. tubules are ...19846533146
early cellular responses in the malpighian tubules of the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus to infection with dirofilaria immitis (nematoda).early ultrastructural changes in the malpighian tubules of the mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, were examined following infection with the nematode, dirofilaria immitis. after ingestion by the mosquito, the microfilariae enter the cells of the malpighian tubules, becoming intracellular. during early development, the filarial prelarvae reside in the cell cytoplasm surrounded by a clear zone without a delimiting membrane. cells infected with prelarvae differed from uninfected cells and from cells i ...19846737175
evaluation of granular corncob formulations of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis against mosquito larvae using a semi-field bioassay method.a semi-field bioassay method using commonly available laundry tubs evaluated efficacy and residual activity of 6 granular corncob formulations of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis against laboratory-reared late 3rd- and early 4th-instar larvae of aedes taeniorhynchus introduced to the tubs. these formulations produced appreciable larval mortalities (up to 75%) for 9 days posttreatment, with indications of having more prolonged activity. the consistent posttreatment larval mortality tren ...19947707052
variation of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) relative abundance and dirofilaria immitis (nematoda: filarioidea) vector potential in coastal north carolina.at an enzootic focus of dirofilaria immitis in coastal north carolina, mosquito populations were sampled june-september 1985 and on several occasions during august-october 1986 and june-august 1987, to identify local vectors and to determine relative abundance and d. immitis infection rates. predominant species collected were anopheles bradleyi king (66.6%), culex salinarius coquillett (15.9%), aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) (8.2%), and aedes sollicitans (walker) (4.9%). population abundance v ...19938096249
experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by strains of aedes albopictus and a. taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae).the vector competence of aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) and four strains of aedes albopictus (skuse) was assessed for eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus isolated from ae. albopictus collected in polk county, florida. both species became infected with and transmitted eee virus by bite after feeding on 1-d-old chicks that had been inoculated with eee virus (viremia = 10(10.1) plaque-forming units [pfu] per ml of blood). however, when fed on an older chick with a lower viremia (viremia = 10( ...19948189419
isolation of a protein from the parasporal crystal of bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxic to the mosquito larva, aedes taeniorhynchus. 19817332548
field evaluation of heat as an added attractant to traps baited with carbon dioxide and octenol for aedes taeniorhynchus.collection size of 3 species of mosquitoes (aedes taeniorhynchus, anopheles atropos, and culex nigripalpus) and a species of biting midge (culicoides furens) in cdc-type traps baited with carbon dioxide and octenol were significantly increased with the addition of heat. the presence of heat also significantly reduced collection size of the tabanid diachlorus ferrugatus.19958825507
effects of infection with dirofilaria immitis on diuresis and oocyte development in aedes taeniorhynchus and anopheles quadrimaculatus (diptera: culicidae). 19873694626
effect of salt concentration in larval rearing water on susceptibility of aedes mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) to eastern equine and venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses.the effect of salt concentration in larval rearing water on the susceptibility of adult aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) and aedes sollicitans (skuse) to infection with eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus was tested in the laboratory. ae. sollicitans was more susceptible to infection (79%, n = 82) and viral dissemination (16%) with eee virus than was ae. taeniorhynchus (42%, n = 184) and (5%), respectively, when fed on a chick with a viremia of 10(7) +/- 0.1 plaque-forming units/ml; how ...19989775590
effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of aedes taeniorhynchus for rift valley fever and venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses.studies were conducted to determine the effect of environmental temperature on the susceptibility of aedes taeniorhynchus mosquitoes for venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) and rift valley fever (rvf) viruses. mosquitoes reared at low temperature (19 degrees c) were significantly more susceptible to infection with rvf virus (infection rate = 70%, 158 of 226) than were those mosquitoes reared at 26 degrees c (infection rate = 48%, 135 of 280), regardless of the temperature at which mosquitoes we ...19938279634
production of chymotrypsin-resistant bacillus thuringiensis cry2aa1 delta-endotoxin by protein engineering.cleavage of the cry2aa1 protoxin (molecular mass, 63 kda) from bacillus thuringiensis by midgut juice of gypsy moth (lymantria dispar) larvae resulted in two major protein fragments: a 58-kda fragment which was highly toxic to the insect and a 49-kda fragment which was not toxic. in the midgut juice, the protoxin was processed into a 58-kda toxin within 1 min, but after digestion for 1 h, the 58-kda fragment was further cleaved within domain i, resulting in the protease-resistant 49-kda fragment ...199910508095
limited potential for mosquito transmission of genetically engineered, live-attenuated venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidates.in an attempt to improve the current live-attenuated vaccine (tc-83) for venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee), specific mutations associated with attenuation of vee virus in rodent models were identified. these mutations were inserted into full-length cdna clones of the trinidad donkey strain of vee virus by site-directed mutagenesis, and isogenic virus strains with these mutations were recovered after transfection of baby hamster kidney cells with infectious rna. we evaluated 10 of these strain ...199910403340
enhanced arboviral transmission by mosquitoes that concurrently ingested microfilariae.infection, dissemination, and transmission of an arbovirus in mosquitoes are enhanced by concurrent ingestion of microfilariae. ingestion of rift valley fever virus alone infected only 64 percent of female aedes taeniorhynchus. of these, only 5 percent of refeeding mosquitoes actually transmitted virus. in contrast, ingestion of the same amount of virus from concurrently microfilaremic (brugia malayi) gerbils resulted in 88 percent infection and 31 percent transmission. enhanced transmission of ...19846474165
mosquito frequency and feeding habits in an enzootic canine dirofilariasis area in niterói, state of rio de janeiro, brazil.heartworm, a chronic fatal mosquito-borne canine disease, is frequently diagnosed in dogs from the state of rio de janeiro, where its prevalence is 29.7% in the city of niterói. nevertheless it is rarely detected in cats (0.8%) from the same state. dogs are the primary source of infection to mosquitoes. because cats either do not demonstrate microfilaremia or it is too low and transient for transmission. a mosquito survey was conducted in itacoatiara, niterói, from march 1995 to february 1996, u ...19989698883
hemagglutinins in mosquitoes and their role in the immune response to brugia malayi (filarioidea:nematoda) larvae.hemagglutinins were determined in six species of mosquitoes that are susceptible and refractory to brugia malayi (filarioidea: nematoda). high titers of hemagglutinins were found in the salivary gland extract and in the body fluid of a completely refractory species, aedes taeniorhynchus, and in partially refractory species, anopheles quadrimculatus but low levels of hemagglutinins were also present in the body fluid of aedes aegypti (black-eye, liverpool strain), a susceptible species. hemagglut ...19979505436
short report: lack of virus replication in arthropods after intrathoracic inoculation of ebola reston virus.to evaluate the potential for arthropods to serve as reservoir hosts of ebola virus, three mosquito species, aedes albopictus, aedes taeniorhynchus, and culex pipiens, and a soft tick, ornithodoros sonrai, were inoculated with 1o2.5 plaque-forming units of ebola reston virus. after incubation at 22 degrees c for 11 days, at least six specimens of each species were triturated and examined for evidence of viral replication by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque assay. there was no evidenc ...19968702028
vector competence of three venezuelan mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for an epizootic ic strain of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.experimental studies were undertaken to evaluate the vector competence of selected mosquito species [aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann), culex declarator dyar and knab, and mansonia titillans (walker)] from northwestern venezuela for the epizootic (ic) strain of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus that was responsible for the 1995 outbreak of vee in this area. ae. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to infection (94% of 35), and 89% had a disseminated infection. virus-exposed ae. taeniorh ...199910467764
update: venezuelan equine encephalitis--colombia, 1995.during september 1-october 12, 1995, a total of 12,403 patient visits for venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) were reported from la guajira state, colombia. the actual number of incident cases, estimated from epidemiologic surveys, may exceed 45,000. this report updates the ongoing investigation of this outbreak (1).19957565561
epidemiological investigation for arboviruses in jamaica, west indies.arbovirus investigation in jamaica was undertaken between 1960 and 1975. serological studies showed that antibodies to dengue type virus and st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) were prevalent throughout the island for several years. in urban communities, the incidence of dengue antibody was higher than for sle; however, in children under 10 years of age antibody to both viruses was rarely present. in rural areas, sle was prevalent in adults and children. this virus was isolated fom culex nigripal ...19807406115
laboratory evaluation of biotic and abiotic factors that may influence larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis against two florida mosquito species.a technical powder of bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis (b.t.i.) (vectobac tp, 5,000 international toxic units [itu]/mg), an aqueous suspension (vectobac 12as, 1,200 itu/mg), and a granular formulation (vectobac cg, 200 itu/mg) were tested in the laboratory under different biotic and abiotic, conditions for efficacy against larvae of saltwater (aedes taeniorhynchus) and freshwater (culex nigripalpus) mosquitoes. second-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar larvae of cx. nigripalpus were 1.3-3-fold mo ...199910342266
a larval mosquito survey in northeastern arkansas including a new record for aedes albopictus.an extensive larval mosquito survey was conducted in craighead county in northeastern arkansas in 1990-91. nineteen species representing 8 genera were collected. culex restuans was the most cosmopolitan species in relation to habitat utilization, being collected in 5 or 7 habitat types sampled. a major range extension of aedes taeniorhynchus in arkansas was documented as well as the first known collection of aedes albopictus in the northeastern part of the state.19948965075
effect of extrinsic incubation temperature on the ability of aedes taeniorhynchus and culex pipiens to transmit rift valley fever virus.studies were conducted to examine the effects of extrinsic incubation (ei) temperature on the vector competence of egyptian culex pipiens and north american aedes taeniorhynchus for rift valley fever (rvf) virus. following per os exposure, infection rates in ae. taeniorhynchus remained relatively constant at 55%, 56%, and 59% for mosquitoes held at ei temperatures of 13, 26, and 33 degrees c, respectively. in contrast, significantly fewer cx. pipiens became infected when held at 13 degrees c (38 ...19853834803
infection of malaria (anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus against tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae) we investigated the potency of this fungus as a biological control agent for adult malaria and filariasis vector mosquitoes.200314565851
malathion resistance in mosquitoes from charleston and georgetown counties of coastal south carolina.susceptibility tests were conducted using the world health organization diagnostic test procedure on strains of aedes taeniorhynchus, aedes sollicitans, aedes vexans, and culex nigripalpus collected from several localities in charleston and georgetown counties of south carolina. aedes taeniorhynchus was resistant to malathion (mortality 1.0-54.4%) but not to propoxur, permethrin, or fenitrothion. there also were indications that ae. sollicitans and cx. nigripalpus were resistant to malathion, bu ...19947912262
integrated use of planaria (dugesia dorotocephala) and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against aedes taeniorhynchus: a laboratory bioassay.the effectiveness of integrating bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (b.t.i.) and the predatory planaria, dugesia dorotocephala against aedes taeniorhynchus was determined under controlled laboratory conditions. there was no significant effect (p greater than 0.05) of b.t.i. on d. dorotocephala either by direct association or through ingestion of b.t.i. dosed larvae. planaria, alone, and b.t.i. combined with planaria, both provided significant (p less than 0.05) reduction of ae. taeniorhynch ...19902098475
reduced rift valley fever virus infection rates in mosquitoes associated with pledget feedings.infection rates were compared in culex pipiens and aedes taeniorhynchus after they fed on rift valley fever (rvf) viremic hamsters or ingested similar doses of rvf virus from blood-soaked pledgets. infection rates were significantly lower for mosquitoes that ingested virus from a pledget than for those that ingested similar doses from viremic hamsters. the method used to prevent normal clot formation for the pledget feedings (i.e., defibrination by shaking with glass beads or addition of heparin ...19883207178
poor vector efficiency of culex quinquefasciatus following infection with dirofilaria immitis.the vector efficiency of the haiti and covington strains of culex quinquefasciatus after feeding on dog blood infected with dirofilaria immitis (approximately 110 microfilariae (mf)/20 microliters of blood) was 1.2 and 0.3%, respectively, versus nearly 20% for the vero beach strain of aedes taeniorhynchus. at a much higher microfilaremia (approximately 400 mf/20 microliters), it was 1.6, 0.5 and 31.5%, respectively. the poor vector efficiency of the 2 cx. quinquefasciatus strains probably was du ...19912045806
oxygen consumption in mosquito larvae parasitized by romanomermis culicivorax (nematoda).the effect of parasitism by romanomermis culicivorax on the oxygen consumption of three species of mosquito larvae was studied by manometric methods. the q02 of culex pipiens, both parasitized and unparasitized, decreased as the host larvae developed from the second to fourth instar. in the early stages there was no significant difference in q02 in parasitized and unparasitized hosts but the q02 increased significantly in parasitized fourth instar larvae. the q02 of parasitized and unparasitized ...19846146430
susceptibility of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype ic) and enzootic (subtype id) venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses: evidence for epizootic strain adaptation.to test the hypothesis that adaptation to epizootic mosquito vectors mediates emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) from enzootic progenitors, experimental infection studies were conducted to determine the susceptibility of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) to epizootic and enzootic strains. artificial blood meals containing epizootic subtype ic strains isolated during the 1962-1964, 1992-1993, and 1995 venezuelan/colombian epizootics and closely related venezuelan enzoo ...200415535633
venezuelan equine encephalitis.venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) remains a naturally emerging disease threat as well as a highly developed biological weapon. recently, progress has been made in understanding the complex ecological and viral genetic mechanisms that coincide in time and space to generate outbreaks. enzootic, equine avirulent, serotype id veev strains appear to alter their serotype to iab or ic, and their vertebrate and mosquito host range, to mediate repeated vee emergence via mutations in the e2 enve ...200414651460
entomological studies at an enzootic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus focus in guatemala, 1977-1980.the ecology of several potential mosquito vectors of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) alphavirus was studied in an enzootic focus of that virus on the pacific coast of guatemala over a four-year period. four species-culex taeniopus, mansonia titillans, culex nigripalpus and aedes taeniorhynchus-were most prevalent during the wet season when transmission normally occurs. however, only cx. taeniopus yielded vee virus. the bloodfeeding patterns of these species revealed that ae. taeniorhynchus ...19862873752
mechanical transmission of bacillus anthracis by stable flies (stomoxys calcitrans) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti and aedes taeniorhynchus).we evaluated the potential of stable flies, stomoxys calcitrans, and two species of mosquitoes, aedes aegypti and aedes taeniorhynchus, to transmit bacillus anthracis vollum 1b mechanically. after probing on hartley guinea pigs with a bacteremia of ca. 10(8.6) cfu of b. anthracis per ml of blood, individual or pools of two to four stable flies or mosquitoes were allowed to continue feeding on either uninfected guinea pigs or a/j mice. all three insect species transmitted lethal anthrax infection ...19873112013
experimental vertical transmission of saint louis encephalitis virus by florida mosquitoes.vertical transmission of st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus to f1 larval progeny was demonstrated in 8 species of mosquitoes which occur in florida: culex quinquefasciatus, cx. nigripalpus, cx. salinarius, cx. restuans, cx. opisthopus, anopheles quadrimaculatus, an. albimanus, and aedes taeniorhynchus. relatively high rates of such transmission were observed in ae. taeniorhynchus and vertical transmission to f1 adult progeny and venereal transmission from males to females also were demonstrated ...19862878627
transmission of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by aedes sollicitans and aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae).experimental studies compared the vector competence of aedes sollicitans (skuse) and ae. taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) collected on assateague island, va., for an epizootic strain (trinidad donkey) of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus. infection rates were significantly higher in ae. sollicitans (101/107, 94%) than in ae. taeniorhynchus (103/175, 59%), even though both species fed concurrently on the same infected hamsters. similarly, dissemination and transmission rates were signific ...19921552530
vector competence of two species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from southern california for dirofilaria immitis (filariidea: onchocercidae).two species of mosquitoes reared to adults from field-collected larvae or egg rafts in or near los angeles county, ca, were exposed to dogs with known levels of dirofilaria immitis (leidy) microfilariae per 20 cubic millimeters of blood. aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) readily blood fed on an infected dog ingested microfilariae but did not become infected. culiseta incidens (thomson) also fed on an infected dog became infected, and 10% of the microfilariae developed to the l3 stage. cs. inciden ...200010730504
field efficacy and nontarget effects of the mosquito larvicides temephos, methoprene, and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in florida mangrove swamps.we compared the efficacy and nontarget effects of temephos, bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (b.t.i.), and methoprene applied by helicopter to control mosquito larvae in mangrove swamps on sanibel island, fl, in may 1997. three sites per treatment and 3 untreated sites were used. temephos (abate) was applied at 37 ml/ha (43% active ingredient [ai]), b.t.i. granules (vectobac g) were applied at 5.606 kg/ha (200 international toxic units/mg), and methoprene (altosid all) was applied at 213 ...199910612606
brugia malayi microfilariae (nematoda: filaridae) enhance the infectivity of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus to aedes mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).we examined the potentially conflicting effects that microfilarial (mf) enhancement of viral infectivity and mf-induced mortality in mosquitoes have on the vectorial capacity of aedes aegypti (l.), aedes triseriatus (say), and aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) for venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vee) when mosquitoes feed on gerbils co-infected with brugia malayi (buckley). groups of mosquitoes were fed on gerbils that were either dually infected (vee plus b. malayi mf) or singly infected (v ...199910593077
genetic reassortment of rift valley fever virus in nature.rift valley fever virus (rvfv), a phlebovirus of the bunyaviridae family, is an arthropod-borne virus which emerges periodically throughout africa, emphasizing that it poses a major threat for animal and human populations. to assess the genetic variability of rvfv, several isolates from diverse localities of africa were investigated by means of reverse transcription-pcr followed by direct sequencing of a region of the small (s), medium (m), and large (l) genomic segments. phylogenetic analysis s ...199910482570
the ultrastructure of the larval malpighian tubules of a saline-water mosquito.the larval malpighian tubules of the saline-water mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus were examined using light and electron microscopy. the tubules contain two cell types; primary cells and stellate cells. primary cells are characterized by their size (70 microns x 70 microns x 10 microns) and an abundance of intracellular membrane-bound crystals. two types of microvilli are found on the luminal surface of the primary cells: (1) small microvilli containing core microfilaments and extensions of endopl ...19827170712
vector competence of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent wn virus outbreak, at the assateague island wildlife refuge, va, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, disseminati ...200111296813
susceptibility of psorophora confinnis (diptera: culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype ic) and enzootic (subtype id) venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses.to test the hypothesis that adaptation to epizootic mosquito vectors mediates the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, veev) from enzootic progenitors, the susceptibility of the epizootic vector psorophora confinnis (lynch-arribalzaga) to epizootic versus enzootic strains was evaluated. artificial bloodmeals containing subtype ic strains isolated during the 1962-1964, 1992-1993, and 1995 venezuelan/colombian epizootics and closely related venez ...200516365999
in vivo and in vitro development of the protist helicosporidium sp.we describe the discovery and developmental features of a helicosporidium sp. isolated from the black fly simulium jonesi. morphologically, the helicosporidia are characterized by a distinct cyst stage that encloses three ovoid cells and a single elongate filamentous cell. bioassays have demonstrated that the cysts of this isolate infect various insect species, including the lepidopterans, helicoverpa zea, galleria mellonella, and manduca sexta, and the dipterans, musca domestica, aedes taeniorh ...200111456323
evaluation of habitat management strategies for the reduction of malaria vectors in northern belize.mowing and burning of emergent vegetation were evaluated as potential management strategies for the control of the malaria vector, anopheles vestitipennis, in northern belize, central america. the primary aim was reduction of tall dense macrophytes (dominated by typha domingensis) as preferred larval habitat for an. vestitipennis. nine experimental plots were established in a typha marsh in orange walk district, belize. three plots were burned, three were treated by subaquatic mowing, and three ...200516599158
targeted trapping of mosquito vectors in the chesapeake bay area of maryland.most adult mosquito surveillance in maryland is performed using dry ice-baited or unbaited centers for disease control (cdc) miniature light traps suspended approximately 1.5 m above the ground. however, standardized trapping methods may miss mosquito species involved in disease transmission cycles. during a 2-yr study, the effectiveness of the olfactory attractant 1-octen-3-ol alone and in combination with carbon dioxide was evaluated for collecting mosquito vector species. in addition, trap he ...200616619593
positively charged amino acid substitutions in the e2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.epidemic-epizootic venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) viruses (veev) have emerged repeatedly via convergent evolution from enzootic predecessors. however, previous sequence analyses have failed to identify common sets of nucleotide or amino acid substitutions associated with all emergence events. during 1993 and 1996, veev subtype ie epizootics occurred on the pacific coast of the states of chiapas and oaxaca in southern mexico. like other epizootic veev strains, when inoculated into guinea pi ...200211799167
epidemic venezuelan equine encephalitis in la guajira, colombia, 1995.in 1995, the first venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) outbreak in colombia in 22 years caused an estimated 75,000 human cases, 3000 with neurologic complications and 300 fatal, in la guajira state. of the state's estimated 50,000 equines, 8% may have died. an epizootic ic virus, probably introduced from venezuela, was rapidly amplified among unvaccinated equines. record high rainfall, producing high densities of vector aedes taeniorhynchus, led to extensive epidemic transmission (30% attack ra ...19979086137
application of boric acid baits to plant foliage for adult mosquito control.boric acid (1%) in 5% sugar water bait solution was applied as a spray to the foliage, stems, and other surfaces of plants for control of adult aedes albopictus, culex nigripalpus, and ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. initial studies outdoors in small (1.42-m3) screened cages showed that exposure of male and female mosquitoes to 1% boric acid bait for 48 h resulted in 80 to 100% mortality in ae. albopictus and > or = 98% mortality in cx. nigripalpus and oc. taeniorhynchus. at 48 h posttreatment, in ...200617067052
vector infection determinants of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reside within the e2 envelope glycoprotein.epizootic subtype iab and ic venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (veev) readily infect the epizootic mosquito vector aedes taeniorhynchus. the inability of enzootic subtype ie viruses to infect this mosquito species provides a model system for the identification of natural viral determinants of vector infectivity. to map mosquito infection determinants, reciprocal chimeric viruses generated from epizootic subtype iab and enzootic ie veev were tested for mosquito infectivity. chimeras containi ...200212021373
repellency of ir3535, kbr3023, para-menthane-3,8-diol, and deet to black salt marsh mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the everglades national park.ir3535, kbr3023, para-menthane-3,8-diol (pmd), and deet were evaluated in controlled studies with human subjects (n = 5) for repellency to black salt marsh mosquitoes (ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus wiedemann), in the everglades national park, fl. in tests of 6-h duration, with an average mosquito biting pressure on exposed forearm skin of 19.5 (+/- 13.7) bites per minute, the mean percent repellencies (se) for ir3535, kbr3023, pdm, and deet was 88.6 (3.2), 97.5 (1.7), 89.2 (2.9), and 94.8 (2.5), r ...200212495189
vector competence of mosquitoes as a marker to distinguish central american and mexican epizootic from enzootic strains of venezuelan encephalitis virus.two epizootic strains of venezuelan encephalitis (ve) virus from central america and mexico were transmitted by a colonized epizootic vector mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, at higher rates than were two enzootic strains when the mosquitoes were infected by intrathroacic inoculation or feeding of virus. differences in transmission rates also occurred with colonized aedes aegypti, but were less marked. following intrathoracic inoculation of a. taeniorhynchus or a. aegypti, epizootic strains grew t ...19761259093
isolation of eee virus from ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culiseta melanura in coastal south carolina.a 1-year arbovirus study was conducted at the wedge plantation located in coastal south carolina to determine the occurrence and level of arbovirus activity in mosquito species inhabiting the site. mosquito species composition and temporal abundance were also determined. a total of 45,051 mosquitoes representing 27 species in 9 genera was collected and identified during 130 trap-nights between august, 1997, and july, 1998. the most abundant species was culex salinarius (n = 20,954) followed by o ...200312674532
vector competence of mexican and honduran mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for enzootic (ie) and epizootic (ic) strains of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (wiedemann), culex cancer theobald, culex pseudes (dyar and knab), culex taeniopus dyar and knab, and a culex (culex) species, probably culex quinquefasciatus say, and culex nigripalpus theobald from chiapas, mexico, and tocoa, honduras, for epizootic (ic) and enzootic (ie) strains of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus. culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the ic and ie strains ...200312943109
mosquitoes infected with west nile virus in the florida keys, monroe county, florida, usa.more than 30,000 mosquitoes in 22 species or species groups were collected from the florida keys, monroe county, fl, usa, in dry ice-baited light and gravid traps. dry ice-baited traps collected more mosquitoes than did gravid traps. west nile virus was detected in pools of anopheles atropos dyar & knab, deinocerites cancer theobald, and ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (wiedemann).200312943117
density and distribution of dirofilaria immitis (nematoda: filarioidea) third-stage larvae in aedes sollicitans and aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae).numbers and the distribution of third-stage larvae (l3) were investigated in aedes sollicitans (walker) and aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) female mosquitoes fed dirofilaria immitis (leidy) infectious-blood with densities of microfilariae (mf) ranging from approximately 7,100-43,400 mf/ml. at each microfilarial density, a maximum of 63-66 infective larvae were recovered from an ae. sollicitans alive on day 15 after infection. in comparison with ae. taeniorhynchus, ae. sollicitans averaged great ...200011004780
genetic determinants of venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence.following a period of inactivity from 1973-1991, venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) reemerged during the past decade in south america and mexico. experimental studies of vee virus (veev) infection of horses with virus strains isolated during these outbreaks have revealed considerable variation in the ability of equine-virulent, epizootic strains to exploit horses as efficient amplification hosts. subtype ic strains from recent outbreaks in venezuela and colombia amplify efficiently in equines, ...200415119762
effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of anopheles gambiae.a previous study showed for anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western kenya. the present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity.200717711580
ecologic studies of venezuelan encephalitis virus and isolations of nepuyo and patois viruses during 1968-1973 at a marsh habitat near the epicenter of the 1969 outbreak in guatemala.ecologic studies of venezuelan encephalitis (ve) virus at a marsh habitat near the epicenter of the 1969 outbreak in guatemala revealed that the virus was enzootic there. ve virus was isolated yearly during 1968-1973 from sentinel hamsters exposed during the rainy seasons and from mosquitoes collected during july and august 1970. hamsters yielded 41 strains of ve virus and virus was detected within 2 km of the edge of the marsh, in its interior, and at its western extreme 18 km from the central ...19763981
venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein.in 1993 and 1996, subtype ie venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus caused epizootics in the mexican states of chiapas and oaxaca. previously, only subtype iab and ic vee virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. the iab and ic epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. however, experimental equine infections w ...200415277679
experimental infection of aedes sollicitans and aedes taeniorhynchus with two chimeric sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidates.two chimeric vaccine candidates for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) were developed by inserting the structural protein genes of either a north american (na) or south american (sa) eeev into a sindbis virus (sinv) backbone. to assess the effect of chimerization on mosquito infectivity, experimental infections of two potential north american bridge vectors of eeev, aedes sollicitans and ae. taeniorhynchus, were attempted. both species were susceptible to oral infection with all viruses af ...200818187790
experimental transmission of karshi and langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses by ornithodoros ticks (acari: argasidae).selected species of mosquitoes and ornithodoros ticks were evaluated for their potential to transmit karshi and langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses in the laboratory. although there was no evidence of replication of karshi virus in either of the two mosquito species tested [ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) or culex pipiens (l.)], karshi virus replicated in and was transmitted by all three species of ornithodoros ticks tested (ornithodoros parkeri cooley, ornithodoros so ...200415535630
efficient functional pseudotyping of oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors by venezuelan equine encephalitis virus envelope proteins.murine oncoretroviruses and lentiviruses pseudotyped with envelope proteins of alphaviruses have shown great potential in providing broad-host-range, stable vectors for gene therapy. unlike vesicular stomatitis virus g protein-pseudotyped vectors, they are not neutralized by complement and do not appear to cause significant tissue damage. here we report the production of murine oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the envelope proteins of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (v ...200515613303
venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern mexico.equine epizootics of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) occurred in the southern mexican states of chiapas in 1993 and oaxaca in 1996. to assess the impact of continuing circulation of vee virus (veev) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in chiapas state. human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of veev occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical pers ...200415663847
efficacy studies of vectobac 12as and teknar hp-d larvicides against 3rd-instar ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culex quinquefasciatus in small plot field studies.efficacy studies were conducted with vectobac 12as and teknar hp-d larvicides against 3rd-instar ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culex quinquefasciatus in small field test plots. the products were obtained off the shelf from distributors and had different lot numbers. they were evaluated over a 2-year period in spring 2002 and 2003. application rates were 0.29, 0.58, and 1.10 liter/ha and evaluations were made 24 and 48 h after treatment. both products performed well in these studies, with vecto ...200415669386
vector competence of rural and urban strains of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (diptera: culicidae) from são paulo state, brazil for ic, id, and if subtypes of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.aedes albopictus (skuse) is an asiatic mosquito species that has spread and colonized all continents except antarctica. it has major public health importance because it is a potential vector of several pathogens. the objectives of our study were to analyze the vector competence of urban and rural strains of ae. albopictus from são paulo state (brazil) for venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vee) subtypes ic, id, and if, and to evaluate the effect of infection with subtype ic of vee on mosquito ...200314680121
entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including dipterans. fungal pathogens such as lagenidium, coelomomyces and culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. there are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. the discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pa ...200415861235
canine vector-borne diseases in brazil.abstract: canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are highly prevalent in brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., babesia vogeli, leishmania infantum, and trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., anaplasma platys and ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., dirofilaria immitis and dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including tick ...200818691408
evaluation of methods to assess transmission potential of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes and estimation of mosquito saliva titers.determining the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by a mosquito is important to design transmission and pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection. several different artificial infection and transmission methods used to assess vector competence and to estimate the dose injected during mosquito feeding have not been fully evaluated to determine whether they accurately reflect natural transmission. additionally, it is not known whether different mosquito vectors transmit similar amounts of a ...200516014828
morphological and molecular characterization of a cypovirus (reoviridae) from the mosquito uranotaenia sapphirina (diptera: culicidae).a novel cypovirus has been isolated from the mosquito uranotaenia sapphirina (uscpv) and shown to cause a chronic infection confined to the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the gastric ceca and posterior stomach. the production of large numbers of virions and inclusion bodies and their arrangement into paracrystalline arrays gives the gut of infected insects a distinctive blue iridescence. the virions, which were examined by electron microscopy, are icosahedral (55 to 65 nm in diameter) with a c ...200516014906
west nile virus surveillance, guadeloupe, 2003-2004.we conducted extensive surveillance for west nile virus infection in equines and chickens in guadeloupe in 2003-2004. we showed a high seroprevalence in equines in 2003 related to biome, followed by a major decrease in virus circulation in 2004. no human or equine cases were reported during the study.200516022789
epidemiology of heartworm: what is happening in south america and mexico?canine heartworm has been known to exist in the americas for more than 150 years (1847), and the first south american report was published approximately 30 years later (1875). the first human case was reported in 1887 and the first feline case in 1921. coincidently, these two reports were from brazil, where most surveys of the disease during the past two decades have been conducted in dogs. feline cases are seldom found in the south american literature, although feline heartworm disease has been ...200516198820
west nile virus-infected mosquitoes, louisiana, 2002.human cases of west nile virus (wnv) disease appeared in st. tammany and tangipahoa parishes in southeastern louisiana in june 2002. cases peaked during july, then rapidly declined. we conducted mosquito collections from august 3 to august 15 at residences of patients with confirmed and suspected wnv disease to estimate species composition, relative abundance, and wnv infection rates. a total of 31,215 mosquitoes representing 25 species were collected by using primarily gravid traps and co2-bait ...200516229769
isoenzyme polymorphism and genetic structure of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) in populations from the colombian atlantic coast. 200919452273
transmission of the virus of equine encephalomyelitis by aedes taeniorhynchus. 193717732932
genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus).iridoviruses (ivs) are classified into five genera: iridovirus and chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and ranavirus, lymphocystivirus, and megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. until now, chloriridovirus was the only iv genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (iiv-3), also known as mosquito iridescent viru ...200616912294
venezuelan equine encephalitis virus transmission and effect on pathogenesis.quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. we compared the amount of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into ...200616965696
drosophila melanogaster methoprene-tolerant (met) gene homologs from three mosquito species: members of pas transcriptional factor family.the methoprene-tolerant (met) gene in drosophila melanogaster has been shown to function in juvenile hormone (jh) action. met homologs were isolated from three mosquito species, culex pipiens, aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae. sequence similarity was found to be high in bhlh and pas conserved domains, and the majority of the 7-9 introns in aamet and agmet are located in either identical or similar positions, indicating evolutionary relatedness. sequence comparison with met and the similar ger ...200717166512
epistatic roles of e2 glycoprotein mutations in adaption of chikungunya virus to aedes albopictus and ae. aegypti mosquitoes.between 2005 and 2007 chikungunya virus (chikv) caused its largest outbreak/epidemic in documented history. an unusual feature of this epidemic is the involvement of ae. albopictus as a principal vector. previously we have demonstrated that a single mutation e1-a226v significantly changed the ability of the virus to infect and be transmitted by this vector when expressed in the background of well characterized chikv strains lr2006 opy1 and 37997. however, in the current study we demonstrate that ...200919718263
larval environmental temperature and the susceptibility of aedes albopictus skuse (diptera: culicidae) to chikungunya virus.a key feature in the recent widespread epidemic of the mosquito-borne alphavirus chikungunya virus (chikv) was the important role of aedes albopictus, formerly regarded as a secondary vector, compared to the presumed primary vector aedes aegypti. ae. albopictus, a container-inhabiting mosquito, is an invasive species that occurs over a wide geographic range spanning tropical and temperate latitudes. in this study we examine the effects of a broad range of larval rearing temperatures on chikv inf ...201019725768
experimental cutaneous bacillus anthracis infections in hairless hrs/j mice.previous studies of experimental bacillus anthracis cutaneous infections in mice have implicated hair follicles as a likely entry site. hairless hrs/j mice were used to investigate this possibility because of their non-functional hair follicles that lack penetrating hair shafts. these mice also have diminished macrophage function, increased susceptibility to listeria, and enhanced neutrophil responses. hrs/j and balb/c mice were found to be resistant to epicutaneous inoculation with bacillus ant ...200717244341
dengue virus type 2: replication and tropisms in orally infected aedes aegypti mosquitoes.to be transmitted by its mosquito vector, dengue virus (denv) must infect midgut epithelial cells, replicate and disseminate into the hemocoel, and finally infect the salivary glands, which is essential for transmission. the extrinsic incubation period (eip) is very relevant epidemiologically and is the time required from the ingestion of virus until it can be transmitted to the next vertebrate host. the eip is conditioned by the kinetics and tropisms of virus replication in its vector. here we ...200717263893
glycosaminoglycan binding properties of natural venezuelan equine encephalitis virus isolates.equine-virulent, epidemic/epizootic strains of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus (veev) arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. sequencing studies have implicated positively charged amino acids on the surface of the e2 envelope glycoprotein in the acquisition of equine virulence and viremia potential, suggesting that changes in binding to cell surface glycosaminoglycans (gags) may mediate vee emergence. therefore, we evaluated the binding of n ...200312502837
identification of aedes aegypti and its respective life stages by real-time polymerase chain reaction.an aedes aegypti-specific, fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (taq-man), polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for real-time screening using a field-deployable thermocycler. laboratory-based testing of a. aegypti, a. aegypti (trinidad strain), culex pipiens, culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi, and ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus individual adult mosquitoes and mixed pools (n = 10) demonstrated 100% concordance in both in vitro sensitivity (six of six samples) and specificity (10 of 10 sam ...200516491948
serologic evidence of widespread everglades virus activity in dogs, florida.everglades virus (evev), an alphavirus in the venezuelan equine encephalitis complex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes in florida and occasionally infects humans. it causes febrile disease, sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. although previous surveys showed high seroprevalence in humans, evev infections may be underdiagnosed because the disease is not severe enough to warrant a clinic visit or the undifferentiated presentations complicate diagnosis. documented evev ...200617326938
infection and dissemination of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the epidemic mosquito vector, aedes taeniorhynchus.the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus is an important epidemic vector of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking. we compared infection by an epidemic veev strain to that by an enzootic strain using virus titrations, immunohistochemistry, and a virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. ae. taeniorhynchus was more susceptible to the epidemic strain, which initially infected the posterior midgut and occasionally the anterior midgut and cardi ...200717620651
distinct roles of broad isoforms in regulation of the 20-hydroxyecdysone effector gene, vitellogenin, in the mosquito aedes aegypti.we investigated the role of the mosquito broad (br) gene in regulating the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20e) effector vitellogenin (vg) gene. injection of double-stranded rna corresponding to the br isoform z2 led to a significant decrease in expression of the vg gene at 8 and 24h post-blood meal. knockdown of z1 or z4 resulted in enhanced vg expression beyond its normal expression time. in vitro studies suggested that the effects of br require its direct binding to the vg promoter, as well as protein-pr ...200717303321
epidemiology of west nile virus in connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003.two hundred and ten isolations of west nile virus (wnv) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in connecticut from june through october, 1999-2003. culex pipiens (86), culex salinarius (32), culex restuans (26), culiseta melanura (32), and aedes vexans (12) were implicated as the most likely vectors of wnv in the region based on virus isolation data. culex pipiens was abundant from july through september and is likely involved in early season enz ...200415682518
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
protection of hamsters by venezuelan equine encephalitis virus candidate vaccine v3526 against lethal challenge by mosquito bite and intraperitoneal injection.in an attempt to improve the current live, attenuated vaccine (tc-83) for venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev), specific mutations associated with attenuation of veev in rodent models were inserted into a full-length cdna clone of the trinidad donkey strain of veev by site-directed mutagenesis. because some viruses have been reported to be more pathogenic when introduced by mosquito bite than the same virus introduced by needle inoculation, there were concerns that the presence of mosquit ...200818256440
ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus: a probable vector of dirofilaria immitis in coastal areas of yucatan, mexico.mosquito collections were done on microfilaremic dogs, positive for dirofilaria immitis (leidy), for 15 consecutive nights in celestun, yucatan, southeastern mexico, during january 2007. in total, 275 mosquitoes (3 male and 272 female) of five species were collected: ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (wiedemann), ochlerotatus sollicitans (walker), culex quinquefasciatus say, culex interrogator (dyar & knab), and aedes aegypti (l.). oc. taeniorhynchus was the species most frequently collected, and it h ...200818283960
[the pilot project results of applications of the biolarvicide bacillus sphaericus 2362 on mosquito breeding grounds of the town of santa cruz del norte (la habana province)].the effectiveness of the bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 in liquid formulation, at a 10 ml/m2 dose, was tested in 157 breeding sites of culex quinquefasciatus mosquitos, 2 breeding sites of culex quinquefasciatus and anopheles albimanus and 1 breeding site of aedes taeniorhynchus, consisting of 1 river, 2 oxidation ponds, 1 pond, 4 dams, 2 microdams and 150 pits. the results reached with the application of 1800 1 of biolarvicide show its effectiveness. within 24 hours of treatment, mortality rat ...19911801088
field studies on the potential of butanone, carbon dioxide, honey extract, 1-octen-3-ol, l-lactic acid and phenols as attractants for mosquitoes.various combinations of six candidate attractants--butanone, carbon dioxide (co2), honey, octenol, lactic acid and mixed phenols--were tested against natural populations of mosquitoes in everglades national park, florida, u.s.a., using unlighted cdc-baited traps. with few exceptions, the attractancy of these candidate compounds to mosquitoes, when used alone, was less than that of co2 alone. the exceptions were that octenol and honey extract alone attracted larger numbers of coquillettidia pertu ...19901983456
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