thyroid development in altricial ring doves, streptopelia risoria.the development of thyroid function in altricial ring doves was assessed by measuring thyroid hormone concentrations in the serum, hormone content of the thyroid glands and hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity. thyroid function is low at hatching and increases during the first eight days while the nestlings are ectothermic and completely dependent on parental care. the rate of increase of serum hormone concentrations slows after day 8; hormone concentrations are stable by day 15 and for the remain ...19853996891
falcon herpesvirus, the etiologic agent of inclusion body disease of falcons.a viral agent has been isolated from five fatal cases of naturally occurring inclusion body disease in three different falcon species, namely, the prairie falcon (falco mexicanus), the red-headed falcon (f. chiquera), and the peregrine falcon (f. peregrinus). the virus has been shown to possess the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a herpesvirus and has been used to reproduce inclusion body disease in the prairie falcon, merlin (f. columbarius), and american kestrel (f. sparverius ...19734352453
effect of pinealectomy upon the nonspecific immune response of the ring-dove (streptopelia risoria).the different stages of the phagocytic process by granulocytes of pinealectomized or sham-pinealectomized ring doves (streptopelia risoria) as well as hematological parameters (total white blood cells, smear, and total protein) and serum hormone levels (triiodothyronine (t3), thyroxine (t4), and corticosterone) were studied. a number of immunological parameters of the phagocytosis process, including adherence capacity, mobility rate, the phagocytosis capacity for inert particles and the digestio ...19947932039
concentrations of prolactin and luteinizing hormone in plasma of doves in relation to incubation and development of the crop gland.the concentrations of prolactin and lh were measured in the plasma of male and female ring doves (streptopelia risoria) during the breeding cycle. prolactin concentrations were low during courtship and early incubation but increased markedly (p less than 0.01 in both sexes) between days 7 and 15 of incubation, during the period of rapid growth of the crop sac. levels remained raised for 4 days after the young had hatched but then declined as the crop sacs gradually regressed. these observations ...19817276801
trichomonas gallinae infections in the ringdove (streptopelia risoria).twenty trichomonas-free ringdoves (streptopelia risoria) were intubated with trichomonas gallinae derived from pigeons (columba livia). by 15 days post-intubation (dpi) five doves had t. gallinae-type lesions (cankers) in the pregastric portion of the digestive system, and six doves had t. gallinae present without lesions. sixteen trichomonas-free ring doves were infected using t. gallinae from axenic cultures. by 21 dpi four doves had t. gallinae lesions and died, and one dove had t. gallinae p ...19827097875
imprinting in an altricial bird: the blond ring dove (streptopelia risoria).newborn ring doves were taken away from their parents when they were from 4 to 14 days old. they were then either raised by hand in complete visual isolation from other members of their species or placed in a community cage after weaning. they were tested as adults in a free-choice situation between human beings and ring doves. an optimum period for imprinting was found when they were about 7 to 9 days old. the controls showed that subsequent experiences during the life span of a bird also have ...196414185323
serum prolactin levels and crop-sac development in ring doves during a breeding cycle.using a turkey prolactin radioimmunoassay, the serum prolactin levels of male and female ring doves (streptopelia risoria) during the breeding cycle were measured and their circulating prolactin levels were compared to crop-sac weight on a within-bird basis. during the early phase of the incubation period, crop weight showed a delayed response to prolactin stimulation and there was no correlation; during the midincubation period when prolactin and crop-sac weight were increasing, there was a str ...19836862393
an analysis of physiological mechanisms underlying the antigonadotropic action of intracranial prolactin in ring doves.intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of prolactin (prl) exert potent antigonadal and antigonadotropic effects in ring doves (streptopelia risoria) at doses that are insufficient to stimulate prolactin-dependent crop growth. to explore the physiological basis of these effects, we tested the ability of icv-injected prl to influence pituitary responsiveness to chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone-i (cgnrh-i) and to alter gnrh content and concentration in the preoptic area (poa) and median emi ...199910094863
mycobacteriosis in naturally infected ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria): investigation of the association between feather colour and susceptibility to infection, disease and lesions type.prevalence of infection and disease, the degree of organ involvement and the nature of the lesions were investigated in 11 white and 18 non-white ring-neck doves coming from a flock naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. lesions were common in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestines, ovary and bone marrow. overall, 18 out of 29 (62%) birds were considered infected with a sequevar of m. avium subsp. avium that contains serotypes 2, 3, 4 and 9. the prevalence of infection in ...200818622863
phagocytosis of candida albicans and superoxide anion levels in ring dove (streptopelia risoria) heterophils: effect of melatonin.we observed in previous studies on avian heterophils that incubation with either physiological or pharmacological concentrations of the neurohormone melatonin increased the phagocytosis of inert particles (latex beads), and also provoked a decline in superoxide anion levels of those phagocytes. in the present study, we wanted to corroborate whether melatonin acts on the oxidative metabolism that accompanies the respiratory burst during phagocytosis by inducing a more effective phagocytic activit ...200314636172
an outbreak of herpesvirus infection in a flock of ringed turtle doves (streptopelia risoria). 19911645600
comparative study of the heterophil phagocytic function in young and old ring doves (streptopelia risoria) and its relationship with melatonin levels.a functional connection between the pineal gland (via the hormone melatonin) and the immune system has been suggested. in our previous results in the ring dove, we observed diurnal oscillations in the levels of this neurohormone in young animals and a decline in its plasma levels with advancing age (which is accompanied by the absence of diurnal rhythm). we also noted enhanced phagocytic activity of heterophils from old animals after in vitro incubation with both physiological and pharmacologica ...200415148621
thyroid and adrenal function in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) during food deprivation and a breeding cycle.the concentration of plasma triiodothyronine (t3), thyroxine (t4), corticosterone, and glucose as well as body weight and food intake were measured in pairs of ring doves throughout a breeding cycle and during food deprivation. during courtship and incubation the levels of plasma t4 were significantly higher in males than in females. a transitory decrease in food intake in both sexes was measured at the onset of incubation but was not associated with a change in body weight or in levels of plasm ...19921505723
sex steroid communication in the ring dove brain during courtship.this review examines possible role of progesterone receptor (pr) and androgen receptor (ar) "cross-talk" in the expression of courtship behaviour in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria). in doves, although androgen has been mostly associated with aggressive courtship behaviour and progesterone with the initiation of incubation, progesterone administration to courting birds terminates the aggressive component of courtship whilst having no effect on nesting behaviour. recent results in doves have ...200312769228
evaluation of multidrug therapy with azithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol for the treatment of mycobacterium avium subsp avium in ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria): an uncontrolled clinical uncontrolled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a multidrug protocol in 16 ring-neck doves ( streptopelia risoria ) from a flock naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp avium. the doves were considered infected on the basis of a high prevalence of infection in a group of 29 birds that were euthanatized from the same flock and clinical signs and pathologic results consistent with infection in the remaining birds. all birds were treated with azithromycin (43 mg/k ...201425843465
humoral response to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in naturally infected ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria).creation of a reliable and easy to use serologic test would greatly improve ante mortem diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and aid in the control of avian mycobacteriosis, particularly in captive birds. in order to determine whether serodiagnostics could be of value in testing ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria) for m. a. avium infection, western blot analysis was used to assess the humoral response of ring-neck doves exposed to m. a. avium, and to evaluate whether an association c ...200818639937
comparison of sampling methods, culture, acid-fast stain, and polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria).even when different diagnostic modalities are available, mycobacteriosis is difficult to diagnose in a live bird. to investigate the diagnostic value of sampling different tissues and using different diagnostic methods, we evaluated results of mycobacterial culture, ziehl-neelsen (zn) staining, and single-amplification polymerase chain reaction assay (pcr) of 18 ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria) with confirmed natural infection with mycobacterium avium avium. results of testing liver biopsy ...201021302756
comparative power curves in bird flight.the relationship between mechanical power output and forward velocity in bird flight is controversial, bearing on the comparative physiology and ecology of locomotion. applied to flying birds, aerodynamic theory predicts that mechanical power should vary as a function of forward velocity in a u-shaped curve. the only empirical test of this theory, using the black-billed magpie (pica pica), suggests that the mechanical power curve is relatively flat over intermediate velocities. here, by integrat ...200312540899
the hybrid-substance of the erythrocytes of the hybrids between columba livia and streptopelia risoria. 195617247657
relationships of trichomonas gallinae to the palatal-esophageal junction of ring doves (streptopelia risoria) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.ring doves (streptopelia risoria) were experimentally infected with pathogenic (virulent) trichomonas gallinae so that trichomonad activities in the upper alimentary tract, prior to canker formation, could be examined with scanning electron microscopy. between 6 and 15 hr postinoculation low numbers of ameboid t. gallinae were attached to apical microfolds and cell borders of the palatal-esophageal junction squamous epithelium. initial parasite activities at tightly attached cell borders and api ...19938501599
suppression of both basal and antigen-induced lipid peroxidation in ring dove heterophils by melatonin.there have been several findings recently concerning melatonin as a free radical scavenger and general antioxidant. for instance, in bird heterophils we found that 100 microm of melatonin decreases superoxide anion levels and modulates superoxide dismutase activity. this paper sought to study the effect of melatonin upon induced oxidative damage in heterophils of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria). the concentration of malonaldehyde (mda) as an index of induced oxidative damage to lipid membra ...199910487532
estimates of circulation and gait change based on a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of flight in cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus) and ringed turtle-doves (streptopelia risoria).birds and bats are known to employ two different gaits in flapping flight, a vortex-ring gait in slow flight and a continuous-vortex gait in fast flight. we studied the use of these gaits over a wide range of speeds (1-17 ms(-1)) and transitions between gaits in cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus) and ringed turtle-doves (streptopelia risoria) trained to fly in a recently built, variable-speed wind tunnel. gait use was investigated via a combination of three-dimensional kinematics and quasi-stead ...200211976351
trichomonosis in free-ranging eurasian collared doves (streptopelia decaocto) and african collared dove hybrids (streptopelia risoria) in the caribbean and description of its-1 region genotypes.we report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of eurasian collared doves (streptopelia decaocto) and african collared dove hybrids (streptopelia risoria) in the caribbean. in total, 18 birds were examined, including six african collared dove x eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 eurasian collared doves. the affected age class consisted of adults. sex distribution was equal. with a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for t ...201222856210
melatonin and aging: in vitro effect of young and mature ring dove physiological concentrations of melatonin on the phagocytic function of heterophils from old ring dove.we have studied the circadian rhythm of melatonin in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) for different age groups: young (1-1.5 years), mature (3-4 years) and old animals (>8 years). melatonin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. results showed a significant decline in plasma melatonin levels in old animals when compared with the concentrations observed in the other two age groups, in which maximum (nocturnal) concentrations were 300 pg/ml and minimum (diurnal) concentrations were 50 pg/ ...200211772529
aromatase inhibition abolishes courtship behaviours in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) and reduces androgen and progesterone receptors in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland.the aim of this study was to determine in the ring dove, the effects of aromatase inhibition on the expression of aggressive courtship and nest-soliciting behaviours in relation to the distribution of cells containing immunoreactive androgen (ar) and progesterone (pr) receptor in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. isolated sexually experienced ring doves were transferred in opposite sex pairs to individual breeding cages, and then injected with the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (four males a ...200516132701
inhibitory effects of anti-prolactin receptor antibodies on prolactin binding in brain and prolactin-induced feeding behavior in ring doves.although binding sites for prolactin (prl) have been mapped and partially characterized in the brains of several species, there is as yet no direct evidence that the effects of intracranial prl on brain function are receptor-mediated events. we addressed this question by testing whether antibodies generated against rat liver prl receptors can effectively antagonize the ability of prl to enhance feeding behavior in male ring doves (streptopelia risoria). both agents were administered directly to ...19957753332
opposite effects of tryptophan intake on motor activity in ring doves (diurnal) and rats (nocturnal).the role of l-tryptophan as precursor of serotonin and melatonin synthesis on activity-rest rhythm was studied in ring doves, streptopelia risoria, as a representative of diurnal animals and rats, rattus norvegicus, as a typical nocturnal one. the animals were housed in cages equipped for horizontal activity recording in a thermostatized chamber and submitted to a 12/12h light/dark photoperiod (lights on at 08:00 h). after acclimatization, the animals received vehicle (methylcellulose) and l-try ...200616626987
transient aphagia produced following bilateral destruction of the lateral hypothalamic area and quinto-frontal tract of chicks.six groups of broiler chicks, gallus domesticus, sustained bilateral lesions to specific neural structures residing in the lateral hypothalamic and thalamic areas. in contrast to past data reported for the albino rat, the pigeon, columba livia and barbary dove, streptopelia risoria, bilateral destruction of the chick lateral hypothalamic area (lhy), quinto-frontal tract (qf), and stratum cellulare externum (sce) resulted in transient aphagia and rapid recovery of lost body weight. similarly, bil ...19827079336
seasonal changes in concentrations of plasma hormones in the male ring dove (streptopelia risoria).seasonal changes in concentrations of plasma lh, prolactin, thyroxine (t4), gh and corticosterone were measured in captive male ring doves exposed to natural lighting at latitude 56 degrees n. plasma lh levels decreased steeply in autumn when the daylength fell below about 12.5 h but increased in november as the birds became short-day refractory. in comparison with plasma lh concentrations in a group of short-day refractory birds exposed to 6 h light/day from the winter solstice, plasma lh level ...19863701232
properties of hepatic binding sites for prolactin in ring doves (streptopelia risoria).specific binding of 125i-labeled ovine prolactin (125i-oprl) was detected in crude membrane fractions prepared from ring dove (streptopelia risoria) liver homogenates. in characterization studies, specific binding was found to depend upon ph, incubation time, incubation temperature, and membrane protein concentration. competitive inhibition of specifically bound 125i-oprl was observed with human growth hormone, human and rat prolactin, and dove pituitary extract but not with turkey prolactin, hu ...19846088358
localization of progesterone receptor in brain and pituitary of the ring dove: influence of breeding cycle and immunocytochemical method was used in male and female ring doves (streptopelia risoria) to localize progesterone receptor immunoreactivity (pr-ir) in the brain and anterior pituitary gland in nonbreeding, incubating, brooding, and estrogen (e2)-treated nonbreeding birds. progesterone receptor was found in four regions of the brain in males and females: the preoptic area (poa), nucleus preopticus paraventricularis magnocellularis (ppm), nucleus hypothalami lateralis (plh), and the tuberal regi ...19979367718
turtle-dove ovomucoid, a glycoprotein proteinase inhibitor with p1-blood-group antigen activity.ovomucoid from the egg white of turtle-dove (streptopelia risoria) was purified and shown to be a glycoprotein of mol. wt. 29 400, with valine as n-terminal residue. it is an inhibitor of both trypsin and chymotrypsin, but has a lower affinity for trypsin than has hen ovomucoid. turtle-dove ovomucoid contains antigenic activity cross-reacting with the blood-group-p1 antigen of human erythrocytes. hen ovomucoid has no detectable blood group-p1 activity. the carbohydrate composition of turtle-dove ...1979435257
role of gonadotrophin releasing hormones in the reproductive behaviour of female ring doves (streptopelia risoria).this work was carried out to determine whether gonadotrophin releasing hormone(s) (gnrh) plays a role in the courtship behaviour of female ring doves. in particular, it tests the hypothesis that a high dose of oestrogen suppresses the synergistic action of gnrh with oestrogen which is required to elicit courtship behaviour. the hypothesis was formulated to provide an explanation for a finding in a previous study that ovariectomized ring doves treated with a high dose of oestrogen, paradoxically, ...1977406345
assessment of the potential role of tryptophan as the precursor of serotonin and melatonin for the aged sleep-wake cycle and immune function: streptopelia risoria as a the present review we summarize the relationship between the amino acid, tryptophan, the neurotransmitter, serotonin, and the indole, melatonin, with the rhythms of sleep/wake and the immune response along with the possible connections between the alterations in these rhythms due to aging and the so-called "serotonin and melatonin deficiency state." the decrease associated with aging of the brain and circulating levels of serotonin and melatonin seemingly contributes to the alterations of bot ...200922084580
attempts at infecting ringed turtle doves with virulent trichomonas gallinae.twenty trichomonas -free ringed turtle doves ( streptopelia risoria ) were inoculated per os with the highly virulent jones' barn strain of trichomonas gallinae . none became infected. three f1 females housed together were similarly inoculated with this strain and remained trichomonas -positive for upwards of 182 days. they showed no disease and eventually lost their infections. these three positive females "mated" and laid several six-egg sets in a communal nest. at successive nestings they wer ...197724228964
further search for interaction antigens on erythrocytes in selected species hybrids of birds.replicated blood typing reagents were made to detect an interaction antigen (hybrid substance) on the red cells of several species hybrids of birds. reagents against pigeon x ringneck dove hybrids are compared with other reagents made in an effort to find a similar interaction in the chicken x guinea fowl hybrid and in the ringneck x mourning dove hybrid. mallard x muscovy hybrids also were tested for their reported red cell interaction product. both rabbits and parental types were injected with ...19863737514
comparative thyroid function in adult japanese quail and ring doves: influence of dietary iodine availability.thyroid function was studied in japanese quail, coturnix japonica, and ring doves, streptopelia risoria, when both were fed the same dietary iodine (i; 930 micrograms i/kg). we also compared thyroid function in groups of doves receiving low i (less than 100 micrograms i/kg) or moderate i (930 micrograms i/kg). we measured thyroid gland (tg) weight, tg stable i content, tg 125i uptake, and 125i labeling of thyroid hormones. triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4) concentrations in tgs and serum ...19873430122
a correlation of induced mixed-function oxidase specific activity to c-h bond strengths in partially chlorinated monocyclic hydrocarbons.the nature of structure-function relationships between the mixed-function oxidase (mfo) system and certain chemically related xenobiotics has been studied. the total hepatic induction index has been modified and used to investigate whether the induction of hepatic mfo is primarily a response to molecular shape (entropic) or to the strength of specific carbon-hydrogen bond strength (enthalpic). using both sprague-dawley male rats and ring doves (streptopelia risoria) and testing with benzene, 1,2 ...19862420856
a new model for sexual conditioning: the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).sexual conditioning investigations have primarily used rats and domestic quail as subjects. although much has been learned from such experiments, the relative simplicity of rat and quail reproductive behavior prohibits investigation of certain experimental questions about sexual conditioning. in contrast, the reproductive behavior of male and female ring doves (streptopelia risoria) is complex, involving courtship, bonding, and parental care. in the present experiment, male ring doves that were ...200515740435
effect of melatonin and tryptophan on humoral immunity in young and old ringdoves (streptopelia risoria).melatonin is involved in the regulation of both cellular and humoral immunity. in the present study we have evaluated the effect of the oral administration of melatonin and its precursor, the amino acid tryptophan, on humoral immune response in ringdoves (streptopelia risoria) from different age groups. male and female ringdoves of 4-5years of age (young) and 12-14years of age (old) were used in this study. the animals received a single capsule of 300mg/kg b.w. of tryptophan (old animals) for 3 ...200919632315
syringeal muscles fit the trill in ring doves (streptopelia risoria l.).in contrast to human phonation, the virtuoso vocalizations of most birds are modulated at the level of the sound generator, the syrinx. we address the hypothesis that syringeal muscles are physiologically capable of controlling the sound-generating syringeal membranes in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) syrinx. we establish the role of the tracheolateralis muscle and propose a new function for the sternotrachealis muscle. the tracheolateralis and sternotrachealis muscles have an antagonistic ...200616481585
patterns of fos-like immunoreactivity in the brains of parent ring doves (streptopelia risoria) given tactile and nontactile exposure to their young.neuronal activation was examined by fos immunohistochemistry in ring doves (streptopelia risoria) reunited with their young after overnight separation. in an initial study, squab-exposed parents showed more fos immunoreactivity (ir) in the preoptic area (poa) and lateral hypothalamus (lh) than squab-deprived parents. in a 2nd study, parents allowed free access to young and those separated from young by a wire mesh partition showed more fos-ir in the poa, lh, and lateral septum than box-exposed c ...200616768617
characteristics of prolactin binding sites in the brain of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).radiolabeled ovine prolactin ([125i]oprl) was found to bind specifically to crude membrane fractions prepared from ring dove brain homogenates. specific binding changed with incubation time and temperature but did not fluctuate systematically with ph. specific binding levels were highest in hypothalamus and forebrain and were lowest in cerebellum and brain stem. a linear increase in specific binding was observed in pooled midbrain and forebrain membrane fractions as membrane protein concentratio ...19873817448
gastrointestinal parasites of exotic birds living in captivity in the state of sergipe, northeastern brazil.brazil has a wide diversity of exotic birds that were brought to this country during the european colonization. these animals are kept in captivity and, in some cases, in inadequate facilities, which may facilitate the introduction of pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites. the purpose of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that affect exotic birds living in captivity in the state of sergipe, northeastern brazil. fecal samples (n = 362) from exotic birds were ...201727925071
neuropeptide-y: a possible mediator of prolactin-induced feeding and regulator of energy balance in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).although neuropeptide-y (npy) has been widely reported to be a potent stimulator of feeding activity and regulator of energy homeostasis, most of the supportive evidence for such effects has been gathered in mammalian species. this study characterized the orexigenic potency of npy in an avian species, the ring dove, and measured changes in hypothalamic npy-immunoreactive (npy-ir) cell numbers in response to energy state fluctuations or intracranial administration of the potent orexigenic hormone ...200111264727
effect of stress and dexamethasone treatment on circadian rhythms of melatonin and corticosterone in ring dove (streptopelia risoria).the possible relationship between the circadian rhythm of blood levels of melatonin and corticosterone in ring dove (streptopelia risoria) subjected to both immobilization stress and immobilization stress plus dexamethasone treatment were studied. the results show changes in the circadian rhythm of melatonin, with increased daytime levels in situations of stress accompanied by increased corticosterone levels. the highest blood melatonin levels over the 24 h of the study were obtained when the an ...200212030377
mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulation in ring dove song.birdsong assumes its complex and specific forms by the modulation of phonation in frequency and time domains. the organization of control mechanisms and intrinsic properties causing such modulation have been studied in songbirds but much less so in non-songbirds, the songs of which are often regarded as relatively simple. we examined mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulation of phonation in ring doves streptopelia risoria, which are non-songbirds. spontaneous coo vocalizations were record ...200312728005
glucocorticoids and parental hyperphagia in ring doves (streptopelia risoria).these studies explored the possibility that glucocorticoids promote parental care in ring doves by mediating, at least in part, the pronounced increase in food consumption that parent doves exhibit while provisioning their young. plasma concentrations of the endogenous glucocorticoid corticosterone were found to be significantly higher in breeding females during the posthatching phase than during the incubation period. these differences were not observed in male breeding partners, but sex differ ...200211863379
correlation between the circadian rhythm of melatonin, phagocytosis, and superoxide anion levels in ring dove heterophils.a functional role for melatonin is its relationship to circadian timing mechanisms. in addition, there has recently been assumed to be a functional connection between the pineal gland and the immune system in mammals and birds, with some findings showing melatonin to be a free radical scavenger and general antioxidant. the present study investigates the possible relationship between the circadian rhythm of melatonin and the ingestion capacity as well as superoxide anion levels of ring dove (stre ...199910102758
osteosarcoma of the tibiotarsus with possible pulmonary metastasis in a ring-necked dove (streptopelia risoria).an unknown-age, adult female ring-necked dove (streptopelia risoria) was presented with an ulcerated mass on the medial side of the right tibiotarsus. radiographs revealed severe boney lysis with proliferative periosteal reaction. surgical amputation was performed at the level of the mid femur and histopathologic examination of the mass identified an osteosarcoma. at the 6-month recheck, the bird was in good condition with no evidence of tumor regrowth or metastasis; however, at 8 months, the do ...201424881154
[immunological relations between streptopelia turtur, streptopelia risoria and streptopelia decaocto]. 195713499709
melatonin controls superoxide anion level: modulation of superoxide dismutase activity in ring dove heterophils.the pineal gland and the immune system in mammals and birds are functionally connected, with some recent findings showing that melatonin, the major secretory product of the pineal gland in vertebrates, is a free-radical scavenger and general antioxidant. in birds, heterophils, with their ability to ingest and kill different antigens, play a central role in the host defense mechanism. this in vitro study investigated the possible antioxidant action of melatonin in heterophils isolated from adult ...19989468113
systemic inflammatory load in young and old ringdoves is modulated by consumption of a jerte valley cherry-based product.a chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a jerte valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a jerte valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both you ...201222846077
melatonin and tryptophan counteract lipid peroxidation and modulate superoxide dismutase activity in ringdove heterophils in vivo. effect of antigen-induced activation and age.aging is associated with an increased production of free radicals and alterations in the mechanisms of adaptation to stress. a number of studies have shown a causal connection between age-related oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and the diminution of an organism's melatonin levels in old age. restoration of this rhythm may contribute to the re-stabilization of cellular homeostasis. the present work was aimed at examining the effect of the administration of melatonin or its precursor, the amino acid ...200919590980
effect of prolactin, in vivo and in vitro, upon heterophil phagocytic function in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolactin, both in vitro and in vivo, upon heterophil phagocytic activity of the ring dove, streptopelia risoria. in vitro incubation of heterophils with either 0.1 or 100 micrograms/ml of ovine prolactin for 2 h-significantly increased both latex bead phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium (nbt) reduction, an index of phagocytic metabolic activity. ring doves given antigen demonstrated an increase in latex bead phagocytosis and nbt red ...20069040987
melatonin and tryptophan as therapeutic agents against the impairment of the sleep-wake cycle and immunosenescence due to aging in streptopelia risoria.all organisms present circadian rhythm in most of their physiological functions, and among them there stand out sleep, motor activity, immune function, the secretion of melatonin, and the production and release of numerous neurotransmitters, in particular of serotonin because of its relationship with the aforementioned factors. aging changes these rhythms, altering sleep quality and contributing to immunosenescence. treatment with exogenously administered melatonin or tryptophan may restore thes ...200718063930
biomechanics and control of vocalization in a non-songbird.the neuromuscular control of vocalization in birds requires complicated and precisely coordinated motor control of the vocal organ (i.e. the syrinx), the respiratory system and upper vocal tract. the biomechanics of the syrinx is very complex and not well understood. in this paper, we aim to unravel the contribution of different control parameters in the coo of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) at the syrinx level. we designed and implemented a quantitative biomechanical syrinx model that is ...200817999946
[14c]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the brain of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria). ii. differential uptake at the onset of incubation.brain areas involved in the expression of incubation behaviour were identified in male ring dove at the onset of incubation using quantitative [14c]2-deoxyglucose (2dg) autoradiography. the uptake of 2dg in twenty-eight areas found in the hypothalamus and thalamus, and six areas in the forebrain were compared in control non-breeding and incubating birds. although 2dg utilisation varied significantly between brain areas, significant differences between non-breeding males and incubating males were ...19958624704
tryptophan modulates cell viability, phagocytosis and oxidative metabolism in old ringdoves.the decrease of melatonin with age contributes to immunosenescence. its restoration via tryptophan may have immuno-enhancing effects. therefore, we determined the effect of tryptophan administration on circulating serotonin, melatonin, cell viability, phagocytic function and levels of free radical generation of blood heterophils from old ringdoves (streptopelia risoria), aged 11-13 years. the animals received a single oral capsule of l-tryptophan 1 hr after the onset of the light period. the try ...200717577317
effect of exogenous melatonin on viability, ingestion capacity, and free-radical scavenging in heterophils from young and old ringdoves (streptopelia risoria).the decrease of melatonin production with aging contributes to the decline in immune function as organisms age. treatment with the exogenously administered indoleamine restores the reduced immunological functions. therefore, we investigated the effect of melatonin on viability, phagocyte ingestion capacity, and free radical generation levels of heterophils from young and old ringdove (streptopelia risoria) aged 3-4 and 11-13 years, respectively. animals received a single oral dose of melatonin 1 ...200717557194
brood size affects behavior, interclutch interval, lh levels, and weight in ring dove (streptopelia risoria) breeding pairs.this study examines the effects of experimental manipulation of brood size (one or two squabs) on the behavior, interclutch interval, plasma lh concentrations, and weights of ring dove parents. twelve dove pairs were observed, sampled, and weighed over a cycle with one and a cycle with two squabs. before hatch, no parameter showed any difference between pairs which would subsequently have one or have two squabs. after hatch, males and females having one squab fed less, while males showed more pe ...19938294121
androgen receptor immunolocalization in brains of courting and brooding male and female ring doves (streptopelia risoria).nuclear androgen receptors (ars) were localized immunocytochemically in the brains of courting and brooding male and female ring doves (streptopelia risoria). ar immunoreactivity (ar-ir) in courting birds was localized in cell nuclei in the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. in the anterior hypothalamus, high density of ar-ir was concentrated in several nuclei including the nucleus lateralis hypothalami, nucleus periventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus preopticus anterior, nucleus ...200111703083
orally administered melatonin improves nocturnal rest in young and old ringdoves (streptopelia risoria).melatonin possesses chronobiotic properties, which affects sleep/wake rhythms. we investigated a 7-day administration of melatonin (0.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg body weight) on the activity/rest rhythms of a diurnal animal (the ringdove, streptopelia risoria), aged 2-3 (young) and 10-12 (old) years, and its possible relationship with the serum levels of melatonin and serotonin. total nocturnal and diurnal activity pulses were logged at basal, during, and up to 7 days after the treatments. the animals r ...200717371530
iris stromal pigment cells of the ringed turtle dove.irides from adult ringed turtle doves (streptopelia risoria) were examined using both light and electron microscopy. the anterior surface of the iris stroma contained numerous large venous sinuses overlying bright yellow pigment cells which we classified as "reflecting xanthophores." the pigment cells were filled with irregularly arranged yellow reflecting crystals and occasional pterinosome-like structures. the irides were extracted in naoh and the extracted pigments analyzed using paper chroma ...19902101932
metallothionein production: similar responsiveness of avian liver and kidney to chronic cadmium administration.the accumulation of hepatic and renal cd, zn, cu, and metallothionein (mt) was investigated in ringed turtle doves (streptopelia risoria) chronically exposed to 3 different concentrations of dietary cd. when only tissue-cd was considered as an inducer of mt, kidney was found to be 35% as responsive as liver in producing mt. however, when all potentially relevant inducing metals (cd + zn + cu) were taken into account, kidney was found to be 85% as responsive as liver. the greater production of mt ...20132315938
comparative study of the activity/rest rhythms in young and old ringdove (streptopelia risoria): correlation with serum levels of melatonin and serotonin.aging is characterized by changes in the circadian rhythms of melatonin, serotonin, and sleep/wakefulness, alterations that affect sleep quality. the authors studied the circadian rhythms of serotonin and melatonin in young and old ringdoves (streptopelia risoria) (2-3 and 10-12 yrs old, respectively), animals that are characterized by being monophasic and active by day, like humans. the aim was to correlate the indole rhythms with the animals' activity/rest periods. the animals were kept under ...200616887748
melatonin, lipid peroxidation, and age in heterophils from the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).numerous recent studies have shown the ability of physiological as well as all pharmacological concentrations of melatonin to prevent oxidative stress. we have found that incubating avian heterophils from young birds with a pharmacological concentration of 100 microm (23x10(6) pg/ml) melatonin reduced superoxide anion levels by modulating the activity of superoxide dismutase while also enhancing phagocytosis. there was also a decline in lipid peroxidation levels with both physiological and pharm ...200516036339
neuronal activation related to auditory perception in the brain of a non-songbird, the ring songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, which need to learn their songs, exposure to conspecific song leads to increased expression of the immediate early gene (ieg) zenk in a number of forebrain regions, including the caudomedial nidopallium (ncm) and the caudomedial mesopallium (cmm). here we investigated the pattern of ieg expression in response to auditory stimulation in the brain of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria), a non-songbird that does not need to learn its vocalizations. ring dov ...200515952168
oral administration of melatonin to old ring doves (streptopelia risoria) increases plasma levels of melatonin and heterophil phagocytic activity.we analyzed the effect of oral melatonin (23 microg/0.1 ml/animal/d; 1 h before dark on 12 consecutive days) in old birds, in natural photoperiods, on the hormone's plasma levels, and phagocytosis. blood collections were performed daily at 2:00 am and 4:00 pm until 5 days after the treatment. from day 1, the melatonin levels were significantly higher than basal levels at both times. values at 2:00 am were significantly higher than the 4:00 pm values. after treatment, the melatonin levels decline ...200515741282
vocal tract filtering and the "coo" of doves.ring doves (streptopelia risoria) produce a "coo" vocalization that is essentially a pure-tone sound at a frequency of about 600 hz and with a duration of about 1.5 s. while making this vocalization, the dove inflates the upper part of its esophagus to form a thin-walled sac structure that radiates sound to the surroundings. it is a reasonable assumption that the combined influence of the trachea, glottis and inflated upper esophagus acts as an effective band-pass filter to eliminate higher harm ...200415658725
changes in central steroid receptor expression, steroid synthesis, and dopaminergic activity related to the reproductive cycle of the ring dove.this review examines possible neural mechanisms involved in the expression of parental behavior in the ring dove, streptopelia risoria. this avian species has proved an excellent animal model for studies concerning endocrine-behavior interactions for many years. studies were performed to localize the expression of central androgen and progesterone receptor in both sexes. expression of androgen receptor (androgen receptor immunoreactivity, ar-ir) was widespread but increased, similarly in both se ...200111596146
temporal specificity of extinction in autoshaping.three experiments investigated the effects of varying the conditioned stimulus (cs) duration between training and extinction. ring doves (streptopelia risoria) were autoshaped on a fixed cs-unconditioned stimulus (us) interval and extinguished with cs presentations that were longer, shorter, or the same as the training duration. during a subsequent test session, the training cs duration was reintroduced. results suggest that the cessation of responding during an extinction session is controlled ...200415279508
changes in agouti-related peptide during the ring dove breeding cycle in relation to prolactin and parental hyperphagia.ring doves (streptopelia risoria) exhibit marked increases in food consumption and decreases in body weight when they are provisioning their young. this study examined changes in hypothalamic immunostaining for agouti-related peptide (agrp), an endogenous melanocortin receptor antagonist and appetite stimulant, during the ring dove breeding cycle. because prolactin is orexigenic in doves, and is elevated in blood at the onset of parental hyperphagia, we also explored the possibility that prolact ...200314622434
breeding experience modulating androgen dependent courtship behavior in male ring doves (streptopelia risoria).courtship behavior of reproductively experienced males was compared with that of age-matched inexperienced males before and after castration and during treatments with hormones (testosterone propionate and estradiol benzoate). inexperienced males displayed significantly lower levels of nest-oriented courtship, the nest-cooing (nest-soliciting) and wingflippings; however, agonistic courtship, the bow-cooing, was not affected by breeding experience. the lower level of nest-cooing display in the in ...19863714833
changes in aromatase activity in the brain of the male ring dove (streptopelia risoria) during the breeding cycle.aromatase activity was measured in striatal and hypothalamic regions of the brain of the male ring dove throughout its breeding cycle. the enzyme activity in the anterior hypothalamus and hyperstriatum was significantly reduced in broody birds. a reduction in plasma lh and the number of spermatogonia per tubule cross-section were also observed at this time. the results support the view that testosterone is involved in the control of aromatase activity in the anterior hypothalamus and hyperstriat ...19862870862
contribution of nesting experience to progesterone-induced incubation in ring doves (streptopelia risoria).injections of progesterone induce incubation behavior in gonadally intact ring doves only if the doves have had previous experience with at least the nest-building phase of a breeding cycle. the present study was designed to determine whether exposure to progesterone during the nest-building phase is sufficient to account for the ability of progesterone to induce incubation at a later time or whether some other factor provided by experience with this phase of the cycle is needed. six groups of 1 ...19854042614
aromatase inhibition reduces specifically one display of the ring dove courtship behavior.the courtship behavior of the male ring dove (streptopelia risoria) combines aggressive displays (chasing, bowing) and nest-oriented displays (nest soliciting). aggressive displays depend on circulating testosterone, whereas nest soliciting is estrogen-dependent and appears to depend on the aromatization of androgen into estrogen within the brain. the present work tested the hypothesis that aromatase specifically modulates the nest soliciting display in intact male ring doves. males were tested ...200111352550
quantifying maternal and dietary sources of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl deposited in eggs of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).the influence of maternal versus dietary sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) deposited to eggs of ring doves (streptopelia risoria) was investigated. mature birds that lay a clutch of two eggs every 12 to 15 d were fed a diet of pellets spiked with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexacholorobiphenyl (unlabelled isotope designated as [12c]pcb153) for 25 d. the birds were subsequently switched to a diet containing isotopically labeled [u-13c12]pcb153 at similar concentrations for an additional 63 d. the to ...200111349857
motivational influences underlying prolactin-induced feeding in doves (streptopelia risoria).prolactin (prl) increases food consumption in ring doves (streptopelia risoria) and may promote the hyperphagia exhibited by parent doves when provisioning young. these experiments tested whether prl also enhances appetitive aspects of feeding behavior. prl elevated pecking rates in food-restricted doves on a variable-interval (vi) reinforcement schedule and supported continued responding when doves were returned to ad-lib feeding. prl-treated doves learned the key-pecking response when food int ...200011085611
season-related changes in circulating androgen, brain aromatase, and perch-calling in male ring doves.the perch-call of ring doves (streptopelia risoria) is related to territorial defence and mate attraction. perch-calls are sexually dimorphic and individually different in structure. the expression of perch-call is androgen-dependent and is controlled by the action of testosterone on the preoptic-hypothalamic areas. however, it is not known whether the acoustic features of the call vary with the reproductive condition. we studied plasma androgen levels, brain steroid metabolism, and perch-callin ...200312568791
the role of the melanocortin system and the melanocortin-4 receptor in ring dove (streptopelia risoria) feeding behavior.the melanocortin-4 receptor (mc4-r) is an important mediator of the effects of two melanocortin system ligands, alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-msh) and agouti-related peptide (agrp), on feeding behavior and energy balance in mammals. although an avian homologue of the mammalian mc4-r has recently been identified, there is little information on the role of this receptor and the melanocortin system in avian feeding and body weight regulation. in these studies, we measured changes in f ...200312505663
toxicity of anticholinesterase insecticides to birds: technical grade versus granular formulations.the acute toxicities of 13 granular anticholinesterase insecticides were compared with their technical grade active ingredients by administering single oral doses of chemical to adult northern bobwhites (colinus virginianus) and evaluating resultant ld50 values and dose-response curves. similar tests with ringed turtledoves (streptopelia risoria) were conducted with five of the granular formulations to check for interspecific differences. the test chemicals were amaze 15g (isofenphos), counter 1 ...19846510327
Diets enriched with a Jerte Valley cherry-based nutraceutical product reinforce nocturnal behaviour in young and old animals of nocturnal (Rattus norvegicus) and diurnal (Streptopelia risoria) chronotypes.The decline in melatonin secretion with age seems to be one of the major reasons for increased sleep disruption in older animals. Previously, we showed that the administration with melatonin or its precursor, tryptophan, improved activity/rest rhythms in aged individuals. Here, it was evaluated the effect of a 10-day consumption of a Jerte Valley cherry-based nutraceutical product (patent no. ES2342141B1), which contains high levels of tryptophan, serotonin and melatonin, on the activity/rest rh ...201122074327
changes in hypothalamic responsiveness to testosterone in male barbary doves (streptopelia risoria). 20164887719
convergent evolution of head crests in two domesticated columbids is associated with different missense mutations in ephb2.head crests are important display structures in wild bird species and are also common in domesticated lineages. many breeds of domestic rock pigeon (columba livia) have crests of reversed occipital feathers, and this recessive trait is associated with a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of ephb2 (ephrin receptor b2). the domestic ringneck dove (streptopelia risoria) also has a recessive crested morph with reversed occipital feathers, and interspecific crosses betwe ...201526104009
nucleus taenia of the amygdala of birds: anatomical and functional studies in ring doves (streptopelia risoria) and european starlings (sturnus vulgaris).nucleus taenia (tn) in birds is a discrete component of a loosely defined archistriatal structure, the posterior and medial archistriatum. by virtue of its hypothalamic projections, the posterior and medial archistriatum is thought to be an avian homolog of the amygdala in mammals. a recent fluorogold (fg) study of avian hippocampus revealed backfilled labels in nucleus tn, suggesting that this nucleus may indeed be the homolog of mammalian amygdala. in the present study, we sought to characteri ...200710473902
the roles of stimuli from young, previous breeding experience, and prolactin in regulating parental behavior in ring doves (streptopelia risoria).in addition to stimulating crop "milk" formation in ring doves, prolactin (prl) may promote the parental regurgitation behavior that transfers this "milk" to the young at the time of hatching. although earlier studies suggest that previous breeding experience is an important modulator of prl-induced parental regurgitation behavior in ring doves, the ways in which experience, hormones, and stimuli from young interact to promote parental behavior have not been well characterized in this species. i ...199910373336
the studies on neurogenesis induced by brain injury in adult ring was the first time demonstrated by us that the number of newborn neurons was increased after making lesion in forebrain of adult ring dove (streptopelia risoria) by means of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. neurogenesis in the adult avian is restricted to the telencephalon. in doves with bilateral electrolytic lesion of nucleus ectostriatum (e), the mean number of proliferating cells in the lateral ventricular zone (lvz) and newborn neurons in the forebrain increased by 1.95 times an ...19989669030
organization of quinto-frontal structures in hatchling ring doves (streptopelia risoria).transganglionic and retrograde tracing procedures were applied to peripheral and central trigeminal structures in hatchling ring doves. the organization of the trigeminal ganglion, its somatotopic projections upon the principal sensory nucleus (prv), and the projections of prv upon the telencephalon are similar in adult and hatchling columbiformes. the results suggest that development of feeding patterns in these species involves experiential differentiation of trigeminal sensorimotor circuits p ...19989555091
does father know best? social learning from kin and non-kin in juvenile ringdoves.parent-offspring transmission is usually thought to be the major route for cultural learning. we tested this assumption in ringdoves (streptopelia risoria), a flock feeding columbid that is easily raised in captivity. an aviary study first determined the foraging associations of juveniles placed with their sibling, their parents and a pair of non-kin adults. juveniles foraged more often with kin than with non-kin and joined food discoveries in proportion to these foraging associations; aggressio ...199724896374
melatonin and the phagocytic process of heterophils from the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).a functional connection between the pineal gland and the immune system in mammals and birds has been established. this study investigates the effect of melatonin upon the non-specific immunity of heterophils isolated from the ring dove. the different stages of the phagocytic process: adherence to nylon fiber, spontaneous and induced mobility, ingestion of latex beads and digestion were evaluated for heterophils incubated in the presence of 5, 25, 50, 75, or 100 microm of melatonin. in addition, ...19979062908
[the effect of lesion of nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami on neurogenesis in adult ring doves].in the present study the effects of lesion hypothalami ventromedialis nucleus (vmn) of ring dove (streptopelia risoria) on neurogenesis regarding the lesion-induced change of distribution of proliferating cells in the lateral ventricular zone (lvz) and new neurons in the non-ventricular zone (vz) were studied by using [3h] thymidine-autoradiographic and immunohistochemistry methods. the results showed that such lesion not only induced significant increase of neurogenesis in telencephalon (up to ...19969389182
expression of fos-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) at the onset of incubation.fos immunocytochemistry was used in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria) to identify areas in the forebrain and hypothalamus which might be involved in the expression of incubation behaviour and the associated changes in neuroendocrine function. in this species, both sexes participate in incubation which becomes fully established after laying the second egg in the two egg clutch. the eggs hatch after 14-15 days incubation. observations were made in both sexes 16-18 h after laying the first egg, ...19968861285
[14c]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the brain of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria). i. prolactin-induced uptake.quantitative [14c]2-deoxyglucose (2dg) autoradiography was used to identify areas of the ring dove brain involved in the expression of incubation behavior. compared with non-breeding controls, 2dg uptake was increased in birds of both sexes during late incubation in all areas of the fore, mid- and hind-brain examined. this increase occurred irrespective of whether the birds were sitting on their eggs at the time of 2dg administration. a similar pattern of 2dg uptake into the brain was observed i ...19958624702
systematic changes in gaping during the ontogeny of pecking in ring doves (streptopelia risoria).food pecking in the ring dove is a skilled prehensile response that is similar to, but simpler than, many other prehensile responses. previous work has shown that this response is initially poorly executed and requires experience for its accurate direction and coordination. the response involves two components: the thrusting of the bird's head toward food, and the opening and closure of the beak around food. here, this second component, called gape, is followed through development with a precise ...19957796975
auditory-responsive units in the midbrain vocal nuclei in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).the avian midbrain vocal control nucleus, n. intercollicularis (ico), receives inputs from midbrain auditory nucleus and from a subdivision of auditory thalamus, suggesting a possibility of auditory response units in the ico. using single-unit recordings, we explored auditory response units throughout the dorsomedial midbrain of female ring doves under deep general anesthesia (acute preparation). we found exclusively in the ico, units that responded preferentially to taped courtship coos of cons ...19938457918
effet de la familiarisation avec l'environnement sur le comportement de vigilance de la tourterelle rieuse streptopelia experiment on food-deprived barbary doves streptopelia risoria shows that in a novel environment the subjects give priority to vigilant behaviour over foraging. the trade-off between vigilance and foraging is reversed when the subjects have been familiarized with their environment. vigilance bouts are long and foraging bouts short in a novel environment, whereas the reverse is true in a familiar environment. these results, together with those of a previous study of the head movements of barba ...199124896939
concentrations of plasma prolactin and luteinizing hormone following nest deprivation and renesting in ring doves (streptopelia risoria).ring doves with increased plasma prolactin and low plasma lh (group a) or with low plasma prolactin and low plasma lh (group b) which had been incubating sterile eggs for 12 or 18 days, respectively, had their nests and eggs removed for 3 days. upon nest return, observations were made on the birds' readiness to renest and on changes in plasma prolactin and lh. birds from group a demonstrated a far greater tendency to resume incubation than birds from group b. nest deprivation resulted in a sharp ...19892744743
daily variations in monoamine turnover in the brain of the ring dove (streptopelia risoria).a method for measuring the concentration and turnover of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in small amounts of brain tissue was validated for the ring dove (streptopelia risoria). turnover rates of the catecholamines calculated as the rate of depletion after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition agreed well with turnover rate measured as rate of accumulation after inhibition of monoamine oxidase at 2.5 h, but not 5 h, after drug administration. using the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline, tur ...19872886956
ascending vocalization pathways in the female ring dove: projections of the nucleus intercollicularis.nest-coo (courtship) vocalization is an estrogen-dependent component of a sequence of behaviors leading to egg-laying in the ring dove (streptopelia risoria). implantation of estrogen in the nucleus intercollicularis of ovariectomized females restores the ability to produce nest-coos. lesion of n. intercollicularis specifically disrupts nest-cooing and inhibits follicular development. we used anterograde transport of tritiated leucine to identify regions that receive input from n. intercollicula ...19873792481
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