incrimination of anopheles aconitus donitz as a vector of epidemic malaria in 1989-91, post-monsoon epidemics of vivax malaria occurred in the central flood plain near dhaka. anopheles philippinensis, the usual vector in the paddy field habitat, was not present, but 1.4% of parous an. aconitus were infective. this is only the second time an. aconitus has been incriminated as a vector in bangladesh. we speculate that the surprising increase in lowland malaria may have been caused by environmental change that favored the survival of an. aconitus.19921298093
mosquito survey in tripura.vector survey carried out in tripura revealed the presence of 17 species of anophelines with a density of 92.39 per trap night. major malaria vector encountered was anopheles philippinensis which formed 30% of the total collection and is exophagic in nature. another efficient malaria vector an. minimus which formed 5% of the total collection prevails equally both indoors and outdoors. the high parity rate of an. philippinensis (59%) and an. minimus (63.9%) gives a strong indication about their v ...19911687389
comparative susceptibility of southeast asian anopheles mosquitoes to the simian malaria parasite plasmodium anopheles species/isolates were compared with anopheles dirus (control) for susceptibility to plasmodium cynomolgi b strain. the mean numbers of oocysts in paired replicates of an. dirus and an. takasagoensis were not significantly different. the remaining test species had significantly fewer mean numbers of oocysts than anopheles dirus (p less than 0.01). anopheles dirus had the highest percentage of mosquitoes infected with p. cynomolgi sporozoites (82%). of the test groups, anopheles di ...19911791460
the ecology of malaria carrying mosquito anopheles philippinensis ludlow and its relation to malaria in bangladesh. 19873454635
ddt--susceptibility status of anopheles philippinensis--a mosquito vector of malaria in bangladesh.ddt-susceptibility tests conducted on an. philippinensis ludlow in 1979 and 1980 and several previous years of observations made during malaria programmes in different areas of bangladesh have been reported. the lc50 value for 1980 was found to be 0.74% ddt showing 2.96 and 1.85 fold increase of tolerance level from 1961 (0.25%) and 1976 (0.4%) respectively. the tests showed that the species continues to be susceptible to ddt in bangladesh. however, the changes in lc50 over the years may indicat ...19854026758
anopheles philippinensis, a new host record of coelomomyces sp. in perlis. 19654221432
two forms of anopheles philippinensis in malaya. 19676052125
present perspectives of malaria transmission in boko area of assam.a longitudinal study on malaria transmission was conducted from january 1984 to december 1988 in three villages in boko phc of assam, where indoor residual ddt spray was withdrawn during the period of study. anopheline fauna comprising of 19 species was identified and their seasonal density estimated. anopheles philippinensis was the predominant species followed by an. minimus. the principal role of an. minimus in the transmission of malaria and predilection for indoor resting in this area was c ...19938014435
larval habitat of anopheles philippinensis: a vector of malaria in bangladesh.this article reviews the various types of larval habitat of the malaria vector anopheles philippinensis ludlow in bangladesh and characterizes its breeding ecology. discussed also are the possible implications of the environmental changes on its breeding habitats resulting from intensified land use brought about by population increase and developments in irrigation and water resources.19968823969
cytotaxonomic evidence for the presence of anopheles nivipes in india.anopheles philippinensis mosquitoes were collected from 5 states in india: assam, meghalaya, arunachal pradesh, manipur, and nagaland. half-gravid females were examined for variations in wing venation using the presector dark mark on vein i and polytene chromosomes derived from ovarian nurse cells. polytene chromosomes were examined for diagnostic inversions, t on chromosome arm 2 and i on arm 5. based on wing characteristics, both an. philippinensis and an. nivipes were identified. polytene chr ...200010901629
anthropophily of anophelines in duars of west bengal and other regions of india.attempts have been made to identify the source of blood meals of twenty three anopheline species from various areas of high malaria endemicity in india. anopheles minimus, anopheles fluviatilis and anopheles dirus showed a high propensity for human blood in north-eastern parts of the country while anopheles sundicus was found to be anthropophilic in andaman & nicobar islands. anopheles culicifacies, anopheles maculatus and anopheles philippinensis were found primarily zoophilic in north-eastern ...200011198404
potential of anopheles philippinensis-nivipes complex mosquitoes as malaria vector in north-east india.anopheles philippinensis-nivipes complex mosquitoes, captured in outdoor human landing catches and light traps in human dwellings from four different sites in assam state and adjoining areas, were examined (n=1670) for the presence of circumsporozoite antigen (csa) through enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), using species specific capture monoclonal antibodies, of plasmodium falciparum and two plasmodium vivax polymorphs (pv 210 and vk 247). in elisa, 28 pools were found positive for csa ...200516459563
taxonomical observations on anopheles philippinensis/nivipes group mosquitoes in north-east examine the distribution pattern of anopheles philippinensis and an. nivipes, mosquitoes belonging to an. philippinensis/nivipes group were collected from five sites in north-east indian state of assam and its adjoining areas and identified. presence of both an. philippinensis and an. nivipes, with predominance of the latter taxon, was recorded with conformity on the basis of pupal paddle characteristics. based on adult wing characters, 91.4% specimens were identified as an. philippinensis an ...200416506549
characterization of its2 rdna of anopheles philippinensis and anopheles nivipes (diptera: culicidae) from north-east india.anopheles (cellia) philippinensis ludlow and anopheles (cellia) nivipes (theobald) are two closely related, morphologically very similar, mosquito species in the annularis group, which play a supportive role in malaria transmission in north-east india. we amplified and performed sequence analysis for the internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) locus of ribosomal dna (rdna) gene of morphologically confirmed specimens of these two species from the states of assam and nagaland. an. philippinensis and ...200617333766
distribution of anopheles in vietnam, with particular attention to malaria vectors of the anopheles minimus complex.the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in vietnam was examined, with a particular interest for the two sibling species of the anopheles minimus complex (cellia: myzomyia), an. minimus and anopheles harrisoni, respectively former species a and c. because the morphological identification of both sibling species is difficult and may lead to misidentifications, accurate data on their respective distribution are missing. this is of fundamental importance since the two species seem to exhibit diffe ...200818190697
prevalence of anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of bangladesh.information related to malaria vectors is very limited in bangladesh. in the changing environment and various anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. this study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in bangladesh.201020074326
molecular evidence for the involvement of anopheles nivipes (diptera: culicidae) in the transmission of plasmodium falciparum in north-eastern india.the anopheles philippinensis and an. nivipes mosquitoes that form part of the an. annularis species group are morphologically very similar and difficult to differentiate as adults. in consequence, researchers generally refer to all field-collected individuals of these species simply as the an. philippinensis-nivipes species complex. although this species complex is understood to play a role in the transmission of parasites causing human malaria in north-eastern india, the identity of the exact s ...201020659394
vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central vietnam.malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector anopheles dirus is uncommon. in these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species.201020846447
malaria transmission and vector behaviour in a forested malaria focus in central vietnam and the implications for vector vietnam, malaria is becoming progressively restricted to specific foci where human and vector characteristics alter the known malaria epidemiology, urging for alternative or adapted control strategies. long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (llih) were designed and introduced in ninh thuan province, south-central vietnam, to control malaria in the specific context of forest malaria. an entomological study in this specific forested environment was conducted to assess the behavioural patterns of fo ...201021182774
newly recognized mosquito-associated viruses in mainland china, in the last two decades.there are four principal arboviruses in mainland china. two kinds of them are mosquito-borne viruses, namely japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus, which lead to japanese encephalitis, and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever respectively; the other two are tick-borne viruses, namely tick-borne encephalitis virus and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus), which contribute to tick-borne encephalitis and xinjiang hemorrhagic fever respective ...201121314994
diversity and seasonal densities of vector anophelines in relation to forest fringe malaria in district sonitpur, assam (india).the prevalence and bionomics of known indian malaria vector anophelines was studied in three forest fringe villages in sonitpur district of assam, india. anopheles philippinensis/nivipes (36.8%) and an. annularis (25.6%) were the most abundant of the seven vector anopheline species recorded. densities of vector anophelines in general were high during monsoon season and low during winter months. an. dirus s.l. was the most anthropophagic (91.6%) of all the species collected whereas, an. annularis ...201123024492
review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in thailand.physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. the complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent') properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. the development of "physiological" resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and ...201324294938
field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between southeast asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. however, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. among topical repellents, deet is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. the protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, includ ...201425522134
risk factors for mosquito house entry in the lao of the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km(2) area of mountain plateau in south-central lao pdr resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. we examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials.201323700411
genetic compatibility between anopheles lesteri from korea and anopheles paraliae from assess differentiation and relationships between anopheles lesteri and anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of an. lesteri from korea and an. paraliae from thailand, respectively. these isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing dna sequences of ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) and mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) and subunit ii (coii). resul ...023778670
monitoring of malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis vectors.vector monitoring in military stations would help in protecting the armed forces from vector borne diseases such as malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis.201324843200
the evidence for improving housing to reduce malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.the global malaria burden has fallen since 2000, sometimes before large-scale vector control programmes were initiated. while long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying are highly effective interventions, this study tests the hypothesis that improved housing can reduce malaria by decreasing house entry by malaria mosquitoes.201526055986
anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an urban area of western india and may facilitate perennial malaria transmission.india contributes 1.5-2 million annual confirmed cases of malaria. since both parasites and vectors are evolving rapidly, updated information on parasite prevalence in mosquitoes is important for vector management and disease control. possible new vector-parasite interactions in goa, india were tested.201626919828
role of underappreciated vectors in malaria transmission in an endemic region of bangladesh-india border.despite the efforts of the national malaria control programme, malaria remains as an important public health problem in bangladesh, particularly in the south-eastern region bordering india. successful malaria control strategies rely on a detailed understanding of the underlying causes of malaria transmission. here, an entomological survey was conducted in a malaria endemic area of bangladesh bordering india to investigate the anopheles mosquito community and assess their plasmodium infection sta ...201525889228
entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in western a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (itn) in western myanmar the malaria protective effect of itn was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. a coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to itn effectiveness.201324119994
plasmodium vivax malaria in cambodia.the cambodian national strategic plan for elimination of malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across cambodia with an initial focus on plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including plasmodium vivax in 2025. the emergence of artemisinin-resistant p. falciparum in western cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of p. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of p. vivax lags m ...201627708187
past and new challenges for malaria control and elimination: the role of operational research for innovation in designing interventions.this meeting report presents the outcomes of a workshop held in bangkok on december 1st 2014, where the following challenges were discussed: the threat of resistance to artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy in the greater mekong sub-region (gms) and in africa; access to treatment for most at risk and hard to reach population; insecticide resistance, residual and outdoors transmission. the role of operational research and the interactions between research institutions, national ma ...201526185098
outdoor malaria transmission in forested villages of cambodia.despite progress in malaria control, malaria remains an important public health concern in cambodia, mostly linked to forested areas. large-scale vector control interventions in cambodia are based on the free distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins), targeting indoor- and late-biting malaria vectors only. the present study evaluated the vector density, early biting activity and malaria transmission of outdoor-biting malaria vectors in two forested regions in cambodia.201324044424
role of asymptomatic carriers and weather variables in persistent transmission of malaria in an endemic district of assam, india.malaria transmission is perennial in the assam-arunachal pradesh interstate border areas in the sonitpur district of assam, india. a yearlong study was carried out on the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria and the role of asymptomatic malaria carriers in persistent transmission of the disease. the relationships between malaria incidence and weather parameters were also investigated.201525595688
insecticide substitutes for ddt to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases.malaria continues to be a public health problem in bangladesh, despite efforts in the 1960s to eradicate the vectors through the use of ddt. at one point, eradication of malaria was acclaimed but later on it reappeared. the use of ddt is no more legally allowed in bangladesh, which has been officially replaced by a number organophosphates and/or synthetic pyrethroids and their combinations in addition to the integrated vector management (ivm) package. ivm being a community approach is still to g ...201222956113
the role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in rajasthali, bangladesh.malaria is endemic in the rajasthali region of the chittagong hill tracts in bangladesh and the rajasthali region is the most endemic area of bangladesh. quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. this study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted ...201122171950
entomologic investigation of plasmodium knowlesi vectors in kuala lipis, pahang, malaysia.the first natural infection of plasmodium knowlesi in humans was recorded in 1965 in peninsular malaysia. extensive research was then conducted and it was postulated that it was a rare incident and that simian malaria will not be easily transmitted to humans. however, at the turn of the 21st century, knowlesi malaria was prevalent throughout southeast asia and is life threatening. thus, a longitudinal study was initiated to determine the vectors, their seasonal variation and preference to humans ...201222727041
a systematic, realist review of zooprophylaxis for malaria control.integrated vector management (ivm) is recommended as a sustainable approach to malaria control. ivm consists of combining vector control methods based on scientific evidence to maximize efficacy and cost-effectiveness while minimizing negative impacts, such as insecticide resistance and environmental damage. zooprophylaxis has been identified as a possible component of ivm as livestock may draw mosquitoes away from humans, decreasing human-vector contact and malaria transmission. it is possible, ...201526264913
false positivity of circumsporozoite protein (csp)-elisa in zoophilic anophelines in bangladesh.circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (csp-elisas) are widely used for malaria vector identification throughout the world. however, several studies have reported false-positive results when using this method. the present study was conducted to estimate the frequency of false positives among anopheline species in malaria endemic areas of bangladesh. in total, 4724 anopheles females belonging to 25 species were collected and tested for plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax- ...201323085098
seasonal abundance and distribution of anopheles larvae in a riparian malaria endemic area of western thailand.three taxonomic groups of anopheles larvae were morphologically identified within the funestus group (minimus subgroup and aconitus subgroup) (75.63%), maculatus group (20.47%), and barbirostris group (0.57%) during a two-year period in conjunction with active malaria transmission in a village near the thai-myanmar border in kanchanaburi province, western thailand. the remaining 3.33% of anophelines collected were anopheles culicifacies (3.07%), anopheles philippinensis (0.17%), and anopheles va ...201223077839
molecular identification of mosquito species in the anopheles annularis group in southern asia.the anopheles annularis group of subgenus cellia theobald (diptera: culicidae) includes five currently recognized species in southern asia: an. annularis van der wulp, anopheles nivipes (theobald) and anopheles philippinensis ludlow, which are widespread in the region, anopheles pallidus theobald, which is known in sri lanka, india and myanmar, and anopheles schueffneri stanton, which occurs in java and sumatra. identification of the four mainland species based on morphology is problematic. in v ...200717373944
spatial distribution and molecular characterization of anopheles nivipes and anopheles philippinensis (diptera: culicidae) in north-east india.anopheles philippinensis-nivipes species of mosquitoes are considered secondary malaria vectors in the north-east india. however, difficulty in separating an. philippinensis and an. nivipes accurately on the basis of morphological identification, due to the overlapping female wing characters, has led to the paucity of information on their spatial distribution and vectorial importance, essential for understanding malaria disease epidemiology in areas under their influence. in view of this a study ...201222374100
natural plasmodium vivax infections in anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria endemic area of northeastern thailand.there was recently an outbreak of malaria in ubon ratchathani province, northeastern thailand. in the absence of information on malaria vector transmission dynamics, this study aimed to identify the anopheline vectors and their role in malaria transmission. adult female anopheles mosquitoes were collected monthly by human-landing catch in na chaluai district of ubon ratchathani province during january 2014-december 2015. field-captured mosquitoes were identified to species using morphology-based ...201729082435
status of insecticide resistance in anopheles mosquitoes in ubon ratchathani province, northeastern thailand.malaria is common in hilly, forested areas along national borders in southeast asia. insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has been detected in a few countries in the greater mekong sub-region (gms), representing a threat to malaria control and prevention. this study aims to determine the insecticide resistance status of anopheles mosquitoes in ubon ratchathani province, northeastern thailand, where increasing number of malaria cases were reported recently.201728743278
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