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proposed life cycle of eimeria zuernii. 1977608091
some problems of host and parasite interactions in the coccidia.the current status of some concepts of host and parasite interactions in the coccidia are discussed and evaluated. it is suggested that winter coccidiosis of cattle caused by eimeria zuernii results from activation of arrested endogenous stages in the tissues of the host. a second aspect of clinical coccidiosis is that infections are seldom monospecific, but little work has been done on infections in animals with multiple species of coccidia. information in the literature indicates that there ar ...1976819648
the pathogenesis of the lesions produced by eimeria zuernii in calves.the pathogenesis of the lesions caused by eimeria zuernii in calves is described. the gross lesions and the development and resolution of the microscopic lesions of the large intestine are described in detail. the development of the first asexual generation causes few changes in the lower ileum. the second asexual generation and gametogony of e. zuernii appear to be the pathogenic stages of its development. it is during these stages of the life cycle that epithelium is lost, capillaries are expo ...1977907909
decoquinate in the control of experimentally induced coccidiosis of calves.decoquinate administered orally in a grain mix at dosages of 0.5, 0.538, 0.7, and 0.8 mg/kg of body weight suppressed oocyst discharge and bloody diarrhea in calves inoculated 3 days later with 100,000 oocysts of eimeria bovis (experiment 1, n = 12 calves) or with 100,000 oocysts each of e bovis and eimeria zuernii (experiment 2, n = 16 calves). doses of 0.1, 0.163, 0.243, 0.3, and 0.362 mg/kg of body weight gave only partial suppression of oocyst discharge and diarrhea. clinical signs of coccid ...1976962204
production of bovine coccidiosis with eimeria zuernii. 19761253094
detection of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in bovine feces by monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in bovine feces. fecal oocysts were concentrated by centrifugation through formalin-ethyl acetate solution and captured with monoclonal antibody 18.280.2 reactive with c. parvum oocysts. captured oocysts were detected with goat anti-oocyst serum, following the addition of a peroxidase conjugate of rabbit anti-goat immunoglobulin and o-phenylenediamine substrate. the assay was sp ...19902280009
effects of inoculations with eimeria zuernii on young calves treated with decoquinate or narasin with or without dexamethasone.sixteen 7-week-old holstein male calves were inoculated with sporulated oocysts of eimeria zuernii. four calves (controls) were euthanatized and necropsied at 14 and 20 days after inoculation (dai). two calves were treated with 20 mg of dexamethasone (im) on 13, 14, and 15 dai and euthanatized and necropsied 17 dai and 2 calves were given similar treatments and necropsied 20 dai. the 8 other calves were euthanatized and necropsied 20 dai. two were started on the anticoccidial drug decoquinate in ...19892774323
post-weaning coccidiosis in beef calves in the dry tropics: experimental control with continuous monensin supplementation via intra-ruminal devices and concurrent epidemiological observations.post-weaning eimeria zuernii coccidiosis in beef calves was treated prophylactically with monensin from intra-ruminal continuous release devices. the evaluation of four treatments during three consecutive years also allowed observations on the epidemiology of this disease to be made. monensin was an effective prophylactic and the intra-ruminal devices were a convenient method of continuous administration over a one to two month period. the three years of the trial included two characteristically ...19863810857
coccidiosis associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in beef calves in a dry tropical region.the roles of helminths and coccidia in post-weaning diarrhoea in beef calves in the dry tropics were investigated. diarrhoea occurred approximately one month after weaning in both anthelmintic treated and untreated calves. the highest numbers of coccidial oocysts were seen 29 days after weaning and 3 necropsies confirmed eimeria zuernii coccidiosis. in the absence of wet overcrowded conditions, disease may have been precipitated by environmental interactions leading to suppression of host immuni ...19846497791
efficacy of lasalocid sodium against coccidiosis (eimeria zuernii and eimeria bovis) in calves.calves experimentally infected with eimeria bovis and e zuernii were used in a controlled experiment to determine the anticoccidial activity of lasalocid sodium. eleven-week-old holstein calves were given an inoculum of 300,000 e bovis and 200,000 e zuernii oocysts; medication was initiated on the day of inoculation and continued for a 4-week period. the progress of parasitic infection was monitored with quantitative fecal oocyst examinations for the 6 weeks before calves were inoculated, and th ...19827073077
some pathophysiological changes associated with infection of eimeria zuernii in calves.twelve holstein-friesian calves were divided into two groups, one of which was infected with eimeria zuernii. fecal oocyst output, weight changes and various blood, cellular, protein and biochemical constituents were examined for both groups. maximal fecal oocyst output occurred 21 days after infection. both groups of calves gained weight in a linear fashion until day 21 postinfection when the infected group lost weight rapidly. the packed cell volume of the infected calves appeared markedly red ...19817272840
diagnosis of bovine cryptosporidiosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay using monoclonal antibody.two hybridoma cell lines against cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (vri-cn91) were produced. the isotype of these 2 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was igg2b (1e7.2) and and igm (c6). enzyme immuno-transfer blotting analysis showed that 1e7.2 reacted specifically to 36 kda protein and c6 reacted to 67 and 70 kda proteins. c. parvum was bound specifically to the surface region of oocysts by these mabs. no cross-reactivity was observed with tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii and oocysts of eimeria zuernii ...19957551801
experimental infections of eimeria wapiti and e. zuernii-like oocysts in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) 10 to 14 wk of age each were inoculated orally with a mixture of 50,000 sporulated oocysts of an eimeria zuernii-like apicomplexan (70%) and e. wapiti (30%). maximum numbers of oocysts per gram of feces (opg) in each elk ranged from 985 to 15,517, but all calves remained healthy and clinical signs of coccidiosis were not observed. the prepatent period for e. zuernii was 8 days and the patent period approximately 37 days, with a maximum mean (+/- se) recov ...19947933299
eimeriosis in dairy cattle farms in morogoro municipality of tanzania.coccidial oocysts were detected in 35% of 445 cattle in four medium-scale and 20 small-scale dairy farms in morogoro municipality, tanzania. the highest prevalence (56%) was observed in animals aged between 5 and 18 months, whereas lower prevalences were observed in calves (29%) aged between 12 days and 4 months and adults (30%). no coccidial oocysts were detected in calves less than 12 days old. the oocyst output was high in calves, followed by weaners; adults had the lowest oocyst output. the ...19979234443
occurrence and diversity of bovine coccidia at three localities in south africa.information on the occurrence and diversity of coccidia infecting cattle in different farming systems in south africa is lacking. the objective of the study was to determine the levels of infection of coccidia in cattle at three localities and to determine the eimeria species occurring at each locality. faecal samples (n=1936) were collected over a 13-month period from a dairy farm (mallesons), a bonsmara breeding farm (kaalplaas) and a nguni stud farm (pienaars river). samples were collected fr ...200211809329
pathology and treatment of eimeria zuernii coccidiosis in calves: investigations in an infection model.two studies were conducted in the eimeria zuernii infection model in order to investigate the pathology of e. zuernii coccidiosis and the efficacy of toltrazuril (baycox 5% suspension) in this infection. for this purpose, a total of 30 calves were infected experimentally with e. zuernii oocysts and faecal samples taken regularly from the rectum and examined for faecal consistency and oocyst excretion. six of the calves underwent pathological examination at various points in time after infection. ...200516023406
control of clinical coccidiosis of calves due to eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii with toltrazuril under field conditions.the efficacy of metaphylactic treatment with toltrazuril (baycox 5% suspension) against natural infections with eimeria bovis and/or eimeria zuernii in calves was investigated. the study was conducted with 208 calves on five calf-rearing farms in germany and the czech republic. all participating farms had a notable incidence of coccidiosis. animals were treated 14 days after stabling in the respective facility. one group was treated with 15 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight, and a second group serve ...200516228270
eimeriosis in cattle: current understanding.this report addresses various aspects of the protozoan parasite eimeria which contribute to their increasing recognition as important protozoal pathogens in cattle. among others, questions of parasite biology and epidemiology, its impact on host physiology, and control strategies are dealt with. the tenacious oocysts are found ubiquitously in the environment making an infection of calves and young cattle, the most susceptible age group, almost inevitable. further development, comprising of asexu ...200516364016
parasitological and clinical parameters of experimental eimeria zuernii infection in calves and influence on weight gain and haemogram.infection trials were performed to characterize experimental eimeria zuernii coccidiosis parasitologically and clinically and to investigate the effects on weight gain and haemotologic parameters in affected calves. three groups of calves were formed: group 1 (n = 14) served as uninfected control group, group 2 (n = 11) was infected with 150,000 sporulated e. zuernii oocysts per calf, and group 3 (n = 16) was infected with 250,000 sporulated e. zuernii oocysts per calf. all infected animals shed ...200717265092
influence of experimental eimeria zuernii infection in calves on electrolyte concentrations, acid-base balance and blood gases.coccidiosis, often caused by eimeria zuernii, is an important disease in calf rearing and is clinically mainly associated with diarrhoea (pr fitzgerald in adv vet sci comp med, 24:121-143, 1980). calves were experimentally infected with e. zuernii oocysts to investigate the effects of artificial e. zuernii coccidiosis on electrolyte concentrations, acid-base balance and blood gases. therefore, animals were assigned to three groups: group 1 (n = 14) served as uninfected control group, group 2 (n ...200717763871
the effect of a metaphylactic treatment with diclazuril (vecoxan) on the oocyst excretion and growth performance of calves exposed to a natural eimeria infection.a multicenter field efficacy study was performed in six farms located in belgium, france and germany with a history of suspected coccidiosis outbreaks and the proven presence of eimeria bovis and/or eimeria zuernii. at each of these trial sites the calves were randomly allocated to two groups (t, treated; c, control) of similar size. in total, 231 calves were included in the study. group t calves (n=116) were drenched with a single dose of diclazuril (vecoxan, 1mg/kg body weight) close to the ti ...200717850970
influence of experimental eimeria zuernii infection on clinical blood chemistry in calves.coccidiosis, often caused by eimeria zuernii infection, is an important diarrhoeal disease in calves [fitzgerald, p.r., 1980. the economic impact of coccidiosis in domestic animals. adv. vet. sci. comp. med. 24, 121-143]. infection trials were performed to investigate the effects of experimental e. zuernii coccidiosis on clinical blood chemistry in calves. three groups of calves were formed: group 1 (n=14) served as uninfected control group, group 2 (n=11) was infected with 150,000 sporulated e. ...200717949911
comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (bubalus bubalis).we compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with eimeria bovis (e. bovis) and e. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). group t was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg bw twice orally at a 1-week interval). group s was experimenta ...200818262668
eimeria spp. in brazilian water buffalo.eimeria species are frequently found in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in brazil. here, we report those eimeria spp. that infect buffalos during their first year of life. fresh fecal samples were examined from 2 groups (1 group/yr for 2 yr, 2000-2002), each with 18 water buffalo calves (both sexes), from birth through 12 mo of age, in selvíria, ms, brazil. five oocyst morphotypes were observed, i.e., eimeria ellipsoidalis and eimeria zuernii, both previously described from water buffalo, and 3 ...200918662041
[eimeria of cattle in the republic of dagestan].data on eimeria (sporozoa: coccidia) parasitizing cattle in different regions of the republic of dagestan are given. eight species of the genus were found. eimeria zuernii, e. subspherica, and e. bovis appeared to be the dominate species. total infestation rate in the republic is 67.7%, while in mountain regions of dagestan in is 83%.200818727369
epidemiology of eimeria and associated risk factors in cattle of district toba tek singh, pakistan.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization, and associated risk factors with eimeria of cattle of district toba tek singh from april, 2009 to march, 2010. of the total 584 fecal samples examined for eimeria, 275 (47.09%) were found infected with six species of eimeria. among the identified species of eimeria, eimeria bovis was found to be the highest prevalent species (52.36%), followed in order by eimeria zuernii, eimeria canadensis, eimeria el ...201021110042
long-term effect of toltrazuril on growth performances of dairy heifers and beef calves exposed to natural eimeria zuernii and eimeria bovis infections.the long-term effects of a toltrazuril treatment against natural eimeria bovis and/or eimeria zuernii infections were investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls on two dairy (italian friesian breed) and two beef (chianina breed) farms. at each trial site, 30 calves were allocated into three groups of 10 calves each: t (treated with toltrazuril), d (treated with diclazuril) and c (left untreated). for 40weeks post-treatment, the calves were weighed and examined clinically a ...201021144780
production of coccidiosis using oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites of eimeria zuernii, e. contorta, and e. nieschulzi. 1976949655
increase of clostridium perfringens in association with eimeria in haemorrhagic enteritis in japanese beef cattle.a coprological survey with detailed clinical observation of naturally occurring haemorrhagic enteritis (he) cases was conducted to understand the pathophysiology of he by clarifying the infection status of eimeria and enteropathogenic bacteria in cattle. faecal samples from 55 cases of he and 26 clinically normal animals were collected, and a quantitative examination of eimeria and potential enteropathogenic bacteria was performed. the number of eimeria species oocysts per gram of faeces (opg) e ...201526286947
genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of eimeria arloingi in iranian native kids.among the 16 species of eimeria from goats, eimeria arloingi and eimeria ninakohlyakimovae are regarded as the most pathogenic species in the world and cause clinical caprine coccidiosis. e. arloingi is known to be an important cause of coccidiosis in iranian kids. molecular analyses of two portions of nuclear ribosomal dna (internal transcribed spacer1 (its1) and 18s rdna) were used for the genetic characterization of the e. arloingi. comparison of the sequencing data of e. arloingi obtained in ...201323779225
diversity of eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of guwahati, assam, india.to determine the prevalence and diversity of eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around guwahati, kamrup district, assam, india.201527047181
coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) of the lowland european bison bison bonasus bonasus (l.).coprological studies conducted between 2007 and 2011 in free-roaming and captive european bison bison bonasus (linnaeus, 1758) from poland revealed 11 species of eimeria infecting the host, i.e., eimeria alabamensis, eimeria auburnensis, eimeria bovis, eimeria brasiliensis, eimeria bukidnonensis, eimeria canadensis, eimeria cylindrica, eimeria ellipsoidalis, eimeria pellita, eimeria subspherica, and eimeria zuernii. the typical host for all isolated species is cattle. the most prevalent species ...201424702772
persistence of eimeria bovis in soil.eimeriosis is a disease that occurs globally and often affects cattle grazing on pastures contaminated with oocysts of the pathogenic species eimeria bovis, eimeria zuernii or eimeria alabamensis, respectively. nonetheless, little is understood regarding oocyst persistence on the pasture. the study was performed in the temperate climate zone. soil samples were spiked with 100,000 e. bovis oocysts in july 2010 or with 50,000 oocysts in october 2010, respectively, both either with our without addi ...201323563902
prevalence of coccidial infection in dairy cattle in shanghai, china.the prevalence of coccidial infections in dairy cattle was examined in shanghai from november 2010 to march 2011. in total, 626 fecal samples from 24 dairy farms were examined; oocysts were identified to the species level based on morphological features. all herds were infected with eimeria species. the overall prevalence of coccidia was 47.1%, with the highest prevalence in <4-mo-old calves (51.8%) and the lowest in >12-mo-old cattle (27.0%). the number of oocysts per gram of feces was signific ...201222590990
new approaches for morphological diagnosis of bovine eimeria species: a study on a subtropical organic dairy farm in brazil.bovine eimeriosis or coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by eimeria spp. which is related to gastrointestinal disorders and, in some cases, death. the current work aimed to identify and provide detailed morphological characteristic features of the different eimeria spp. parasites of crossbred cows of a subtropical organic dairy farm in brazil, offering tools for the diagnosis of bovine eimeriosis. eimeria auburnensis, eimeria bovis, eimeria bukidnonensis, eimeria canadensis, eimeria cyli ...201626873157
analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the dynamics of bovine eimeria spp. from central-eastern poland.eimeria infections are common in cattle worldwide, however, little is known about the invasion dynamics of this unicellular parasite. therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze intrinsic (host age) and extrinsic (herd size and management system) factors influencing the dynamics of eimeria spp. found in calves from ce poland. fecal samples were collected from 356 calves from different types of management systems and from different herd sizes. flotation and mcmaster method were used for paras ...201526455571
significance of timing on effect of metaphylactic toltrazuril treatment against eimeriosis in calves.in this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (baycox(®) bovis, bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence of eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii. three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 - 135 days, were included. treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after reloc ...201526152421
comparative efficacy of diclazuril (vecoxan®) and toltrazuril (baycox bovis®) against natural infections of eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii in french calves.a blinded, randomized, controlled, multi-centric field study was conducted on french dairy farms (n = 9) to evaluate the long term efficacy of metaphylactic, single oral treatments with either 1 mg/kg body weight (bw) of diclazuril (vecoxan®), or 15 mg/kg bw of toltrazuril (baycox®) against natural infections with eimeria zuernii and/or eimeria bovis, compared to untreated control animals. a total of 199 calves from nine commercial farms aged between 21 and 55 days old at the start of study were ...201425458561
efficacy of diclazuril and toltrazuril in the prevention of coccidiosis in dairy calves under field conditions.a blinded, controlled, randomised field study was undertaken on two commercial dairy farms in germany to compare the efficacy of the anticoccidials, diclazuril and toltrazuril in the prevention of bovine coccidiosis. a total of 86 calves aged between five and six weeks were randomly allocated to two treatment and one untreated control groups. calves were monitored for 78 days post-treatment by clinical observation, bodyweight gain, faecal oocyst counts (focs) and coccidia species differentiation ...201525371497
influence of a metaphylactic treatment with baycox(®) bovis on the reproductive performances of fresian heifers: a preliminary study.a blind, randomised, controlled, multicentric field trial was conducted to assess the influence of a metaphylactic treatment with an oral solution of toltrazuril on some reproductive parameters of italian fresian heifers during the first 18-20 months of life. for this goal 40 calves were selected from two dairy farms and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: mtol, treated with toltrazuril and negc, left untreated. the calves were clinically and coprologically examined over the entire stu ...201323504039
systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected with eimeria zuernii.acute phase proteins (apps) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. serum amyloid a (saa) and haptoglobin (hp) are apps that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. we investigated the involvement of saa and hp in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infecte ...201526215927
prevalence of eimeria infection in yaks on the qinghai-tibet plateau of china.few data are available on the prevalence of eimeria spp. in yaks. an observational study was conducted to determine the prevalence of coccidial infection in yaks on the qinghai-tibet plateau of china. a total of 324 fecal samples from 4 counties was examined, and oocysts were identified to the species level on the basis of morphological features. eimeria oocysts were found in 113 (34.9%) samples. the species detected and their prevalence values included the following: eimeria zuernii (54.9%), e. ...201222524406
efficacy of toltrazuril 5 % suspension against eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii in calves and observations on the associated immunopathology.16 calves were each infected with suspensions containing a mixture of approximately 230,000 eimeria bovis and 70,000 e. zuernii oocysts, which resulted in detection of oocysts in faeces of 12 of 16 calves by day +14 after infection. on day +14 after infection calves were either treated (n?=?8) with toltrazuril at 15 mg/kg body weight or with a placebo. observations were made on the clinical condition, faecal score and liveweight of calves daily from one day post infection (pi) until 24 days pi w ...201121739381
prevalence of eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii in german cattle herds and factors influencing oocyst excretion.the present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the pathogenic coccidia species e. bovis and e. zuernii in shed-reared animals in german dairy and fattening facilities.samples were obtained from 65 cattle farms distributed randomly across all the regions of germany, regardless of the occurrence of clinical problems. the samples were obtained rectally. faecal consistency and the total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg) were determined for eimeria spp., along with the separ ...201121739382
prevalence of eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii in german cattle herds and factors influencing oocyst excretion.the present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the pathogenic coccidia species eimeria bovis and eimeria zuernii in shed-reared animals in german dairy and fattening facilities. samples were obtained from 65 cattle farms distributed randomly across all the regions of germany regardless of the occurrence of clinical problems. the samples were obtained rectally. faecal consistency and the total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg) were determined, along with the opg values f ...201121808979
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