genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus).iridoviruses (ivs) are classified into five genera: iridovirus and chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and ranavirus, lymphocystivirus, and megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. until now, chloriridovirus was the only iv genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (iiv-3), also known as mosquito iridescent viru ...200616912294
comparative genomic analysis of the family iridoviridae: re-annotating and defining the core set of iridovirus genes.members of the family iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host. in the present study, we describe the re-analysis of the iridoviridae family of complex dna viruses using a variety of comparative genomic tools to yield a greater consensus among the annotated sequences of its members.200717239238
global trade in ornamental fish from an australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies.over 1 billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into australia alone. compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the sanitary and phytosanitary ( ...200717485126
genetic variation and geographic distribution of megalocytiviruses.viruses belonging to the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae have caused mass mortalities in marine and freshwater fish in asian countries. in this study, partial major capsid protein (mcp) gene of seven japanese and six korean megalocytiviruses was sequenced and compared with the known megalocytiviruses to evaluate genetic variation and geographic distribution of the viruses. comparison of mcp gene nucleotide sequences revealed sequence identity of 92.8% or greater among these 48 i ...200818337689
development of a mandarin fish siniperca chuatsi fry cell line suitable for the study of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv).infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is a typical species of the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae. however, until recently, no suitable piscine cell line is stably susceptible to isknv. here, a continuous cell culture derived from the mandarin fish fry (mff-1) was developed and has been subcultured over 60 passages during a period of 18 months. mff-1 consists predominantly of epithelial-like cells and grows well in dmem supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. mff ...200818485510
phenotypic diversity of infectious red sea bream iridovirus isolates from cultured fish in japan.megalocytivirus is causing economically serious mass mortality by infecting fish in and around the pacific region of asia. the recent emergence of many new iridoviruses has drawn attention to the marked taxonomic variation within this virus family. most studies of these viruses have not included extensive study of these emergent species. we explored the emergence of red sea bream iridovirus (rsiv) on a fish farm in japan, and we specifically endeavored to quantify genetic and phenotypic differen ...200919346349
systemic iridovirus infection in the banggai cardinalfish (pterapogon kauderni koumans 1933).iridoviruses infect food and ornamental fish species from a wide range of freshwater to marine habitats across the globe. the objective of the current study was to characterize an iridovirus causing systemic infection of wild-caught pterapogon kauderni koumans 1933 (banggai cardinalfish). freshly frozen and fixed specimens were processed for histopathologic evaluation, transmission electron microscopic examination, virus culture, molecular virologic testing, microbiology, and in situ hybridizati ...200919407082
pcr amplification and sequence analysis of the major capsid protein gene of megalocytiviruses isolated in taiwan.viruses belonging to the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae are one of the major agents causing mass mortalities in marine and freshwater fish in asian countries. outbreaks of iridovirus disease have been reported among various fish species in taiwan. however, the genotypes of these iridoviruses have not yet been determined. in this study, seven megalocytivirus isolates from four fish species: king grouper, epinephelus lanceolatus (bloch), barramundi perch, lates calcarifer (bloch) ...200919460084
a new marine megalocytivirus from spotted knifejaw, oplegnathus punctatus, and its pathogenicity to freshwater mandarinfish, siniperca chuatsi.megalocytivirus is a newly defined piscine iridovirus and has been shown to be an important causative agent of viral diseases in fish. here, a new megalocytivirus strain, designated skiv-zj07, was isolated from spotted knifejaw (oplegnathus punctatus) using a mandarinfish fry cell line (mff-1). phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein and atpase genes showed that skiv-zj07 was most similar to the orange-spotted grouper iridovirus (osgiv) from china and a u1 strain red sea bream iridovir ...201019895861
protection of red sea bream pagrus major against red sea bream iridovirus infection by vaccination with a recombinant viral protein.megalocytivirus infections cause serious mass mortality in marine fish in east and southeast asian countries. in this study the immunogenicity of crude subunit vaccines against infection by the megalocytivirus rsiv was investigated. three capsid proteins, 18r, 351r and a major capsid protein, were selected for use as crude subunit vaccines. high homology among megalocytivirus types was found in the initial sequence examined, the 351r region. red sea bream (pagrus major) juveniles were vaccinated ...201020236423
complete genome sequence of a megalocytivirus (family iridoviridae) associated with turbot mortality in china.turbot reddish body iridovirus (trbiv) causes serious systemic diseases with high mortality in the cultured turbot, scophthalmus maximus. we here sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of trbiv, which was identified in shandong province, china.201020630106
tetraodon nigroviridis as a nonlethal model of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) infection.infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is the type species of the genus megalocytivirus, family iridoviridae. we have previously established a high mortality isknv infection model of zebrafish (danio rerio). in this study, a nonlethal tetraodon nigroviridis model of isknv infection was established. isknv infection did not cause lethal disease in tetraodon but could infect almost all the organs of this species. electron microscopy showed isknv particles were present in infected tissu ...201020674952
detection of megalocytivirus from imported tropical ornamental fish, paradise fish macropodus opercularis.megalocytivirus was detected from paradise fish macropodus opercularis imported from indonesia. four of 11 fish (36%) in 2006 and 40 of 117 fish (34%) in 2008 were found to be pcr-positive for megalocytivirus. phylogenetic analysis based on partial major capsid protein (mcp) gene nucleotide sequences revealed that the sequences detected in paradise fish were classified as genotype ii, which includes freshwater fish isolates from southeast asian countries, closely related to infectious spleen and ...201020815332
Antigenic identification of virion structural proteins from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), belonging to the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, is one of the major agents causing mortality and economic losses to the freshwater fish culture industry in Asian countries. Currently, little information regarding the antigenic properties of Megalocytivirus (especially ISKNV) is available. Our previous study using four different workflows with systematic and comprehensive proteomic approaches led to the identification of 38 I ...201121888976
the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in the family iridoviridae.the iridoviridae family are large viruses (~120-200 nm) that contain a linear double-stranded dna genome. the genomic size of iridoviridae family members range from 105,903 bases encoding 97 open reading frames (orfs) for frog virus 3 to 212,482 bases encoding 211 orfs for chilo iridescent virus. the family iridoviridae is currently subdivided into five genera: chloriridovirus, iridovirus, lymphocystivirus, megalocytivirus, and ranavirus. iridoviruses have been found to infect invertebrates and ...201021994690
Shift of phylogenic position in megalocytiviruses based on three different genes.Major capsid protein (MCP), the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and the PstI fragment genes from five Japanese and three Korean megalocytivirus isolates were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed with known megalocytiviruses. Phylogenetic trees formed three major clusters (M1, M2, and M3 or P1, P2, and P3), and genogroup I was divided into two minor clusters (M1a/M1b and P1a/P1b) using three target genes. Sequence identity was >97% within each cluster, except cluster II of the PstI fragment ...201122203562
genetic analysis of fish iridoviruses isolated in taiwan during investigate the genetic relationships between field strains of iridoviruses gathered from various fish species in taiwan, viruses that were collected from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed. open reading frames encoding the viral major capsid protein (mcp) and adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. our results indicated that iridoviruses from taiwan aquaculture fishes could be classified into two groups: prior to 2005, the viruses were closely related to members o ...201121603939
global landscape of structural proteins of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv), the type species of the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae, causes severe damage to mandarin fish cultures in china. little is known about the proteins of isknv virions. in this study, a total of 38 isknv virion-associated proteins were identified by four different workflows with systematic and comprehensive proteomic approaches. among the 38 identified proteins, 21 proteins were identified by the gel-based workflows (one-dimensi ...201121209107
genotype and host range analysis of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv).infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is the causative agent of a disease causing high mortality in mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi. in this study, complete major capsid protein (mcp) genes of nine isknv isolates were sequenced and compared with other known megalocytiviruses to evaluate genetic variation and host range of the viruses. comparison of nucleotide sequences of mcp gene revealed 92.6-100% identity among nine isknv isolates. a phylogenetic tree revealed that 33 megalocyt ...201021107672
vp23r of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus mediates formation of virus-mock basement membrane to provide attaching sites for lymphatic endothelial cells.putative open reading frames (orfs) encoding laminin-like proteins are found in all members of the genus megalocytivirus, family iridoviridae. this is the first study that identified the vp23r protein encoded by orf23r of the infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv), a member of these genes of megalocytiviruses. the vp23r mrna covering the isknv genomic coordinates 19547 to 22273 was transcribed ahead of the major capsid protein. immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that vp23r was ...201020810728
identification of the vp92r gene from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.megalocytiviruses, which belong to the family iridoviridae, are among the most harmful viruses to cultured fishes. infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is the type species of the megalocytivirus genus. the genome of isknv was sequenced and annotated by he et al. (virology 291:126-139, 2001) in 2001 and re-annotated by eaton et al. (virol. j. 4:11, 2007) in 2007. the orf092r of isknv was identified in the annotations of he et al. but was not reported by eaton et al. in this study, ...201020577793
identification and characterization of a novel capsid protein encoded by singapore grouper iridovirus orf038l.singapore grouper iridovirus (sgiv) is an important pathogen isolated from grouper, epinephelus tauvina, and characterized as a novel ranavirus. to better understand the function of viral structural genes involved in sgiv infection and virus-host interactions, a candidate gene, vp38 (orf038l), was investigated in this study. sgiv vp38 was found to encode a 170-aa peptide containing an rgd motif, and it showed significant identity only to members of the genus iridovirus, family iridoviridae, exce ...201020130938
characterization of virus distribution in rock bream (oplegnathus fasciatus; temminck and schlegel) infected with megalocytivirus.the distribution of virus-infected cells in the organs of rock bream naturally infected with megalocytivirus is reported. examination of sections of liver, spleen and kidney stained by haematoxylin and eosin (he) and periodic acid schiff (pas) revealed the presence of swollen and degenerate cells having morphology consistent with leucocytes. many of these cells were shown to contain viral dna by in-situ hybridization (ish). cells containing viral dna were also found in the connective tissue of o ...200919477463
family iridoviridae: poor viral relations no longer.members of the family iridoviridae infect a diverse array of invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts and are currently viewed as emerging pathogens of fish and amphibians. iridovirid replication is unique and involves both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, a circularly permuted, terminally redundant genome that, in the case of vertebrate iridoviruses, is also highly methylated, and the efficient shutoff of host macromolecular synthesis. although initially neglected largely due to the ...200919216437
histopathological and ultrastructural features of enlarged cells of humpback grouper cromileptes altivelis challenged with megalocytivirus (family iridoviridae) after vaccination.the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae encompasses isolates of red sea bream iridovirus (rsiv) and grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (gsdiv). in the present study, humpback grouper cromileptes altivelis juveniles were challenged with gsdiv after vaccination with a commercial rsiv vaccine. the unvaccinated group (in duplicate) showed higher mortalities (59.3 to 66.7%) than the vaccination group (0% mortalitiy, in duplicate). surviving fish in the vaccinated group displayed masses of ...200818500034
infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus orf48r functions as a new viral vascular endothelial growth factor.infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) causes a pandemic and serious disease in fish. infection by isknv causes epidermal lesions, in which petechial hemorrhages and abdominal edema are prominent features. isknv orf48r contains a domain similar to that of the platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) families of proteins. isknv orf48r showed higher similarity to the vegfs encoded by megalocytivirus and parapoxvirus than to those encoded in fish and ...200818305039
characterization of a membrane protein (vp001l) from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv).infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is the type species of megalocytivirus, iridoviridae. a novel membrane protein corresponding to the first open reading frame (orf001l) of isknv genome was identified. this 378-residue protein, termed the vp001l protein, has a high content of hydrophobic sequences and contains 10-11 putative transmembrane domains, indicating it may be a membrane protein. the vp001l mrna start site was extended 433 bp upstream of the start codon and the temporal ...200818046636
identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding an rgd-containing protein in large yellow croaker iridovirus.many virus-encoded rgd-containing proteins have been reported to play important roles in virus attachment and entry. here we report the identification and functional characterization of a gene encoding an rgd-containing protein (037l) from large yellow croaker iridovirus (lyciv), a causative agent of epizootics among large yellow croaker, pseudosciaena crocea. the 037l gene is 1347 bp long and encodes a protein of 449 amino acids containing a biologically active rgd tri-peptide predicted with su ...200616916530
susceptibility of marine fish species to a megalocytivirus, turbot iridovirus, isolated from turbot, psetta maximus (l.).turbot iridovirus (tbiv), a member of the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae, was isolated from diseased turbot, psetta maximus (l.), in korea in 2003. in this study, experimental infection of turbot, japanese flounder, paralichthys olivaceus (temminck & schlegel), and rock bream, oplegnathus fasciatus (temminck & schlegel), with tbiv was performed to evaluate the viral susceptibility of these fish species. after virus exposure, the mortalities of turbot reared at 22 and 25 degrees ...200616866925
the molecular epidemiology of iridovirus in murray cod (maccullochella peelii peelii) and dwarf gourami (colisa lalia) from distant biogeographical regions suggests a link between trade in ornamental fish and emerging iridoviral diseases.iridoviruses have emerged over 20 years to cause epizootics in finfish and amphibians in many countries. they may have originated in tropical asia and spread through trade in farmed food fish or ornamental fish, but this has been difficult to prove. consequently, mcp, atpase and other viral genes were sequenced from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from farmed murray cod (maccullochella peelii peelii) that died during an epizootic in 2003 and from diseased gouramis that had bee ...200616697343
identification and expressional analysis of two cathepsins from half-smooth tongue sole (cynoglossus semilaevis).cathepsins are a family of lysosomal proteases that play an important role in protein degradation, antigen presentation, apoptosis, and inflammation. cathepsins are divided into three groups, i.e., cysteine protease, serine protease, and aspartic protease. cathepsin d and cathepsin l, which are aspartic protease and cysteine protease respectively, have been identified in a number of teleosts; however, the immunological relevance of fish cathepsins is largely unknown. in this study, we cloned and ...201121939771
infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (a fish iridovirus) enters mandarin fish fry cells via caveolae-dependent endocytosis.infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is the type species of the genus megalocytivirus from the family iridoviridae. megalocytiviruses have been implicated in more than 50 fish species infections and currently threaten the aquaculture industry, causing great economic losses in china, japan, and southeast asia. however, the cellular entry mechanisms of megalocytiviruses remain largely uncharacterized. in this study, the main internalization mechanism of isknv is investigated in mand ...201122171272
[characterization of an iridovirus detected in rock bream (oplegnathus fasciatus; temminck and schlegel)].during the summer of 2009, mass mortality was observed in cage-cultured rock bream (oplegnathus fasciatus; temminck and schlegel) in the liaoning province. histopathogic studies of the affected fish showed enlarged basophilic cells in the kidney and spleen. these necrotic cells were stained purple using haematoxylin and eosin (he). gf cell cultures showed advanced cytopathic effects after infection with virus supernatants from diseased fish homogenate. transmission electron microscopy revealed h ...201121528541
the viral ankyrin repeat protein (orf124l) from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus attenuates nf-{kappa}b activation and interacts with ikk{beta}the ankyrin (ank) repeat is one of the most common protein-protein interaction motifs predominantly found in eukaryotes and bacteria, but the functions of ank repeat are rarely researched in animal viruses with the exception of poxviruses. infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (isknv) is a typical species of the genus megalocytivirus in the family iridoviridae and a causative agent of epizootics in fish. the genome of isknv contains four putative viral ankyrin (vank) repeat proteins, and t ...201121471317
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