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experimental brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti infections in certain species of mosquitoes.laboratory reared aedes aegypti (black eye and jakarta strains), aedes togoi, (taiwan), aedes albopictus, (jakarta), wild caught anopheles barbirostris, (java) and mansonia uniformis, (jakarta) were fed on a carrier with mixed infection of brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti. b. timori and w. bancrofti were able to develop in a. aegypti (black eye) and a. togoi, with development proceeding more rapidly for of b. timori than w. bancrofti. both species of parasites were readily distinguishable ...197724275
arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes: kano plain, kenya.arbovirus isolation attempts on 324,486 mosquitoes captured over a four-year period on the kano plain, kenya, yielded 15 isolates including pongola (six strains), ilesha (three strains), germiston (two strains), sindbis (one strain), barur (one strain) and two viruses which could not be characterized. mansonia uniformis, anopheles gambiae and culex antennatus constituted 70% of the total collection and accounted for all of the isolates except one, which came from anopheles funestus.197724288
the isolation of a bwamba virus variant from man in western kenya.a bwamba group virus was isolated from the blood of a febrile child on the kano plain, kenya. the isolate (ny-45), closely resembling bwamba, established infection in both anopheles gambiae and mansonia uniformis. neither the bwamba nor the pongola prototype strains grew in both species. in gel-diffusion tests ny-45 virus passaged through mosquitoes exhibited a line of identity with pongola antiserum. in contrast no cross-reaction was observed with ny-45 virus which had not previously been passa ...197828377
some applications of bloodmeal identifications in relation to the epidemiology of vector-borne tropical diseases.no attempt has been made to give a complete review of the value of bloodmeal identifications of haematophagous arthropods in relation to the epidemiology of disease but rather to choose certain topics of current interest. a brief review of the current techniques for bloodmeal identification is given with particular reference to recent studies on mosquitoes and sandflies using the haemagglutination inhibition test. new data on mixed feeding by anopheles gambiae (a mixture of species b and c) coll ...19751171257
adulticidal effect of cyfluthrin against mosquitos of public health importance in malaysia.the efficacy of two formulations, wettable powder and emulsifiable concentrate, of cyfluthrin sprayed on plywood [10 mg (ai)/m2] was assessed against six species of mosquitos. the bioassay followed the who standard method, with some modification for the bioassay of insecticidal deposits on wall surfaces. the results indicated that these two formulations of cyfluthrin were effective against anopheles dirus and mansonia uniformis, moderately toxic to aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus in decreasing ...19921355928
efficacy of bacillus sphaericus against the malaria vector anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes in swamps and rice fields in zaire.the microbial control of anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes with a granular formulation of bacillus sphaericus (vectolex) was evaluated in rice fields and swamps, located around the suburban region of kingabwa-village in kinshasa, zaíre. ten treatment cycles with 15-day intervals were carried out with the same application rate, 10 kg/ha, during the dry season (may to september 1991). the treatments reduced larval populations of an. gambiae by 98% after 48 h, but repetitive applications were ...19921361940
small-scale field trials of bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) formulations against mansonia mosquitoes in malaysia.five formulations of bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) including aqueous suspension bsp 1, bsp 2, technical powder abg 6184, corncob granules abg 6185 (potencies 2 x 10(10), 2 x 10(7), 9.5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10) spore/g, respectively) and wettable powder abg 6232 (1,000 bs itu/mg) were tested against laboratory-cultured late third/early fourth instar larvae of mansonia uniformis in floating screened cages in small plots at swampy ditches on penang island, malaysia. mean dosage/response ...19911675256
scanning electron microscopy of eggs of mansonia uniformis, ma. indiana, ma. annulifera, and ma. annulata (diptera: culicidae).the eggs of mansonia uniformis, ma. indiana, ma. annulifera, and ma. annulata are described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. comparisons of egg structure among the four species showed that the eggs differed discernibly with respect to the outer chorionic tubercles on the anterior tube, the spines surrounding the raised central micropyle within the anterior cup, and the outer chorionic tubercles in the posterior region. attempts to produce a key for identification of these eggs unde ...19911678783
survey of adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) during irrigation development in the mahaweli project, sri lanka.a survey of adult mosquitoes was done during 1986-1987 in an area undergoing irrigation development in the mahaweli project of sri lanka. the study encompassed two 12-mo phases of settlement and irrigation, respectively. diurnal human bait catches yielded 1,427 female mosquitoes in 27 species. nocturnal collections (human bait, cdc light traps, indoor resting catches) produced a total of 30,491 females in 67 species. comparisons with an earlier survey in the predevelopment forest showed that the ...19911678784
comparison of dry ice baited light traps with human bait collections for surveillance of mosquitoes in northern queensland, australia.adult mosquitoes were collected from april 1984 to september 1985, at 3 sites at or adjacent to the ross river dam, north queensland. the numbers attracted to dry ice baited encephalitis virus surveillance (evs) light traps and to human bait were similar. both methods sampled 18 taxa and ranked the abundances of culex annulirostris, anopheles annulipes s.l., aedes vigilax, mansonia uniformis and ma. septempunctata similarly at each locality. significant correlations between the 2 methods were fo ...19911686444
mosquito species collected from a marsh in western kenya during the long rains.a total of 475,431 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 43 species were collected from a marsh in the western kenya highlands to determine species composition and succession in relation to the epidemiology of rift valley fever virus. culex pipiens was the most common species, totalling 92.3% of the collection, followed by cx. zombaensis (2.2%), anopheles coustani (1.1%), an. squamosus (0.8%), mansonia uniformis (0.6%), coquillettidia microannulatus (0.5%), uranotaenia mashonaensis (0.5%), ma. af ...19911686445
[virus manombo (mg ar 966), a provisionally new arbovirus isolated from culicidae in madagascar].in april 1987, a virus strain was isolated from a pool of mansonia uniformis caught on human bait, in a tropical primary rain forest area of the south-east coast of madagascar. antigenically, this virus may not be related to other known viruses, and constitutes a provisionally new arbovirus called virus manombo.19911688286
relative abundance and blood feeding behavior of nocturnally active culicine mosquitoes in western kenya.at 2 sites in western kenya targeted for future malaria vaccine trials, adult culicine mosquitoes were sampled over one year by 5 collection techniques to assess human exposure to potential vectors of pathogens other than malaria. collections included 20,910 females representing 19 species in kisian and 4,312 females of 11 species in saradidi. common species in kisian included culex quinquefasciatus (71.4%), mansonia uniformis (15.8%), ma. africana (6.2%), aedes mcintoshi (2.0%), coquillettidia ...19901973446
scanning electron microscopy of the eggs of mansonia uniformis, ma. indiana and ma. annulifera (diptera: culicidae).descriptions of the eggs of mansonia uniformis, ma. indiana and ma. annulifera are provided with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. eggs of these three species, although similar in shape and colour, are covered by outer chorionic reticulum and tubercles which provide reliable morphological character for their identification. size, distribution and number of lobes on the large tubercles present in the region between the anterior tube and posterior region, are important distinguishing featu ...19901976273
[the natural infection rate of mosquitoes by japanese encephalitis b virus in yunnan province].in july-september 1983-1987, 57,898 adult female mosquitoes belonging to 29 species of 8 genera were collected from japanese b encephalitis (je) epidemic areas in yunnan, china, and were examined by c 6/36 cell method and sucking mouse method. twenty-eight strains of je virus were isolated from culex tritaeniorhychus, c. whitomorei, c. pseudovishnui, c. fuscocephala, c. annulus, c. gelidus, anopheles sinensis, mansonia uniformis, aedes albopictus, ae. vexans, ae. lineatopennis, and ae. assamensi ...19901979768
laboratory evaluation of ddt, decamethrin and chlorpyrifos against field-collected adults of mansonia uniformis (theobald). 19862426797
enzyme polymorphism in mansonia uniformis, a mosquito vector of brugian filariasis.three temporal samples of a wild population of mansonia uniformis were analysed for genetic variation at six gene-enzyme systems. adenylate kinase, hexokinase (3 loci) and cathodal malate dehydrogenase were monomorphic. phosphoglucomutase, glucose phosphate isomerase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and anodal malate dehydrogenase were polymorphic. each of the polymorphic loci was represented by three alleles. the average heterozygosity or gene diversity was 0.0437.19852865046
population dynamics of some pakistan mosquitoes: changes in adult relative abundance over time and space.time series and spatial changes in the relative abundance of 14 mosquito species were described from weekly or biweekly collections at nine localities in punjab province, pakistan, from january 1976 to june 1980. comparisons between indoor aspirator catches and outdoor mechanical sweeper collections enabled mosquito resting habits to be classified as: (1) endophilic (anopheles culicifacies, an. fluviatilis, an. stephensi, an. subpictus); (2) partially exophilic (an. annularis, an. pulcherrimus, ...19862873798
a study of dispersal, survival and gonotrophic cycle estimates of mansonia uniformis in an open swamp ecotype.five mark-release-recapture experiments with wild caught ma. uniformis were conducted in an open swamp area at batang berjuntai in selangor, 40 km from kuala lumpur, malaysia, between may 1983 and january 1985. a total of 64 (0.14%) from the 45,950 females released were recaptured feeding on humans and cattle and resting in cattle-sheds. substantially fewer (0.03% to 0.09%) females were recaptured from releases of blood-fed females than from releases of unfed females (0.20% to 0.23%). more than ...19882906483
laboratory colonization of mansonia uniformis, ma. indiana and ma. bonneae in malaysia.methods are described for the laboratory colonization of mansonia uniformis, ma. indiana and ma. bonneae in malaysia. gravid females oviposited in 500 ml beakers with a layer of water covered with small leaves of salvinia. newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. the cultures with paper gave better yields than those with plants. production of ...19852906664
man-mosquito contact at kowanyama, northern queensland, australia.a method employing anova is presented to quantify man-mosquito contact at kowanyama, based on human bait collections indoors in light, indoors in darkness and outdoors in darkness. no shifts in feeding behavior were noted during the transitional, dry or wet seasons of 1974-75. anopheles bancroftii fed in significantly greater numbers indoors in darkness; an. amictus, an. annulipes, an. farauti, an. meraukensis, aedes normanensis, ae. kochi, ae. lineatopennis, ae. vigilax and culex annulirostris ...19852906665
effectiveness of soap formulations containing deet and permethrin as personal protection against outdoor mosquitoes in malaysia.two soap formulations, both containing 20% deet and one each containing permethrin at 0.5 and 1.0%, respectively, were applied to exposed arms and legs of volunteers as personal protection against outdoor human biting mosquitoes in six locations on penang island, malaysia. the predominant mosquito species collected from these locations were aedes albopictus, mansonia uniformis, culex gelidus, anopheles lesteri and armigeres subalbatus. efficacy and residual effects up to 4 hours indicated good p ...19862906963
bioassays of bacillus sphaericus (strain 1593) against mosquitoes of public health importance in malaysia.the pathogenicity of bacillus sphaericus strain 1593 was tested against laboratory-reared larvae of four local species of mosquitoes of public health importance in malaysia; aedes aegypti, anopheles balabacensis, mansonia uniformis and culex quinquefasciatus. the bacteria was shake-cultured at 28 +/- 1 degrees c for three days, using glucose-yeast extract salts medium. after which, the spores and vegetative cells were harvested and stored at 4 degrees c before use. conditions for bioassays were ...19854023816
the pattern of flight muscle damage in relation to the distribution of developing filarial larvae in aedes aegypti and mansonia uniformis. 19744155607
the distribution of larvae of brugia malayi and brugia pahangi in the flight muscle fibres of aedes aegypti and mansonia uniformis. 19704394923
[histological study of the abortive evolution of wuchereria bancrofti cobbold in mansonia uniformis theobald]. 19714401396
a verandah-trap hut for studying the house-frequenting habits of mosquitos and for assessing insecticides. i. a description of the verandah-trap hut and of studies on the egress of anopheles gambiae giles and mansonia uniformis (theo.) from an untreated hut. 19655831207
a verandah-trap hut for studying the house-frequenting habits of mosquitos and for assessing insecticides. 2. the effect of dichlorvos (ddvp) on egress and mortality of anopheles gambiae giles and mansonia uniformis (theo.) entering naturally. 19655854755
biochemical differentiation of mansonia crassipes and mansonia uniformis (diptera : culicidae). 19816124045
[preliminary report on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to brugia pahangi].a comparative study on the susceptibility of eight species of four genera of mosquitoes to brugia pahangi was carried out. aedes aegypti (liverpool strain), aedes togoi, armigeres subalbatus and mansonia uniformis (taiwan strains) were found with the third-stage larvae 14 days after feeding on infected rats (sprague-dawley). the remaining of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, aedes pseudoalbopictus, culex p. fatigans and culex annutus (taiwan strains) were found refractory to infection. to determi ...19846150813
comparative bioassays of tolypocladium cylindrosporum gams (californian strain) against four species of mosquitoes in malaysia.comparative laboratory bioassays of tolypocladium cylindrosporum, california strain (kal) was conducted against third instar larvae of four species of mosquito, viz. aedes aegypti, anopheles balabacensis, culex quinquefasciatus and mansonia uniformis in malaysia. of the four mosquito species tested, ma. uniformis was found to be the most susceptible, followed by cx. quinquefasciatus, an. balabacensis and ae. aegypti, in a decreasing order. the lc50 values for ma. uniformis, cx. quinquefasciatus, ...19846151744
filarial diseases in ceylon: a geographic and historical analysis.medical records concerning filarial diseases in ceylon date from the account of davy[1], though there are hints as to the more obvious manifestations in the old chronicles of the country, too. a first survey was conducted in 1912/1913 concentrating on urban areas, followed by a second survey in the 1930s with emphasis on the rural parts. the results displayed a remarkable distribution pattern: wuchereria bancrofti, the so-called "urban type", concentrated in galle and matara towns, whereas brugi ...19836152421
isolation and identification of novel toxins from a new mosquitocidal isolate from malaysia, bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.a new mosquitocidal bacillus thuringiensis subsp., jegathesan, has recently been isolated from malaysia. parasporal crystal inclusions were purified from this strain and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti, aedes togoi, aedes albopictus, anopheles maculatus, and mansonia uniformis. the 50% lethal concentration of crystal inclusions for each species was 0.34, 8.08, 0.34, 17.59, 3.91, and 120 ng/ml, respectively. these values show that parasporal inclus ...19957487029
impact of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets on biting rates of mosquitoes in zaire.in a rural area of zaire, the whole population of a village was protected by deltamethrin-impregnated mosquitoes bednets. a similar village was observed as a control. biting rates for mosquitoes were recorded in both villages. the principal man-biting species were mansonia africana, mansonia uniformis, and aedes aegypti. in the village protected by the impregnated mosquito bednets, the number of mansonia bites was reduced 96% indoors and at a lesser rate outdoors. biting rates of ae. aegypti dro ...19957595444
changes in mosquito populations with expansion of the ross river reservoir, australia, from stage 1 to stage 2a.female mosquitoes were collected at 4 sites around the ross river reservoir (stage 2a) from 484 carbon dioxide-supplemented light traps. the seasonal abundance from these collections during 1991-93 was compared statistically with that for similar collections done for the stage 1 reservoir in 1984-85. principally due to clearing of the forest prior to the inundation of the stage 2a, several tree hole/plant axil and shaded pool species are no longer present or are rare. due to extensive loss of ma ...19957595448
urbanization and its effects on the ecology of mosquitoes in macau, southeast asia.recent urbanization in macau has resulted in the precipitous decline to zero in populations of several anopheline vectors of malaria while providing optimal habitat for the population increase in culicines. of 18 species of mosquitoes reported in macau in recent years, 15 species are included here. culex quinquefasciatus, culex sitiens, and aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. notes are provided for anopheles sinensis, armigeres magnus, armigeres subalbatus, culex foliatus, culex fus ...19947707061
residual activity of cyhalothrin 20% ec on cattle as determined by mosquito bioassays.the residual effectiveness of 0.005mg/ml of cyhalothrin applied to cattle was determined against three species of mosquitos: anopheles maculatus theobald. anopheles dirus peyton and harrison mansonia uniformis theobald. twenty-four hour post exposure mortality and the degree of successful blood engorgement were determined by exposing mosquitos for 10 minutes to cattle. three replicated assays were conducted and mortality determined at 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 days after each treatment. an initial mort ...19937909171
studies on japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes in selangor, malaysia.mosquito collections were carried out from may to june 1992 and from september to december 1992 in an area where a case of japanese encephalitis was confirmed. a total of 40,072 mosquitoes belonging to 35 species and 8 genera were collected. the dominant species in that locality were culex vishnui, culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex pseudovishnui, culex gelidus, aedes butleri, and mansonia uniformis.19938126485
[occurrence of culex modestus inatomii kamimura et wada in rongcheng city, shandong province].a mosquito survey was made at rongcheng city, shandong province in august, 1991. altogether 4 genera and 8 species of mosquitoes were collected in this survey, namely aedes dorsalis (meigen), anopheles sinensis wiedemann, an. yatsushiroensis miyazaki, culex fuscanus wiedemann, cx. modestus inatomii kamimura et wada, cx. pipiens pallens coquillett, cx. tritaeniorhynchus giles and mansonia uniformis (theobald). among them cx. modestus inatomii and an. yatsushiroensis were found to be the first rec ...19938403280
[the culicidian fauna and its nuisance in kinshasha (zaire)].a public health study to inventory bloodsucking mosquitoes was conducted in kinshasa and its regions. 20 culicidian species were represented by 7 anopheles, 6 culex, 5 aedes and 2 mansonia. in general, the number of bites/man/night (b/m/n) was in average 141.5 of cx. quinquefasciatus, 60.1 of cx. antennatus, 21.1 of m. africana, 16.3 of an. gambiae and 7.7 of m. uniformis. the nuisance is different from region to other. culex quinquefasciatus is the most abundant and aggressive species in the ur ...19938504267
mosquito responses to carbon dioxide in a west african sudan savanna village.mosquito responses to carbon dioxide were investigated in noungou village, 30 km northeast of ouagadougou in the sudan savanna belt of burkina faso, west africa. species of primary interest were the main malaria vectors anopheles gambiae s.s. and an.arabiensis, sibling species belonging to the an.gambiae complex. data for an.funestus, an.pharoensis, culex quinquefasciatus and mansonia uniformis were also analysed. carbon dioxide was used at concentrations of 0.04-0.6% (cf. 0.03% ambient concentr ...19968887331
odor-mediated host preferences of west african mosquitoes, with particular reference to malaria vectors.the role of odors in mosquito host preferences was studied in a village near ouagadougou, burkina faso. two odor-baited entry-traps were put beside one another and a choice of host odor-laden air was blown out of them. odors of a human and a calf (of similar mass) were drawn from two tents in which each was separately concealed. allowances were made for trap position, differences in human-subject attractiveness, co2 levels, and trap contamination with alternative host odors. choices for the huma ...19989452293
human dirofilariasis caused by dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens in sri lanka.human dirofilariasis due to dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens is a common zoonotic infection in sri lanka. todate 70 cases are on record, and they include 3 expatriates from russia, england and korea, who were undoubtedly infected in sri lanka. around 30-60% of dogs are infected with d. repens in various parts of the country and the mosquito vectors are aedes aegypti, armigeres subalbatus, mansonia uniformis and m. annulifera. unlike in other countries of the old world infection is most common in ...19979802095
vector competence of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from maroochy shire, australia, for barmah forest virus.mosquitoes were collected in light traps from maroochy shire and fed on blood containing the sympatric bf1611 strain of barmah forest virus (bf). saltmarsh aedes vigilax (skuse) and freshwater aedes procax (skuse) were highly susceptible to infection, with id50s of 10(1.7) and 10(1.5) african green monkey kidney (vero) cell culture infectious dose, 50% endpoint (ccid50) per mosquito, respectively, followed by aedes multiplex (theobald) and aedes funereus (theobald) with 10(2.5) and 10(3.2) ccid5 ...199910593091
larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent effects of kaempferia galanga.four fractions of kaempferia galanga (hexane fraction, dichloromethane fraction 1, dichloromethane fraction 2 and methanolic fraction) were tested for larvicidal activity toward fourth instar culex quinquefasciatus. the hexane fraction was found to exhibit the highest larvicidal effect with the lc50 of 42.33 ppm. testing for adulticidal activity, the hexane fraction did not show any promising adulticidal effect. however, it caused a knockdown effect which might be useful as a repellent. it was t ...199910774653
a polymerase chain reaction based method for the detection of culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).culex quinquefasciatus say is the major vector of the filarial parasite wuchereria bancrofti (cobbold) which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. a repetitive dna sequence from the genome of c. quinquefasciatus has been cloned and completely sequenced. the 693 bp cloned fragment had an a+t content of 72%. dot matrix analysis of the fragment did not reveal any direct or inverted repeats within it. southern blot analysis using a variety of restriction enzymes appeared to indicate that the cloned ...200010948365
ross river virus transmission, infection, and disease: a cross-disciplinary review.ross river virus (rrv) is a fascinating, important arbovirus that is endemic and enzootic in australia and papua new guinea and was epidemic in the south pacific in 1979 and 1980. infection with rrv may cause disease in humans, typically presenting as peripheral polyarthralgia or arthritis, sometimes with fever and rash. rrv disease notifications in australia average 5,000 per year. the first well-described outbreak occurred in 1928. during world war ii there were more outbreaks, and the name ep ...200111585790
late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the republic of korea.field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 september 2000 in a malarious area near paekyeon-ri (tongil-chon) and camp greaves in paju county, kyonggi province, republic of korea. the host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of japanese encephalitis, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and ...200211949213
isolations of bwamba virus from south central uganda and north eastern tanzania.bwamba virus (genus bunyavirus, family bunyaviridae) is widely distributed in africa. it causes many unidentified fevers because of its benign nature.200212789111
a study of filaria in taiwan monkeys.filarial adult were found in the intermuscular connective tissue of the peritracheal and mandibular region of the taiwan monkey(macaca cyclopis). the microfilariae in the peripheral blood demonstrated a marked nocturnal periodicity with a peak between 2100-0100 hours and a low diurnal minimum between 900 and 1300 hours. staining the microfilaria by various stains demonstrated differences in size. no development of microfilariae was detected in the culex fatigans, culex tritaeniohyncus, aedes alb ...196412913612
studies on the bionomics of mosquito vectors which transmit filariasis in india. ii. the role of water hyacinth (eichhornia speciosa kunth) as an important host plant in the life cycle of mansonia uniformis (theobald) with notes on the differentiation of the late embryonic and newly hatched stages of mansonia uniformis (theobald). 196013689283
studies on the bionomics of mosquito vectors which transmit filariasis in india. iii. further studies on attachment of mansonia uniformis larvae to host plants occurring in pistia tanks in kerala, south india. 196013689284
the behaviour and development of brugia patei (buckley, nelson and heisch, 1958) in a mosquito host, mansonia uniformis (theobald). 196114462812
pre- and postprandial mosquito resting behavior around cattle hosts.spatial distribution of mosquitoes around a bovine host was studied in november 1997 in northern thailand (17 degrees 38'n. 99 degrees 23'e). forty bamboo stakes were arranged 1 m apart, in 4 rays of 10, around a cow tethered in an open field. all mosquitoes found resting on the stakes were collected by aspiration between 7:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., sexed, and identified to species; and feeding status was categorized as fed or unfed. collections were repeated over 8 nights, with and without the ho ...200314524542
definition of ross river virus vectors at maroochy shire, australia.evidence of ross river (rr) virus infection in field-collected mosquitoes and data from laboratory vector competence experiments incriminated a range of mosquito species as important vectors of rr virus in maroochy shire, queensland, australia. nine rr and 2 barmah forest virus isolates were recovered from 27,529 mosquitoes collected in light traps from maroochy shire during 1996. nine of the 10 most abundant mosquito species collected in light traps were fed on blood containing the b94/20 strai ...200015218919
mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (apium graveolens l.).when the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult aedes aegypti. the hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ed50) and ed95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. only this fraction, which was also found to provide pro ...200415228722
laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors.oils of syzygium aromaticum (clove) and zanthoxylum limonella (makaen), widely used essential oils for dental caries or flavoring of food in thailand, were prepared as 10 experimental repellent products in gel or cream form against aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus, and anopheles dirus under laboratory conditions, using the human-arm-in-cage method. two products that gave the longest-lasting complete protection were selected to examine their repellency against a variety of mosquito species u ...200415691131
susceptibility of mansonia uniformis to brugia malayi microfilariae from infected domestic cat.microfilariae of brugia malayi is transmitted to man and other susceptible hosts via mosquito. the transmission of b. malayi from cat to man by ma. uniformis bite has never been reported. the ma. uniformis mosquito is the normal vector for wuchereria bancrofti but has never been reported as a vector for b. malayi, or a susceptible host for the growth and development of the microfilariae of b. malayi. the purpose of this study was to examine the development of b. malayi in mansonia uniformis afte ...200515916051
identification of mammalian blood meals in mosquitoes by a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction targeting cytochrome b.to date, no polymerase chain reaction diagnostic technique exists to directly identify mammalian blood meals from mosquitoes by sized dna fragments following agarose gel electrophoresis. we have developed a vertebrate-specific multiplexed primer set based on mitochondrial cytochrome b to identify the mammalian blood hosts of field-collected mosquitoes. although designed for the study of african malaria vectors, the application of this tool is not restricted to this disease system. validation of ...200516103600
repellent properties of celery, apium graveolens l., compared with commercial repellents, against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.in our search for new bioactive products against mosquito vectors, we reported the slightly larvicidal and adulticidal potency, but remarkable repellency of apium graveolens both in laboratory and field conditions. repellency of the ethanolic preparation of hexane-extracted a. graveolens was, therefore, investigated and compared with those of 15 commercial mosquito repellents including the most widely used, deet. hexane-extracted a. graveolens showed a significant degree of repellency in a dose- ...200516262746
comparison of carbon dioxide- and octenol-baited encephalitis virus surveillance mosquito traps at the shoal water bay training area, queensland, australia.the use of octenol in combination with carbon dioxide (co2)-baited encephalitis virus surveillance (evs) mosquito traps was evaluated under simulated wartime operational conditions during operation tandem thrust (tt01) at the shoalwater bay training area, queensland, australia in 2001. a greater number of mosquito species were captured in traps baited with octenol plus co2 than those baited with co2 or octenol in the saltwater marsh, freshwater beach. in the inland environments of camp growl and ...200516506585
screening for larvicidal activity in some thai plants against four mosquito vector species.ninety-six ethanolic extracts from various parts of 84 thai plant species were tested for their larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti mosquitoes. extracts from rhinacanthus nasutus, derris elliptica, trigonostemon reidioides, homalomena aromatica, stemona tuberosa and acorus calamus possessed high larvicidal activity, with lc50 values between 16.0 and 48.2 mg/l. petroleum ether (pe) and methanol (meoh) extracts were tested for their larvicidal activity against 4 mosquito vector species. the ...200516610643
effectiveness of zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications.recently, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. in this study, zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil isolated by steam distillation was investigated and compared to the standard synthetic repellent, n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet), for repellency against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. the oil of z. piperitum alone and also with 5% ...200716896651
a role for mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in uganda?the possible role of mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis was assessed in an endemic area of uganda, by examining their diurnal biting cycle, host preference and ability to support the development of experimental and natural wuchereria bancrofti infections. anopheles gambiae s.l. served as controls. human landing catches revealed that outdoor biting peaked early in the evening (19:00-20:00h), while indoor biting peaked around midnight (23:00-24:00h). by far t ...200717316535
reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in pyrethroid resistance area, benin.the pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene (kdr) has become widespread in anopheles gambiae in west africa. a trial to test the continuing efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (itn) and indoor residual spraying (irs) was undertaken in experimental huts at 2 sites in benin, the first where kdr is present at high frequency (ladji), the second-where an. gambiae is susceptible (malanville). holes were made in the nets to mimic worn nets. at malanville, 96% of susceptible an. gambiae were inhibited fro ...200717479880
ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health.investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. this review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. first, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing wh ...200517637849
preliminary field testing of a long-lasting insecticide-treated hammock against anopheles gambiae and mansonia spp. (diptera: culicidae) in west africa.the efficacy of an experimental long-lasting insecticide-treated hammock (llih) with a long-lasting treated net used as a blanket and made of the same fabric (polyethylene) was tested in a concrete block experimental hut, against the malaria vector anopheles gambiae s.l. and the arbovirus vectors and nuisance mosquitoes mansonia africana (theobald) and mansonia uniformis (theobald). the llih was treated with the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. it was evaluated concurrently with ignited mosqui ...200717695020
attractiveness of mm-x traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the gambia.chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae). a field study was carried out in the gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. mm-x traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (co2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. in a second series of experiments, mm-x traps with 14 odor blends without co2 were tested. a blend of ammonia and l-lactic ...200718047195
rift valley fever outbreak with east-central african virus lineage in mauritania, 2003.in october 2003, 9 human cases of hemorrhagic fever were reported in 3 provinces of mauritania, west africa. test results showed acute rift valley fever virus (rvfv) infection, and a field investigation found recent circulation of rvfv with a prevalence rate of 25.5% (25/98) and 4 deaths among the 25 laboratory-confirmed case-patients. immunoglobulin m against rvfv was found in 46% (25/54) of domestic animals. rvfv was also isolated from the mosquito species culex poicilipes. genetic comparison ...200718214173
an experimental hut evaluation of olyset nets against anopheline mosquitoes after seven years use in tanzanian villages.long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) are advocated by who for protection against malaria. of the three brands of llins currently approved by who, olyset(r) is the only one currently granted full recommendation. with this type of llin, the insecticide (permethrin) is incorporated into the polyethylene fibre during manufacture and diffuses from the core to the surface, thereby maintaining surface concentrations. it has not been determined for how long olyset nets remain protective against mosqui ...200818307802
a recent survey of mosquito fauna in guangdong province,southern china, with a review of past records [corrected].the southern province of guangdong has long been subject to endemic mosquito-borne diseases. in recent years, this region of china has experienced rapid, extensive economic development involving environmental change, making much of the scant knowledge of its mosquito fauna obsolete. this paper reviews previous mosquito surveys, some of which may be too old to be of relevance to present-day conditions, and presents the results of a recent survey of adult and immature mosquitoes. the main vectors ...200819120964
sampling of adult mosquito vectors with mosquito magnet pro in panaji, goa, india.for mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, mosquito magnet pro (mm-pro), was tested for its usefulness in goa, india. anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. using the mm-pro 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. these included 6 species each of the genera anopheles and culex, 2 species of aedes, and 1 each of mansonia and armigeres. most (91%) of the mosquitoes ca ...200819181075
aedes albopictus mosquito: the main vector of the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in gabon.the primary vector at the origin of the 2007 outbreak in libreville, gabon is identified as aedes albopictus, trapped around the nearby french military camp. the chikungunya virus was isolated from mosquitoes and found to be identical to the a226v circulating human strain. this is the first field study showing the role of the recently arrived species aedes albopictus in chikungunya virus transmission in central africa, and it demonstrates this species' role in modifying the epidemiological prese ...200919259263
susceptibility of various mosquitoes of thailand to nocturnal subperiodic wuchereria bancrofti.ten different mosquito species representing five genera were allowed to feed on human blood containing microfilariae (5.5-6.5 mf/microl) of nocturnal subperiodic wuchereria bancrofti from kanchanaburi province, thailand. aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, aedes desmotes, downsiomyia species (=finlaya niveus group), culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles dirus a, an. maculatus, an. minimus, armigeres subalbatus, and mansonia uniformis were fed under laboratory conditions using an artificial membrane fee ...200819263851
mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi and brugia timori. these are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. in order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in aedes aegypti at various times during b. malayi development. changes in trans ...200919823571
ecological study of avian malaria vectors on the island of minami-daito, japan.the seasonal prevalence and spatial distribution of mosquitoes were examined as part of an avian malaria study on the oceanic island of minami-daito island, japan. because dry ice was not available in this study, yeast-generated co2 was used to attract biting mosquitoes. adult mosquitoes were collected biweekly using battery-operated traps enhanced with yeast-generated co2 and a gravid trap from march 2006 to february 2007. the co2-baited traps were distributed in 4 different habitats: sugar can ...200919852217
comparative field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and ir3535 against mosquitoes in queensland, australia.field trials comparing repellent formulations containing ir3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate) and deet (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in queensland, australia, were conducted. two repellents were compared: avon bug guard, containing 7.5% ir3535; and australian defense force (adf) deet, containing 35% deet in a gel. two tests were conducted, one in february-march 2006, and the second in february 2007. in the 1st test, the predominant mosquito species collected were manson ...200920099600
role of culex and anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in sudan outbreak, 2007.rift valley fever (rvf) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family bunyaviridae. rvf virus (rvfv) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the culex, anopheles and aedes genera.201020222979
mosquito transcriptome profiles and filarial worm susceptibility in armigeres subalbatus.armigeres subalbatus is a natural vector of the filarial worm brugia pahangi, but it kills brugia malayi microfilariae by melanotic encapsulation. because b. malayi and b. pahangi are morphologically and biologically similar, comparing ar. subalbatus-b. pahangi susceptibility and ar. subalbatus-b. malayi refractoriness could provide significant insight into recognition mechanisms required to mount an effective anti-filarial worm immune response in the mosquito, as well as provide considerable de ...201020421927
rift valley fever virus epidemic in kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.in december 2006, rift valley fever (rvf) was diagnosed in humans in garissa hospital, kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of rvf virus (rvfv). approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for rvfv by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested po ...201020682903
screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors.partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. we wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases.201020689815
culicidae diversity, malaria transmission and insecticide resistance alleles in malaria vectors in ouidah-kpomasse-tori district from benin (west africa): a pre-intervention study.abstract:201020819214
nonspecific patterns of vector, host and avian malaria parasite associations in a central african rainforest.malaria parasites use vertebrate hosts for asexual multiplication and culicidae mosquitoes for sexual and asexual development, yet the literature on avian malaria remains biased towards examining the asexual stages of the life cycle in birds. to fully understand parasite evolution and mechanism of malaria transmission, knowledge of all three components of the vector-host-parasite system is essential. little is known about avian parasite-vector associations in african rainforests where numerous s ...201021134011
rift valley fever virus(bunyaviridae: phlebovirus): an update on pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, vectors, diagnostics and prevention.rift valley fever(rvf) virus is an arbovirus in the bunyaviridae family that, from phylogenetic analysis, appears to have first emerged in the mid-19th century and was only identified at the beginning of the 1930's in the rift valley region of kenya. despite being an arbovirus with a relatively simple but temporally and geographically stable genome, this zoonotic virus has already demonstrated a real capacity for emerging in new territories, as exemplified by the outbreaks in egypt (1977), weste ...201021188836
the effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (itmns) on japanese encephalitis virus seroconversion in pigs and humans.the effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (itmns) on japanese encephalitis (je) virus seroconversion in pigs and humans was studied in assam, northeast india. a sharp reduction of seroconversion rate in human and pig was found in treated localities after intervention. a marked reduction was achieved in humans (risk ratio [rr] = 0.28, 95% confidence interval [ci] = 0.16-0.49) and pigs (rr = 0.21, ci = 0.11-0.40) in the kollolua locality where itmns were used on both humans and pigs compared ...201121363988
comparison of the efficacy of co(2) -baited and unbaited light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and sweep net collections for sampling mosquitoes infected with japanese encephalitis virus.two field studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of mosquito collection methods for species composition, species abundance, and japanese encephalitis virus infection rates in taiwan. traps evaluated included john w. hock (jh) model ud black light traps, jh model 1012 new standard miniature cdc light traps, jh model 1712 cdc gravid traps, and taiwan-made pest-o-lite light traps. backpack aspirators and sweep nets were also used to collect the resting population. culex tritaeniorhynchus ...201121635643
feeding behaviour of potential vectors of west nile virus in senegal.west nile virus (wnv) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. the djoudj park, located in senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from europe during the study period (sept. 2008- jan. 2009). in this ...201121651763
entomological study of chikungunya infections in the state of kelantan, malaysia.chikungunya infection has become a public health threat in malaysia since the 2008 nationwide outbreaks. aedes albopictus skuse has been identified as the chikungunya vector in johor state during the outbreaks. in 2009, several outbreaks had been reported in the state of kelantan. entomological studies were conducted in kelantan in four districts, namely jeli, tumpat, pasir mas and tanah merah to identify the vector responsible for the virus transmission.201121727669
ability of selected kenyan mosquito (diptera: culicidae) species to transmit west nile virus under laboratory conditions.west nile virus (wnv) is currently active in kenya as evidenced by the detection of antibodies in birds bled as part of an avian influenza surveillance program in 2009. although wnv has been isolated from several mosquito species in kenya, no studies have ever been conducted to determine which of these species are competent vectors of this virus. therefore, we allowed kenyan mosquitoes to feed on 2- or 3-d-old chickens that had been infected with a lineage one strain of wnv 24-48 h earlier. thes ...201122238879
zika virus: a review from the virus basics to proposed management strategies.this review aims to summarize the body of knowledge available on zika virus to date. a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on zika virus was performed with the aim to stress relevant aspects for healthcare professionals in the non-endemic areas. for several years, the zika virus infection was considered an extremely rare exotic disease with poor clinical relevance. however, zika virus has recently gained the attention of the scientific community and public opinion since the virus s ...201627872736
transmission potential of rickettsia felis infection by anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.a growing number of recent reports have implicated rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of r. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas. here anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-saharan africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with r. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. in addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on r. felis-infected balb/c mice. the acquisition a ...201526056256
mosquito communities and disease risk influenced by land use change and seasonality in the australian tropics.anthropogenic land use changes have contributed considerably to the rise of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. these diseases appear to be increasing as a result of the novel juxtapositions of habitats and species that can result in new interchanges of vectors, diseases and hosts. we studied whether the mosquito community structure varied between habitats and seasons and whether known disease vectors displayed habitat preferences in tropical australia.201627388293
global emergence of alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human and animal health in the world today. these infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, and encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. it is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, and host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. presently, there is a great interest in the emergence ...201526689654
development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (smack).although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (smack) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (flinders technology associates; fta®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light ...201526444264
review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in thailand.physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. the complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent') properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. the development of "physiological" resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and ...201324294938
multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne rna viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. here, we report an oligonucleotide dna microarray design, termed arbochip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identifica ...201323967358
viral metagenomics demonstrates that domestic pigs are a potential reservoir for ndumu virus.the rising demand for pork has resulted in a massive expansion of pig production in uganda. this has resulted in increased contact between humans and pigs. pigs can act as reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. therefore identification of potential zoonotic pathogens is important for public health surveillance. in this study, during a routine general surveillance for african swine fever, domestic pigs from uganda were screened for the presence of rna and dna viruses using a high-throughput ...201223006778
mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance at selected sites in diverse ecological zones of kenya; 2007 - 2012.increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in east africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. a systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out.201323663381
evaluation of a field-portable dna microarray platform and nucleic acid amplification strategies for the detection of arboviruses, arthropods, and bloodmeals.highly multiplexed assays, such as microarrays, can benefit arbovirus surveillance by allowing researchers to screen for hundreds of targets at once. we evaluated amplification strategies and the practicality of a portable dna microarray platform to analyze virus-infected mosquitoes. the prototype microarray design used here targeted the non-structural protein 5, ribosomal rna, and cytochrome b genes for the detection of flaviviruses, mosquitoes, and bloodmeals, respectively. we identified 13 of ...201223249687
scoping review of the zika virus literature.the global primary literature on zika virus (zikv) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to march 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on zikv has been published since 2011. the articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of zikv (surveillance an ...201627244249
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