dietary administration of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan enhances the innate immune response of brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate and kappa (kappa)-carrageenan at 5, 10 and 20gkg(-1), respectively after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 weeks were examined for survival, growth, innate cellular and humoral responses as compared to the fish that fed control non-supplemented diet. survival was 100% for the fish that fed all diets after 14 weeks and no significant difference in growth was observed among seven diets. the fish that fed a diet ...200817981341
putative apolipoprotein a-i, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g are involved in the early immune response of brown-marbled grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, forskal, to vibrio alginolyticus.the gram-negative bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus, has frequently been identified as the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease called vibriosis. this disease is one of the major challenges facing brown-marbled grouper aquaculture, causing fish farmers globally to suffer substantial economic losses. the objective of this study was to investigate the proteins involved in the immune response of brown-marbled grouper fingerlings during their initial encounter with pathogenic organisms. to ...201424304156
[study of three ciguatera fish poisoning cases in xiamen city, in 2005].to find out the reason of three ciguatera fish poisoning cases in xiamen in 2005 and identify the fish species.201121914333
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2009-30 september 2009.this article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) sequencing primers to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: adelges tsugae, artemisia tridentata, astroides calycularis, azorella selago, botryllus schlosseri, botrylloides violaceus, cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, campylopterus curvipennis, colocasia esculenta, cynomys ludovicianus, cynomys leucurus, cynomys gunnisoni, ...201021565018
ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in okinawa, being located in the subtropical region has the highest incidence of ciguatera in japan. officially, 33 outbreaks involving 103 patients have been reported between 1997 and 2006. the implicated species were variola louti, lutjanus bohar, lutjanus monostigma, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, unidentified lutjanus sp., plectropomus areolatus, oplegnathus punctatus, epinephelus polyphekadion, caranx ignobilis and moray eel. toxicities of the leftover meals, as determined by mouse bioassays, range ...201019520098
a systemic iridoviral disease in mullet, mugil cephalus l., and tiger grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus forsskal: a first report and study.a systemic iridoviral disease associated with high mortality was initially recognized in cultured mullet, mugil cephalus l., and tiger grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus forsskal, by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. polymerase chain reaction was performed on tissues and viral isolates, using four published primer sets developed for the red sea bream iridovirus (rsiv). an indirect fluorescent antibody test was also performed on virus-infected atcc gruntfin (gf) and seabass, la ...200415575877
non-immune-related genes and signalling pathways in spleen of vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected epinephelus fuscoguttatus (forskal). 201525073481
experimental infection of brown-marbled grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus (forskal), with vibrio parahaemolyticus identifies parvalbumin beta-2 subunit i, alpha-2-macroglobulin, nattectin and immunoglobulin light chain, differentially expressed in resistant grouper.the mechanisms through which brown-marbled grouper accomplishes resistance to infection, particularly against vibrios, are not yet fully understood. in this study, brown-marbled grouper fingerlings were experimentally infected with vibrio parahaemolyticus, to identify disease resistance grouper, and the serum proteome profiles were compared between resistant and susceptible candidates, via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de). the results showed that putative parvalbumin beta-2 subunit i, ...201524397626
identification of immune response-related genes and signalling pathways in spleen of vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected epinephelus fuscoguttatus (forskal) by next-generation sequencing. 201625786532
histological assessments of intestinal immuno-morphology of tiger grouper juvenile, epinephelus fuscoguttatus.histological assessments on the intestinal morphology and immunity of tiger grouper juveniles, epinephelus fuscoguttatus help in determining the earliest age to start an oral vaccination. this study describes the morphological development of the intestinal immunity of tiger grouper of various ages. clinically healthy tiger groupers were selected and divided into 4 groups of 20 fish per group. groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 consisted of juveniles of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days old, respectively. the whole inte ...201324340241
susceptibility of farmed juvenile giant grouper epinephelus lanceolatus to a newly isolated grouper iridovirus (genus ranavirus).a ranavirus was isolated from the diseased farmed groupers (grouper iridovirus in genus ranavirus, giv-r), epinephelus hybrids (blotchy rock cod, epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀×giant grouper, epinephelus lanceolatus ♂), in sanya, hainan, in july 2013. in this study, susceptibility of farmed juvenile giant grouper e. lanceolatus to giv-r was determined by intraperitoneally injection. the cumulative mortality reached to 81% at 5 day post infection. histologically, severe degeneration with massive pyc ...201525912024
homogeneous nature of malaysian marine fish epinephelus fuscoguttatus (perciformes; serranidae): evidence based on molecular markers, morphology and fourier transform infrared analysis.taxonomic confusion exists within the genus epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. the homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the malaysian marine fish species epinephelus fuscoguttatus and epinephelus hexagonatus. in this study, the partial dna sequence of the 16s gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, cytochrome oxidase subunit i and iii were used to investi ...201526147421
ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper in relation to fish size and geographical determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) pacific ciguatoxin (p-ctx) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) p-ctx profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures rest ...201526324735
microbial diversity and parasitic load in tropical fish of different environmental this study we analysed fecal bacterial communities and parasites of three important indonesian fish species, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, epinephelus sexfasciatus and atule mate. we then compared the biodiversity of bacterial communities and parasites of these three fish species collected in highly polluted jakarta bay with those collected in less polluted indonesian areas of cilacap (e. sexfasciatus, a. mate) and thousand islands (e. fuscoguttatus). in addition, e. fuscoguttatus from net cages ...201627018789
restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management.conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. for tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small-the median no-take locally managed marine area (lmma) area throughout the pacific is less than 1 km(2). this is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which indiv ...201627069662
characterization and viral susceptibility of a brain cell line from brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus (forsskål) with persistent betanodavirus infection.a continuous cell line designated bmgb (brown-marbled grouper brain) was established from the brain tissues of the brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus and characterized. bmgb cells were identified as astroglial progenitor cells because they expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein and keratin and were persistently infected by betanodavirus, as confirmed through immunocytochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. because few intact virions were present in the bmgb ...201627087415
metagenomic analysis between free-living and cultured epinephelus fuscoguttatus under different environmental conditions in indonesian this study, we analyzed and compared feces of free-living and cultivated fish species, epinephelus fuscoguttatus under different environmental conditions in indonesian waters. metagenome analysis was performed using illumina miseq sequencing of the whole metagenomic dna isolated from fish feces samples. the analysis covered both prokaryotic and eukaryotic dna. feces samples from mariculture fish revealed a highly stable distribution of several orders of bacteria when compared to samples from ...201627210559
characterization of a vasa homolog in the brown-marbled grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and its expression in gonad and germ cells during larval development.the vasa gene is specifically expressed in the germ cell lineage, and its expression has been used to study germline development in many organisms, including fishes. in this study, we cloned and characterized vasa as efu-vasa in the brown-marbled grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus). efu-vasa contained predicted regions that shared consensus motifs with the vasa family in teleosts, including arginine- and glycine-rich repeats, atpase motifs, and a dead box. phylogenetic-tree construction using va ...201627406385
a stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in peninsular malaysia.cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in malaysia. however, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in peninsular malaysia. this paper uses farm level data gathered from manjung, perak and kota tinggi, johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. the technical efficiency was estimated and spe ...201627478744
the complete mitochondrial genome of the epinephelus fuscoguttatus (perciformes: serranidae).the complete mitochondrial genome of the epinephelus fuscoguttatus was presented in this study. the mitochondrial genome is 16,648 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rrna genes, 22 trna genes, and a control region. the gene order and the composition of e. fuscoguttatus mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. the nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 26.91% of a, 15.58% of c, 29.19% of t, and 28.32% of g. with the exception of the nadh dehy ...201625629494
isolation, identification and pathogenicity of vibrio harveyi, the causal agent of skin ulcer disease in juvenile hybrid groupers epinephelus fuscoguttatus × epinephelus lanceolatus.the hybrid grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀) × epinephelus lanceolatus (♂), is a newly bred cultivated marine fish species of high economic value. however, a skin ulcer disease with high mortality has occurred, and the responsible pathogen remains unknown. in this study, we summarized the epidemic status and external signs of this disease. we screened potential pathogens and finally isolated one bacterial strain ml01 from affected fish. we subjected healthy juvenile hybrid groupers to bacte ...201728252178
a novel heart-cell line from brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its susceptibility to iridovirus.a novel cell line (bmgh) was established from the heart of brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its viral susceptibility was evaluated. the bmgh cells have been subcultured to passage 65 in dulbecco's modified eagle medium:ham's nutrient mixture f-12 (1:1) medium (dmem/f12) which was further supplemented with foetal bovine serum (fbs), carboxymethyl-chitosan, basic fibroblast growth factor (bfgf) and insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) at 24 degrees c. the heart cells have a fibr ...201020409167
development of microsatellite markers for the kelp grouper epinephelus bruneus by 454 pyrosequencing and transfer to related species.the kelp or longtooth grouper (epinephelus bruneus), which inhabits eastern asia, is the most economically important of 11 grouper species that inhabit the southern sea near jeju island in korea. this species is listed as vulnerable by the international union for the conservation of nature and natural resources because of a rapid decrease in its resources. we developed microsatellite markers for e. bruneus using the pyrosequencing technique for applications in resource management and aquaculture ...201324301919
trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp. (kinetoplastida) from a farmed marine fish in china, the brown-marbled grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus).an outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in farmed epinephelus fuscoguttatus in xincun bay, province of hainan, south china sea. the infected fish showed loss of appetite, lethargy, emaciation, severe anemia, and splenomegaly. light and scanning electron microscopic examination of bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed morphological features typical for small-sized marine fish trypanosomes. the trypanosome possesses a short body length (mean 22.3 μm, range 17.6-25.9 μm) and narrow body width (mean1. ...201424114332
salinity and temperature tolerance of brown-marbled grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus.grouper have to face varied environmental stressors as a result of drastic changes to water conditions during the storm season. we aimed to test the response of brown-marbled grouper to drastic and gradual changes in temperature and salinity to understand the grouper's basic stress response. the results can improve the culture of grouper. brown-marbled grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus (6.2 ± 0.8 g) were examined for temperature and salinity tolerances at nine different environmental regimes (1 ...201322869056
characterization of 10 novel microsatellite loci for the brown marbled grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus (serranidae).epinephelus fuscoguttatus is a commercially important marine fish species in southeast asia. due to overfishing and water pollution, this species has been declared as near-threatened. thus, to provide information to help maintain and preserve the species, microsatellites were developed, using an enriched genomic library method. thirty individuals were collected from the hatchery of the fishery research institute, terengganu, malaysia. these individuals, from four to six years old, originated fro ...201121644205
parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? an example from tropical grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in indonesia. a total of 210 epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. the fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. the fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. the ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the m ...201121320385
microsatellites for broodstock management of the tiger grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus. 200818076741
large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.brown marbled grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the indo-pacific region. all five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. affected subjects generally developed a comb ...201425019942
the complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀)×epinephelus lanceolatus (♂).in this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the hybrid grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀)×epinephelus lanceolatus (♂). the full-length of the mitochondrial genome consisted of a 16,644 bp fragment, with the base composition of a (29.21%), c (26.84%), g (15.65%) and t (28.29%). it contained 2 rrna genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 trna genes, and a major non-coding control region (d-loop region). the composition and order of these genes were identical to most other v ...201625319299
characterization of alpha-2-macroglobulin from groupers.alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-m) is a protease inhibitor broadly present in the plasma of vertebrates and invertebrates, and is an important non-specific humoral factor in defence system of the animals. this study conducted the immuno-analysis and mass spectrometric analysis methods to investigate the characteristics of the protease inhibitor, α-2-m, among groupers and related species. rabbit antiserum to the purified α-2-m of epinephelus coioides was used in different immunological methods to dete ...201323711467
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