stimulation of de novo synthesis of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in relation to phytoalexin accumulation in colletotrichum lindemuthianum elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures of french bean (phaseolus vulgaris).(1) the regulation of the accumulation of the isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexin phaseollin in cell suspension cultures of dwarf french bean (phaseolus vulgaris/ has been investigated. (2) an elicitor preparation from cell walls of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of french bean, caused a marked accumulation of phaseollin in the cultures. the elicitor induced phaseollin accumulation to a level of 60% that obtained with the artificial elicitor autoclaved ribonu ...1979476149
bean pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins deduced from elicitor-induced transcripts are members of a ubiquitous new class of conserved pr proteins including pollen allergens.we have searched for induced transcripts in a cdna library derived from bean cell supension cultures treated with an elicitor from colletotrichum lindemuthianum. six independently isolated cdnas corresponding to rapidly induced small mrnas have been classified by their dna sequence and slightly different induction behaviour into two groups. 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions exhibit little similarity, but the deduced small acidic proteins designated pvpr1 and pvpr2 are 89% identical. no relationshi ...19902274036
common amino acid domain among endopolygalacturonases of ascomycete fungi.the endopolygalacturonase (ec enzymes produced in vitro by three ascomycete fungi, aspergillus niger, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and colletotrichum lindemuthianum were studied by using thin-layer isoelectric focusing and activity stain overlay techniques. the polygalacturonases from a. niger and s. sclerotiorum consisted of numerous isoforms, whereas the endopolygalacturonase from c. lindemuthianum consisted of a single protein species. the most abundant endopolygalacturonase isoform pr ...19902403258
membrane-bound hydroxylases in elicitor-treated bean cells. rapid induction of the synthesis of prolyl hydroxylase and a putative cytochrome p-450.treatment of cell-suspension cultures of bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. canadian wonder) with an elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum resulted in rapid changes in the activities of two microsomal oxygenases, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, involved in accumulation of wall-bound phenolics and phytoalexins, and proline 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (prolyl hydroxylase) involved in the post-translational modification of hydroxypr ...19863017713
selectable genes for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (colletotrichum lindemuthianum).glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (gcp) was transformed using either of two selectable markers: the amds + gene of aspergillus nidulans, which encodes acetamidase and permits growth on acetamide as the sole nitrogen source and the hygbr gene of escherichia coli which encodes hygromycin b (hy) phosphotransferase and permits growth in the presence of the antibiotic hy. the amds+ gene functioned in gcp under control of a. nidulans regulatory signals and hygbr was expressed after fusion to a prom ...19873038698
l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from phaseolus vulgaris. characterisation and differential induction of multiple forms from elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures.l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (ec has been purified over 200-fold from cell cultures of bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) exposed to elicitor heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum. four forms of the enzyme, with identical mr but differing apparent pi values of 5.4, 5.2, 5.05 and 4.85, were observed following the final chromatofocussing stage of the purification. a preparation (purified 43-fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel-fil ...19853996414
proteins from plant cell walls inhibit polygalacturonases secreted by plant pathogens.proteins extracted from the cell walls of red kidney bean hypocotyls, tomato stems, and suspension-cultured sycamore cells can completely inhibit the activity of the polygalacturonases (polygalacturonide hydrolases, ec secreted by the fungal plant pathogens colletotrichum lindemuthianum, fusarium oxysporum, and sclerotium rolfsii. the inhibitor of the c. lindemuthianum polygalacturonase, purified 560-fold from bean hypocotyl extracts, is 40 times as effective an inhibitor of the c. lin ...19715288769
induction of chalcone isomerase in elicitor-treated bean cells. comparison of rates of synthesis and appearance of immunodetectable enzyme.chalcone isomerase, an enzyme involved in the formation of flavonoid-derived compounds in plants, has been purified nearly 600-fold from cell suspension cultures of dwarf french bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.). chromatofocussing yielded a single form of the enzyme of apparent pi 5.0. this preparation was used to raise rabbit anti-(chalcone isomerase) serum. changes in the rate of synthesis of chalcone isomerase have been investigated by indirect immunoprecipitation of enzyme labelled in vivo with [ ...19846489352
elicitor induction of mrna activity. rapid effects of elicitor on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase mrna activities in bean cells.changes in the activity levels of mrnas encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase, two characteristic enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, in elicitor-treated cells of dwarf french bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [35s]methionine-labelled enzyme subunits synthesised in vitro in an mrna-dependent rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system. elicitor heat-released from cell walls of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent ...19836825684
elicitors and suppressors of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein accumulation are solubilized from plant cell walls by endopolygalacturonase.treatment of bean cell walls with a pure endopolygalacturonase of the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum race beta released oligogalacturonides and pectic fragments which were separated according to their charge and size. among galacturonic-acid-containing components, elicitors and suppressors of the plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (hrgp) were recovered. two active small oligogalacturonides with degrees of polymerization of 2 and 3 were characterized by high-performance ...19957556193
purification and characterization of chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum.chitin deacetylase (ec, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamido groups of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine in chitin, has been purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of the fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum and further characterized. the enzyme is a glycoprotein, and its apparent molecular mass was determined to be approximately 150 kda. the glycosylation pattern of the enzyme is consistent with a mixture of n-linked glycans including oligomannosidic hybrid and/or com ...19957592838
polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in phaseolus vulgaris l. in response to wounding, elicitors and fungal infection.polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) is a cell wall-associated protein that specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of fungal endopolygalacturonases. the phaseolus vulgaris gene encoding pgip has been cloned and characterized. using a fragment of the cloned pgip gene as a probe in northern blot experiments, it is demonstrated that the pgip mrna accumulates in suspension-cultured bean cells following addition of elicitor-active oligogalacturonides or fungal glucan to the medium. ra ...19948019588
deacetylation of chitin oligosaccharides of dp 2-4 by chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum.chitin oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 2-4 were deacetylated by purified chitin deacetylase isolated from colletotrichum lindemuthianum to give their corresponding breakdown products after purification by liquid chromatography. data from fabms analyses suggested that n,n',n",n"'-tetraacetylchitotetraose and n,n',n"-triacetylchitotriose were converted into fully-deacetylated corresponding chitosan oligomers. conversely, n,n'-diacetylchitobiose [(glcnac)2] was deacetylated to give a p ...19979373940
clk1, a serine/threonine protein kinase-encoding gene, is involved in pathogenicity of colletotrichum lindemuthianum on common bean.a random insertional mutagenesis in colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose, generated four mutants that showed altered pathogenicity when tested on intact seedlings, excised leaves, and/or excised hypocotyls. one of these mutants, h290, produced very few lesions on bean leaves and appeared affected in its ability to penetrate the leaf cuticle. molecular analyses showed that the border sequences of the unique integration site of the disrupting pan7-1 plasmid in ...19989450334
comparative biochemistry of the oxidative burst produced by rose and french bean cells reveals two distinct mechanismscultured cells of rose (rosa damascena) treated with an elicitor derived from phytophthora spp. and suspension-cultured cells of french bean (phaseolus vulgaris) treated with an elicitor derived from the cell walls of colletotrichum lindemuthianum both produced h2o2. it has been hypothesized that in rose cells h2o2 is produced by a plasma membrane nad(p)h oxidase (superoxide synthase), whereas in bean cells h2o2 is derived directly from cell wall peroxidases following extracellular alkalinizatio ...19989536055
variation in genome organization of the plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the genome structure of colletotrichum lindemuthianum in a set of diverse isolates was investigated using a combination of physical and molecular approaches. flow cytometric measurement of genome size revealed significant variation between strains, with the smallest genome representing 59% of the largest. southern-blot profiles of a cloned fungal telomere revealed a total chromosome number varying from 9 to 12. chromosome separations using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) showed that thes ...19989560437
use of green fluorescent protein to detect expression of an endopolygalacturonase gene of colletotrichum lindemuthianum during bean infection.the 5' noncoding region of clpg2, an endopolygalacturonase gene of the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum, was fused to the coding sequence of a gene encoding a green fluorescent protein (gfp), and the construct was introduced into the fungal genome. detection of gfp accumulation by fluorescence microscopy examination revealed that clpg2 was expressed at the early stages of germination of the conidia and during appressorium formation both in vitro and on the host plant.199910103279
processing, targeting, and antifungal activity of stinging nettle agglutinin in transgenic tobacco.the gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (urtica dioica l. ) isolectin i was introduced into tobacco (nicotiana tabacum). in transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. the mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. a gene construct lacking the c-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the c terminus in subcellular trafficking. in tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant prec ...199910364393
production of a recombinant chitin deacetylase in the culture medium of escherichia coli cells.with the aid of a signal sequence of a chitinase from streptomyces lividans, a recombinant chitin deacetylase, whose gene originated from a deuteromycete, colletotrichum lindemuthianum, was produced in the culture medium of escherichia coli cells, existing as a highly active form without the signal peptide. during the production of the recombinant chitin deacetylase, both a slight increase in the value of od600 nm in the culture medium and a drastic decrease in viable cell number were observed. ...199910518926
reverse hydrolysis reaction of chitin deacetylase and enzymatic synthesis of beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-glcn from chitobiose.we found that a chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum could acetylate free amino sugar residues into n-acetylated forms in the presence of 3.0 m sodium acetate. the result was analyzed using a beta-n-acetyl-hexosaminidase-coupled assay system with p-nitrophenyl 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta- d-glucopyranoside as the substrate, and the liberation of p-nitrophenol was observed as a consequence of enzymatic n-acetylation of the glucosamine re ...199910629946
n-deacetylation of sinorhizobium meliloti nod factors increases their stability in the medicago sativa rhizosphere and decreases their biological activity.nod factors excreted by rhizobia are signal molecules that consist of a chitin oligomer backbone linked with a fatty acid at the nonreducing end. modifications of the nod factor structures influence their stability in the rhizosphere and their biological activity. to test the function of n-acetyl groups in nod factors, nodsm-iv(c16:2,s) from sinorhizobium meliloti was enzymatically n-deacetylated in vitro with purified chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum. a family of partially ...200010656587
synthesis of a chitosan tetramer derivative, beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-d-glc n through a partial n-acetylation reaction by chitin deacetylase.we have synthesized beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-beta-d-glcnac-(1-->4)-d-glcn (2) through a partial n-acetylation reaction of chitosan tetramer 1 by a chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum atcc 56676. the compound was purified from the mixture of acetylation products of 1 using cation-exchange column chromatography and amine-adsorption column chromatography, and its structure was estimated by 1h nmr and fabms analyses. the enzymatic reaction allows a regioselectivi ...200010795812
immunomagnetic purification of colletotrichum lindemuthianum appressoria.we developed a method to purify appressoria of the bean anthracnose fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum for biochemical analysis of the cell surface and to compare appressoria with other fungal structures. we used immunomagnetic separation after incubation of infected bean leaf homogenates with a monoclonal antibody that binds strongly to the appressoria. preparations with a purity of >90% could be obtained. examination of the purified appressoria by transmission electron microscopy showed that ...200010919807
differential patterns of arabinosylation by membranes of suspension-cultured cells of phaseolus vulgaris (french bean) after subculture or elicitation.suspension-cultured cells of phaseolus vulgaris (french bean) incorporated [1-3h] arabinose in vivo into high-mr polymers that could be separated into glycoprotein and polysaccharide. microsomal membranes from suspension-cultured cells of beans incorporated arabinose from udp-beta-l-arabinose in vitro into both polysaccharide and glycoprotein. the enzyme involved in arabinan synthesis, arabinan synthase, appeared to be immunologically distinct from the protein:arabinosyltransferase system. both ...19846477524
purification and characterization of two basic beta-1,3-glucanases induced in colletotrichum lindemuthianum-infected bean seedlings.two beta-1,3-glucanases which are rapidly induced in the incompatible interaction between bean (cv. processor) and colletotrichum lindemuthianum race beta were purified to homogeneity. characterization of the two enzymes, ge1 and ge2, showed that they both had a basic isolectric point and a similar molecular weight (36,500 for ge1 and 36,000 for ge2), but differed in their ph optimum, thermal stability, and specific activity. ge2 was present in higher amounts but was shown to be less active than ...19921731612
a gal4-like protein is involved in the switch between biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of the infection process of colletotrichum lindemuthianum on common bean. .random insertional mutagenesis was conducted with the hemibiotrophic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of common bean anthracnose. nine mutants that were altered in their infection process on the host plant were generated. one of these, h433 is a nonpathogenic mutant able to induce necrotic spots on infected leaves rapidly. these spots are similar to those observed during the hypersensitive reaction. cytological observations showed that the development of the mutant h433 is stop ...200011006333
recognition of chitooligosaccharides and their n-acetyl groups by putative subsites of chitin deacetylase from a deuteromycete, colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the reaction pattern of an extracellular chitin deacetylase from a deuteromycete, colletotrichum lindemuthianum atcc 56676, was investigated by use of chitooligosaccharides [(glcnac)(n)(), n = 3-6] and partially n-deacetylated chitooligosaccharides as substrates. when 0.5% of (glcnac)(n)() was deacetylated, the corresponding monodeacetylated products were initially detected without any processivity, suggesting the involvement of a multiple-chain mechanism for the deacetylation reaction. the stru ...200010913295
inheritance of partial resistance against colletotrichum lindemuthianum in phaseolus vulgaris and co-localization of quantitative trait loci with genes involved in specific resistance.anthracnose, one of the most important diseases of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris), is caused by the fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum. a "candidate gene" approach was used to map anthracnose resistance quantitative trait loci (qtl). candidate genes included genes for both pathogen recognition (resistance genes and resistance gene analogs [rgas]) and general plant defense (defense response genes). two strains of c. lindemuthianum, identified in a world collection of 177 strains, displayed a ...200010707354
a new class of tetraspanins in fungi.tetraspanins are animal proteins involved in membrane complexes that are involved in cell adhesion, differentiation, and motility. the pls1 gene from rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea encodes a protein (pls1p) structurally related to tetraspanins that is required for pathogenicity. in botrytis cinerea public sequences, we identified an est homologous to pls1. using degenerated oligonucleotides, we amplified sequences homologous to pls1 in fungi colletotrichum lindemuthianum and neurospora cra ...200212372414
clap1, a gene encoding a copper-transporting atpase involved in the process of infection by the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum.a screen for insertional mutants of colletrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of common bean anthracnose, led to the identification of a non-pathogenic, lightly colored transformant. this mutant is unable to induce disease symptoms on intact or wounded primary leaves of seedlings and plantlets of phaseolus vulgaris. in vitro, it exhibits normal vegetative growth, sporulation and conidial germination, but the cultures remain beige instead of becoming black. microscopic examination revealed ...200212395188
chitosanase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-chitotrioside.4-methylumbelliferyl beta-chitotrioside [(glcn)(3)-umb] was prepared from 4-methylumbelliferyl tri-n-acetyl-beta-chitotrioside [(glcnac)(3)-umb] using chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and hydrolyzed by chitosanase from streptomyces sp. n174. the enzymatic deacetylation of (glcnac)(3)-umb was confirmed by (1)h-nmr spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. when the (glcn)(3)-umb obtained was incubated with chitosanase, the fluorescence intensity at 450 nm obtained by excitation at ...199910467161
elicitor activity of a fungal endopolygalacturonase in tobacco requires a functional catalytic site and cell wall localization.clpg1, an endopolygalacturonase (endopg) gene of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, was transferred to tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) leaves by using the agrobacterium tumefaciens transient delivery system. the following four constructs were prepared: clpg1, with or without its signal peptide (sp; pg1, pg1deltasp); clpg1 with the tobacco expansin1 sp instead of its own sp (exp::pg1deltasp); and a mutated version of the latter on two amino acids potentially involved in the catalytic site of clpg1 (d202n ...200312529518
spore surface glycoproteins of colletotrichum lindemuthianum are recognized by a monoclonal antibody which inhibits adhesion to polystyrene.conidia (spores) of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal plant pathogen causing bean anthracnose, adhere to the aerial parts of host plants to initiate the infection process. these spores possess a fibrillar 'spore coat' as well as a cell wall. in a previous study a mab, ub20, was raised that recognized glycoproteins on the spore surface. in this study ub20 was used to localize and characterize these glycoproteins and to investigate their possible role in adhesion. glycoproteins recognized by ...199910463159
clnr1, the area/nit2-like global nitrogen regulator of the plant fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum is required for the infection cycle.nitrogen starvation is generally assumed to be encountered by biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens at the beginning of their infection cycle. we tested whether nitrogen starvation constitutes a cue regulating genes that are required for pathogenicity of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of common bean. the clnr1 (c. lindemuthianumnitrogen regulator 1) gene, the area/nit-2 orthologue of c. lindemuthianum, was isolated. the predicted clnr1 protein exhibits high amino ...200312694611
expression cloning of a fungal proline-rich glycoprotein specific to the biotrophic interface formed in the colletotrichum-bean interaction.the monoclonal antibody, ub25, recognises a glycoprotein specifically located at the biotrophic interface formed in the colletotrichum lindemuthianum-bean interaction. the antibody labels the walls of intracellular hyphae and the interfacial matrix which separates them from the invaginated host plasma membrane. in western blots, ub25 recognises a ladder of bands which are multiples of m(r) 40.5 kda. a full length cdna encoding the glycoprotein recognised by ub25 has been isolated by expression c ...19989721685
a 2s albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds inhibits the fungal growth and acidification of the medium by fusarium oxysporum.antimicrobial proteins have been isolated from a wide range of plant species. more recently, it has become increasingly clear that these types of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants. in this study, we investigate the presence of defense-related proteins from passion fruit (passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) seeds. initially, seed flour was extracted for 2h (at 4 degrees c) with phosphate buffer, ph 5.5. the precipitate obtained between 0 and 70% relative ammonium sulfate sa ...200312893296
conidial anastomosis tubes in colletotrichum.we describe the occurrence of special kinds of hyphae that create anastomoses directly between conidia. they can be found both in the laboratory and on infected plants. they first appear within asexual fruiting bodies approximately 15 days after conidiation has begun leading to the appearance of chains of connected conidia. coincident with this we demonstrate in colletotrichum lindemuthianum nuclear dynamics, including fragmentation, with cytoplasmic flow and passage of nuclei and organelles bet ...200314516766
production of a cell wall-associated endopolygalacturonase by colletotrichum lindemuthianum and pectin degradation during bean infection.the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum expresses two endopolygalacturonase genes, clpg1 and clpg2, during interaction with its host plant. however, only clpg1 was found to be secreted to the extracellular medium during saprophytic growth of the fungus on pectin. to localize clpg2, a flag epitope sequence was inserted in the c-terminal sequence of clpg2 and the modified gene was introduced into c. lindemuthianum. western blot analysis using a flag monoclonal antibody allowed the detectio ...200414732260
evaluation of some fungi and bacteria for biocontrol of anthracnose disease of cowpea.the efficacy of some fungal and bacterial isolates obtained from cowpea phylloplane in inhibiting the in vitro and in vivo growth of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose of cowpea was investigated. inhibition of growth of the pathogen with production of zones of inhibition was observed for aspergillus flavus, a. ochraceus, penicillium aurantiogriseum, bacillus subtilis-bs21, b. subtilis-bs22 and b. subtilis-bs23. inhibition of growth on contact was recorded for a. niger whi ...200414768021
isolation and sequence analysis of clpg1, a gene coding for an endopolygalacturonase of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum.oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed from the n-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence of the endopolygalacturonase (endopg) of colletotrichum lindemuthianum (cl) race beta and from an internal sequence conserved among different fungal endopg were used in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to amplify genomic related sequences of the fungus. a 542-bp fragment, designated pga, was obtained and used as a probe to screen a partial genomic library of cl. among the positive clones, one was further anal ...19968621072
expression of chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum in pichia pastoris: purification and characterization.the chitin deacetylase gene from colletotrichum lindemuthianum ups9 was isolated and cloned in pichia pastoris as a tagged protein with six added terminal histidine residues. the expressed enzyme was recovered from the culture supernatant and further characterized. a single-step purification based on specific binding of the histidine residues was achieved. the purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 25 kda and is not glycosylated as determined by mass spectrometry. the activity of the recombinan ...200415555935
conidial anastomosis fusion between colletotrichum species.colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a pathogen of the common bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris) causing anthracnose. large numbers of isolates can rapidly arise with different genetic and chromosomal compositions but their origin is unknown since sexual fruit bodies have only been found in the laboratory. we have recently described the occurrence of special kinds of hyphae that create anastomoses directly between conidia. in this work we show that conidial anastomoses can occur between two different c ...200415587065
the origin of the oxidative burst in plants.a large number of publications recently have drawn strong analogies between the production of active oxygen species in plant cells and the "oxidative burst" of the phagocyte, even to the point of constructing elaborate models involving receptor mediated g-protein activation of a plasmalemma nadph oxidase in plant cells. however there are potentially other active oxygen species generating systems at the plant cell surface. the present work examines these alternatives with particular emphasis on t ...19958574346
distinct post-transcriptional modifications result into seven alternative transcripts of the cc-nbs-lrr gene ja1tr of phaseolus vulgaris.the generation of splice variants has been reported for various plant resistance (r) genes, suggesting that these variants play an important role in disease resistance. most of the time these r genes belong to the toll and mammalian il-1 receptor-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (tir-nbs-lrr) class of r genes. in phaseolus vulgaris, a resistance gene cluster (referred to as the b4 r-gene cluster) has been identified at the end of linkage group b4. at this complex resistance cluster, t ...200515660237
evaluation of the oxidative burst in suspension cell culture of phaseolus vulgaris.plants respond to the attack of pathogens with the oxidative burst, a production of reactive oxygen species (ros). in this work a cell culture suspension of phaseolus vulgaris was used to investigate the oxidative burst triggered by a conidia suspension of different races of colletotrichum lindemuthianum. as a defence response of the cells a two-phase peak was observed with all used races of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, varying only in the produced amounts of hydrogen peroxide. findings with a ...200415666545
novel protein from labramia bojeri a. dc. seeds homologue to kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor with lectin-like properties.this study starts by isolating and characterizing the first protein from labramia bojeri seeds, which belong to the sapotaceae family. the purified lectin analyzed by sds-page with and without beta-mercaptoethanol shows two protein bands (m(r) = 19 and 20 kda), which cannot be resolved. protein bands have shown similar characteristics as molecular masses, determined by gel filtration and native gel; n-terminal sequences presented a difference in their isoelectric points. we have suggested that t ...200415675802
antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of clitoria ternatea, a tropical forage legume.the tropical forage legume clitoria ternatea (l.) has important agronomic traits such as adaptation to a wide range of soil conditions and resistance to drought. it is resistant to a number of pathogens and pests. these important traits gave us reasons to look more closely at the plant. a highly basic small protein was purified from seeds of c. ternatea to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration with centricon-3 membrane tubes and preparative granulated-bed isoelectric focusing (ief). a single prot ...200415694280
elicitor modulation of the turnover of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in french bean cell suspension cultures.(1) the mechanisms underlying the transient increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity during phaseollin accumulation in cell suspension cultures of dwarf french bean (phaseolus volgaris) have been investigated using density labelling with 3h from 2h2o coupled with residual analysis of the equilibrium distribution of enzyme activity in high-resolution kbr density gradients. (2) the resolution achieved in this system is sufficient to allow quantitative analysis of the relative proportions o ...19807459387
purification and characterization of a novel peptide with antifungal activity from bothrops jararaca venom.different peptides have been isolated from a wide range of animal species. it is has become increasingly clear that due to the development of antibiotic-resistant microbes, antibacterial and antifungal peptides have attracted the attention in recent years, in order to find new therapeutic agents. in this work, a novel peptide with high inhibitory activity against fungi growth have been isolated from the venom of the brazilian snake bothrops jararaca. a sephacryl s-100 gel filtration column was e ...200515904677
differences in the biochemical compositions and elicitor activity of extracellular components produced by three races of a fungal plant pathogen, colletotrichum lindemuthianum.high molecular weight products from the alpha, beta, and gamma races of colletotrichum lin- differed in their carbohydrate and protein compositions and in their abilities to elicit symptoms of a hypersensitive response in dark red kidney bean. the neutral sugar composition of the products varied in their proportions of rhamnose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the protein components to be more numerous in the beta race products than in the alpha or gamm ...19807237271
sequence analysis and expression pattern of mgta1 gene in rice blast pathogen magnaporthe grisea.mgta1, a putative fungal zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcriptional activator-encoding gene, was isolated from rice blast pathogen magnaporthe grisea, which is homologous to clta1 from colletotrichum lindemuthianum with 51% identity at protein level. mgta1 cassette contains a 2370 bp open reading frame, consisting of 6 exons, coding a 790 amino acid peptide. mgta1 gene exists as a single copy in genomes of 7 strains of m. grisea, and is expressed in tip hyphae, conidia, and mature appressoria of strain guy ...200516052717
nonpathogenic strains of colletotrichum lindemuthianum trigger progressive bean defense responses during appressorium-mediated penetration.the fungal bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum differentiates appressoria in order to penetrate bean tissues. we showed that appressorium development in c. lindemuthianum can be divided into three stages, and we obtained three nonpathogenic strains, including one strain blocked at each developmental stage. h18 was blocked at the appressorium differentiation stage; i.e., no genuine appressoria were formed. h191 was blocked at the appressorium maturation stage; i.e., appressoria exhibited ...200516085873
rapid induction of the synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and of chalcone synthase in elicitor-treated plant cells.changes in the rate of synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase, two characteristic enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, have been investigated by direct immunoprecipitation of in vivo [35s]methionine-labelled enzyme subunits in elicitor-treated cells of dwarf french bean (phaseolus vulgaris). elicitor, heat-released from cell walls of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of bean, causes marked but transient increases in the rates of sy ...19836825675
cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase gene from a deuteromycete, colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the chitin deacetylase gene was cloned from cdna of colletotrichum lindemuthianum atcc 56676, and the open reading frame consisted of a possible prepro-sequence of 27 amino acids at the n-terminus and a mature chitin deacetylase. the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme revealed 26% identity and 46% similarity with a chitin deacetylase from mucor rouxii. the molecular mass of the protein estimated from the amino acid sequence data was 24.3 kda, which was in good agreement with the ma ...199916232493
molecular characterization of clpt1, a sec4-like rab/gtpase of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum which is regulated by the carbon source.the gene clpt1 (colletotrichum lindemuthianum protein transport 1) encoding a rab/gtpase was isolated from the filamentous fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of bean anthracnose. at the amino acid level, clpt1 shows between 54 and 80% identity to sec4-like proteins, a class of molecules required for intracellular vesicular transport in yeasts. in particular, typical sec4 domains involved in nucleotide binding and membrane attachment are present in the clpt1 sequence. function ...200111470528
adhesion of colletotrichum lindemuthianum spores to phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls and to polystyrene.adhesion of colletotrichum lindemuthianum spores to phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls and to polystyrene was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors sodium azide and antimycin a, indicating a requirement for metabolic activity in adhesion. various commercial proteins and tween 80 also reduced adhesion to both surfaces. binding was enhanced by the presence of salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides were equally effective. the removal of surface wax from hypocotyls by chloroform tre ...198416346503
co-ordinated synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes in biologically-stressed cells of bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.).changes in the rates of synthesis of three enzymes of phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis in phaseolus vulgaris l. (dwarf french bean) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [s]methionine-labeled enzyme subunits with mono-specific antisera. elicitor causes marked, rapid but transient co-ordinated increases in the rate of synthesis of phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of accumulat ...198516453604
metabolic changes in elicitor-treated bean cells. enzymic responses associated with rapid changes in cell wall components.treatment of cell suspension cultures of bean (phaseolus vulgaris c.v. immuna) with an elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum resulted in rapid changes in the composition of the bean cell walls. these consisted of (a) increases in phenolic material bound to the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions of the wall, (b) loss of material (mainly glucose) from the hemicellulosic fraction and (c) an increase in wall-associated ...19853996395
heterothallic mating observed between mexican isolates of glomerella lindemuthiana.although several reports have described the occurrence of the teleomorphic state of glomerella lindemuthiana (anamorph, colletotrichum lindemuthianum), there has been a lack of continuity in this research. to identify g. lindemuthiana isolates capable of developing the teleomorphic state, 19 mexican isolates were analyzed. three types of response were observed: (i) negative, where only mycelial growth with or without acervuli was observed; (ii) potential, where in addition to the above, spherica ...200516457349
a two component chitin-binding protein from french bean -- association of a proline-rich protein with a cysteine-rich polypeptide.a 42kda chitin-binding proline-rich protein (prp) from french bean has been previously characterised through its involvement in plant-pathogen interactions. it is located at the plasmalemma-wall interface, intercellular spaces and binds to the pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum in vitro and in planta. it is also present in cell wall appositions formed in response to an hrp mutant of xanthomonas campestris. we now show that the 42kda protein is composed of two components, a 25kda polypeptide ...200616480721
metabolic changes in elicitor-treated bean cells. selectivity of enzyme induction in relation to phytoalexin accumulation.treatment of cell suspension cultures of phaseolus vulgaris c.v. immuna with an elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum resulted in rapid accumulation of the prenylated 5-hydroxyisoflavanone phytoalexin kievitone followed by later accumulation of the pterocarpan-derived phytoalexin phaseollin. kievitone formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes l-phenylalanine ammonia ...19853996394
differential induction of chalcone synthase mrna activity at the onset of phytoalexin accumulation in compatible and incompatible plant-pathogen interactions.changes in the mrna activity of chalcone synthase, the first enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism specific to flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthesis, have been investigated in relation to expression of the phytoalexin defense response in race-cultivar specific interactions between hypocotyls of phaseolus vulgaris and the partially biotrophic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose. in an incompatible interaction (host resistant) there is an early but localized increase in ...198416593471
differential accumulation of plant defense gene transcripts in a compatible and an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction.phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase catalyze the first reaction of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the first reaction of a branch pathway specific for flavonoid-isoflavonoid biosynthesis, respectively. these enzymes are key control elements in the synthesis of kievitone, phaseollin, and related isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexins. rna blot hybridization with 32p-labeled cdna sequences was used to demonstrate marked accumulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase mr ...19863785174
host-pathogen interactions: i. a correlation between alpha-galactosidase production and virulence.resistance or susceptibility of red kidney, pinto and small white beans (phaseolus vulgaris) to the alpha, beta, and gamma strains of colletotrichum lindemuthianum was either confirmed or established. these fungal strains secrete alpha-galactosidase, beta-galactosidase and beta-xylosidase when grown on cell walls isolated from the hypocotyls of any of the above bean varieties. these enzymes effectively degrade cell walls isolated from susceptible 5-day old hypocotyls but degrade only slightly th ...196916657049
transcriptional activation of plant defense genes by fungal elicitor, wounding, and infection.activation of plant defense genes was investigated by analysis of transcripts completed in vitro by isolated nuclei. elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) cells caused marked transient stimulation of transcription of genes encoding apoproteins of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (hrgp) and the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) and chalcone synthase (chs), concomitant with the onset of rapid accumulation of the respe ...19873561393
rapid induction by fungal elicitor of the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, a specific enzyme of lignin synthesis.a fivefold increase in the extractable activity of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism specific for lignin synthesis, was observed within 10 h of treatment of cell-suspension cultures of bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) with a high-molecular-mass elicitor preparation heat-released from mycelial cell walls of the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum. elicitor caused a rapid, marked but transient increase in the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase wit ...19873315665
a cell wall-degrading endopolygalacturonase secreted by colletotrichum lindemuthianum.cultures of colletotrichum lindemuthianum (saccardo and magnus) scribner have been induced to secrete an endopolygalacturonase (polygalacturonide glycanohydrolase ec3.2. 1.15). this enzyme has been brought to a high state of purity by ion exchange, gel filtration, and agarose affinity chromatography. the enzyme has optimal activity at ph 5, has an apparent molecular weight as determined by gel filtration of about 70,000, and prefers polygalacturonic acid to pectin as its substrate. the enzyme, w ...197216657947
host-pathogen interactions: vi. a single plant protein efficiently inhibits endopolygalacturonases secreted by colletotrichum lindemuthianum and aspergillus niger.endopolygalacturonases have been purified from the extracellular enzymes of colletotrichum lindemuthianum and aspergillus niger. a protein, purified from red kidney (phaseolus vulgaris) beans for its ability to inhibit the endopolygalacturonase secreted by c. lindemuthianum, inhibits the a. niger endopolygalacturonase almost as efficiently as it inhibits the c. lindemuthianum enzyme.197316658358
host-pathogen interactions: vii. plant pathogens secrete proteins which inhibit enzymes of the host capable of attacking the pathogen.the results presented demonstrate that microbial pathogens of plants have the ability to secrete proteins which effectively inhibit an enzyme synthesized by the host; an enzyme whose substrate is a constituent of the cell wall of the pathogen. the system in which this was discovered is the anthracnose-causing fungal pathogen (colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and its host, the french bean (phaseolus vulgaris). an endo-beta-1, 3-glucanase present in the bean leaves is specifically inhibited by a pro ...197416658768
elicitor-induced prolyl hydroxylase from french bean (phaseolus vulgaris). localization, purification and properties.the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase (proline: 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase, ec, induced in suspension-cultured cells of phaseolus vulgaris l. (french bean) by treatment with an elicitor preparation from the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum, has been investigated. the enzyme, which catalyses the hydroxylation of poly-l-proline with the stoichiometric decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate, has been shown to be localized mainly in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. after solubilizati ...19852996486
host-pathogen interactions: xv. fungal glucans which elicit phytoalexin accumulation in soybean also elicit the accumulation of phytoalexins in other plants.a beta-glucan isolated from the mycelial walls of phytophthora megasperma var. sojae and a glucan purified from yeast extract stimulate the accumulation of phytoalexins in red kidney bean, phaseolus vulgaris, and stimulate the accumulation of the phytoalexin, rishitin, in potato tubers, solanum tuberosum. these glucans have previously been shown to be potent elicitors of glyceollin accumulation in soybean, glycine max.treatment of kidney bean cotyledons with the glucan elicitors resulted in the ...197816660638
kinetic studies of the polygalacturonase enzyme from colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the intrinsic protein fluorescence of the polygalacturonase from colletotrichium lindemuthianum was exploited in stopped-flow experiments aimed at elucidating the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme. binding of the polymeric substrate polygalacturonic acid (pga) essentially produced a triphasic fluorescence profile. there was an initial rapid quench in fluorescence, consistent with the rapid formation of the enzyme-substrate complex, with an equilibrium constant of about 8 x 10(-4)% (w/v) pga (abo ...19921637345
the effect of extracellular components from colletotrichum lindemuthianum on membrane transport in vesicles isolated from bean hypocotyl.extracellular components released from mycelia of the alpha and beta races of the bean pathogen, colletotrichum lindemuthianum, inhibited proton uptake in sealed vesicles prepared from bean hypocotyls. differential sensitivity of atp-driven proton transport to nitrate, vanadate, n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, diethylstilbestrol, and oligomycin suggested the vesicles were enriched for tonoplast. anion stimulation of proton transport, by enhancement of atpase activity and dissipation of the membra ...198716665456
purification and characterization of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from phaseolus vulgaris l.homogeneous endo-polygalacturonase (pg) was covalently bound to cyanogen-bromide-activated sepharose, and the resulting pg-sepharose conjugate was utilized to purify, by affinity chromatography, a protein from phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls that binds to and inhibits pg. isoelectric focusing of the purified pg-inhibiting protein (pgip) showed a major protein band that coincided with pg-inhibiting activity. pgip formed a complex with pg at ph 5.0 and at low salt concentrations. the complex dissoci ...198716665751
[isolation and characterization of two strains of streptomyces able to metabolize natural polysaccharides including mannan (author's transl)].two strains of aerobic and mesophilic microorganisms were isolated from palm-tree plantation sand. they grew on insoluble polysaccharides: mannan, cellulose, chitin as only source of carbon. this lytic activity was used for the purification of the two strains. the morphology of the organisms and the presence of ll-diaminopimetic acid in their cell-wall are characteristic of the genus streptomyces. investigations lead to: 1) the characterization of their specific polysaccharidase activity toward ...19761020873
lipid peroxidation is a consequence of elicitor activity.elicitor-active preparations from the fungal pathogen of bean colletotrichum lindemuthianum stimulated the accumulation of products characteristic of lipid peroxidation in treated bean tissues. bean suspension cells treated with crude and purified elicitors accumulated ;lipofuscin-like pigment' (lep) and malondialdehyde. the accumulation of lfp after about 6 h of treatment coincided with the onset of visible browning and production of the bean phytoalexins kievitone, phaseollin, and phaseollinis ...198816665944
the apoplastic oxidative burst in response to biotic stress in plants: a three-component system.the oxidative burst, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ros) in response to microbial pathogen attack, is a ubiquitous early part of the resistance mechanisms of plant cells. it has also become apparent from the study of a number of plant-pathogen interactions and those modelled by elicitor treatment of cultured cells that there may be more than one mechanism operating. however, one mechanism may be dominant in any given species. nadph oxidases have been implicated in a number of systems ...200211997382
a cis-acting sequence homologous to the yeast filamentation and invasion response element regulates expression of a pectinase gene from the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum.phytopathogenic fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes that degrade plant cell walls, notably pectinases. the signaling pathway(s) that control pectinase gene expression are currently unknown in filamentous fungi. recently, the green fluorescent protein coding sequence was used as a reporter gene to study the expression of clpg2, a gene encoding an endopolygalacturonase of the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum. clpg2 is transcriptionally induced by pectin in the axenic culture of the fungus ...200212042302
hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein transcripts exhibit different spatial patterns of accumulation in compatible and incompatible interactions between phaseolus vulgaris and colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the distribution of transcripts encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in hypocotyls of phaseolus vulgaris l. infected with colletotrichum lindemuthianum was examined by in situ hybridization to tissue sections. the expression of hypersensitive resistance in an incompatible interaction was accompanied by a massive early accumulation of transcripts in the epidermal, cortical, and perivascular parenchymal tissues immediately adjacent to the inoculation site. in a compatible interaction, there ...199016667827
cell surface interactions between bean leaf cells and colletotrichum lindemuthianum: cytochemical aspects of pectin breakdown and fungal endopolygalacturonase accumulation.after a brief period of biotrophic growth, the anthracnose fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum (sacc. et mgn.) bri et cav. develops extensively in bean leaf cells, causing severe wall alterations and death of the host protoplast. aplysia gonad lectin, a polygalacturonic acid-binding agglutinin, was complexed to gold and used to study the extent of pectin breakdown during the necrotrophic phase of the infection process. in view of its specific binding properties for the endopolygalacturonase pro ...199116668376
structure and mechanism of chitin deacetylase from the fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum secretes an endo-chitin de-n-acetylase (clcda) to modify exposed hyphal chitin during penetration and infection of plants. although a significant amount of biochemical data is available on fungal chitin de-n-acetylases, no structural data exist. here we describe the 1.8 a crystal structure of a clcda product complex and the analysis of the reaction mechanism using hammett linear free energy relationships, subsite probing, and atomic absorption sp ...200616878976
identification of an ancestral resistance gene cluster involved in the coevolution process between phaseolus vulgaris and its fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum.the recent cloning of plant resistance (r) genes and the sequencing of resistance gene clusters have shed light on the molecular evolution of r genes. however, up to now, no attempt has been made to correlate this molecular evolution with the host-pathogen coevolution process at the population level. cross-inoculations were carried out between 26 strains of the fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum and 48 phaseolus vulgaris plants collected in the three centers of diversity of the host s ...199910494630
characterization of expressed nbs-lrr resistance gene candidates from common bean.a complex ancestral resistance (r) gene cluster, localized at the end of linkage group b4, and referred to as the b4 r gene cluster, has been previously genetically characterized. the b4 r gene cluster existed prior to the separation of the two major gene pools of cultivated common bean and contains several resistance specificities effective against the fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum. in this paper we report the molecular analysis of four expressed resistance gene candidates (rgcs) that ma ...200312582850
endopolygalacturonase genes from colletotrichum lindemuthianum: cloning of clpg2 and comparison of its expression to that of clpg1 during saprophytic and parasitic growth of the fungus.following the previous isolation of clpg1, a gene encoding an endopolygalacturonase (endopg) secreted into the culture filtrate of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, we have isolated and sequenced an additional endopg gene, clpg2. this gene is present as a single copy in the genome of the fungus. at the amino acid level, clpg2 shows 61% identity to clpg1 and between 37 to 59% identity to other fungal endopgs. rna blot analyses of endopg gene expression were followed with specific probes during in vi ...19979245838
purification and characterization of extracellular chin deacetylase from colletotrichum lindemuthianum.chitin deacetylase, active in the presence of acetate (96% of the enzymatic activity was retained in the presence of 100 mm sodium acetate), was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from a culture filtrate of colletotrichum lindemuthianum (944-fold with a recovery of 4.05%). the enzyme was induced in the medium after the eighth day of incubation simultaneously with the blackening of the medium. the molecular mass of the enzyme was 31.5 kda and 33 kda as judged by sds-page and gel filtration, ...19968987657
characterization of a lectin from gonatanthus pumilus d. don having anti-proliferative effect against human cancer cell lines.a monocot araceous lectin from tubers of gonatanthus pumilus (gpl) wa earlier purified in our laboratory and reported as t-cell mitogen having homotetrameric structure with subunit molecular mass of 13 kda. besides asialofetuin as reported earlier, in the present study it was also inhibited by n-acetyl-d-lactosamine but was non-reactive towards mannose or its derivatives. the lectin is rich in acidic amino acids and cysteine is completely absent. chemical modification of gpl revealed requirement ...200717288049
functional analysis of clpt1, a rab/gtpase required for protein secretion and pathogenesis in the plant fungal pathogen colletotrichum eukaryotic cells, rab/gtpases are major regulators of vesicular trafficking and are involved in essential processes including exocytosis, endocytosis and cellular differentiation. to investigate the role of these proteins in fungal pathogenicity, a dominant-negative mutant allele of clpt1, a rab/gtpase of the bean pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum, was expressed in transgenic strains. this mutated gene encodes the amino-acid substitution n123i analogous to the n133i substitution in a kno ...200415615776
degradation of cellulose by the bean-pathogenic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum. production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes by cellulose induction.colletotrichum lindemuthianum was able to grow and produce extracellular cellulolytic activity in a defined medium containing cellulose as the main carbon substrate. as measured either by the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d -cellotrioside or the release of glucose from carboxymethylcellulose, activity reached a peak after 13 days of incubation and then declined whereas growth markedly increased afterwards. detection of glucose in carboxymethylcellulose hydrolysates suggested the concer ...200515928983
antifungal activity of a novel compound from burkholderia cepacia against plant pathogenic investigate antifungal activity of a novel compound (named as cf66i provisionally) against plant pathogenic fungi, mainly including fusarium sp., colletotrichum lindemuthianum, rhizoctonia solani, etc.200717958556
accumulation of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mrnas in response to fungal elicitor and infection.hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (hrgps) are important structural components of plant cell walls and also accumulate in response to infection as an apparent defense mechanism. accumulation of hrgp mrna in biologically stressed bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) cells was monitored by blot hybridization with (32)p-labeled tomato genomic hrgp sequences. elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured cells caused a marked increase in hybridizable hrgp mrna. the response was less rapid but more prolonged than ...198516593612
polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are unable to attack plant cell walls without prior action by a "wall-modifying enzyme".a study of the degradation of plant cell walls by the mixture of enzymes present in pectinol r-10 is described. a "wall-modifying enzyme" has been purified from this mixture by a combination of diethylaminoethyl cellulose, bio gel p-100, and carboxymethyl cellulose chromatography. treatment of cell walls with the "wall-modifying enzyme" is shown to be a necessary prerequisite to wall degradation catalyzed by a mixture of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes prepared from pectinol r-10 or by an alpha ...197016657425
vegetative compatibility and parasexual segregation in colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of the common bean.the heterokaryotic and vegetative diploid phases of colletotrichum lindemuthianum are described using nutritional and biochemical markers. nitrate non-utilizing mutants (nit), derived from r2047, r89, r73, r65, and r23 isolates, were paired in all possible combinations to obtain heterokaryons. although pairings r2047/r89, r2047/r73, r65/r73, and r73/r23 showed complete vegetative incompatibility, prototrophic heterokaryons were obtained from pairings r2047/r65, r2047/r23, r65/r89, r65/r23, r73/r ...200718050083
resistance to colletotrichum lindemuthianum in phaseolus vulgaris: a case study for mapping two independent genes.anthracnose, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a devastating disease of common bean. resistant cultivars are economical means for defense against this pathogen. in the present study, we mapped resistance specificities against 7 c. lindemuthianum strains of various geographical origins revealing differential reactions on bat93 and jaloeep558, two parents of a recombinant inbred lines (rils) population, of meso-american and andean origin, respectively. s ...200818060540
host-pathogen interactions: ii. parameters affecting polysaccharide-degrading enzyme secretion by colletotrichum lindemuthianum grown in culture.the effect of a number of physiological variables on the secretion of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes by culture-grown colletotrichum lindemuthianum (saccardo and magnus) scribner was determined. the number of spores used to inoculate cultures grown on isolated bean hypocotyl cell walls affects the time after inoculation at which enzyme secretion occurs, but has no significant effect on the maximal amount of enzyme ultimately secreted. cell walls isolated from bean leaves, first internodes, or ...197116657562
fungi have three tetraspanin families with distinct functions.tetraspanins are small membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily encompassing 33 members in human and mouse. these proteins act as organizers of membrane-signalling complexes. so far only two tetraspanin families have been identified in fungi. these are pls1, which is required for pathogenicity of the plant pathogenic ascomycetes, magnaporthe grisea, botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and tsp2, whose function is unknown. in this report, we describe a third family of tetrasp ...200818241352
fungistatic activity of iron-free bovin lactoferrin against several fungal plant pathogens and antagonists.lactoferrin (lf) is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glycoproteins. it is also a multifunctional protein of 80 kda that is synthesized by glandular epithelial cells and secreted into mucosal fluid. high levels of lf are present in colostrom and milk and low levels in tears, saliva, and gastrointestinal and reproductive secretions. data regarding the antifungal effects of lf are limited. studies have been performed on candida albicans, which demonstrated that lf inhibits the gro ...200818629710
inhibition of fungal spore adhesion by zosteric acid as the basis for a novel, nontoxic crop protection technology.abstract to explore the potential for nontoxic crop protection technologies based on the inhibition of fungal spore adhesion, we have tested the effect of synthetic zosteric acid (p-(sulfo-oxy) cinnamic acid), a naturally occurring phenolic acid in eelgrass (zostera marina l.) plants, on spore adhesion and infection in two pathosystems: rice blast caused by magnaporthe grisea and bean anthracnose caused by colletotrichum lindemuthianum. we have shown that zosteric acid inhibits spore adhesion to ...200218942950
host-pathogen interactions: viii. isolation of a pathogen-synthesized fraction rich in glucan that elicits a defense response in the pathogen's host.a polysaccharide from the fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum causes browning and phytoalexin production when applied to the cut surfaces of bean (phaseolus vulgaris) cotyledons and hypocotyls. the application of an amount of polysaccharide equivalent to less than 100 ng of glucose will elicit this response in the bean tissues. the polysaccharide has been isolated both from culture filtrates and from the mycelial walls of the fungus. purification of the polysaccharide involved anion an ...197516659289
identification of random amplified polymorphic dna markers linked to the co-4 resistance gene to colletotrichum lindemuthianum in common bean.abstract new cultivars of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) with durable resistance to anthracnose can be developed by pyramiding major resistance genes using marker-assisted selection. to this end, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and molecular markers tightly linked to the resistance genes. the objectives of this work were to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in the cultivar to (carrying the co-4 gene), to identify random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) ma ...200018944495
improved selection with newly identified rapd markers linked to resistance gene to four pathotypes of colletotrichum lindemuthianum in common bean.abstract three f(2) populations derived from crosses between the resistant cultivar ab 136 and the susceptible cultivar michelite (mia), and one f(2) population derived from a cross between ab 136 and mexico 222 (mea), were used to identify markers linked to anthracnose resistance genes present in cultivar ab 136. primer opz04 produced a dna band (opz04(560)) linked in coupling phase to the resistance gene for pathotype 89 (8.5 +/- 0.025 cm) in one population derived from the cross mia. in the s ...199918944771
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