association of bactericera cockerelli (homoptera: psyllidae) with "zebra chip," a new potato disease in southwestern united states and mexico.a new defect of potato, solanum tuberosum l., "zebra chip," so named for the characteristic symptoms that develop in fried chips from infected potato tubers, has recently been documented in several southwestern states of the united states, in mexico, and in central america. this defect is causing millions of dollars in losses to both potato producers and processors. zebra chip plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. experiments were conducted to el ...200717598522
a new huanglongbing species, "candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous," found to infect tomato and potato, is vectored by the psyllid bactericera cockerelli (sulc).a new huanglongbing (hlb) "candidatus liberibacter" species is genetically characterized, and the bacterium is designated "candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous." this bacterium infects the psyllid bactericera cockerelli and its solanaceous host plants potato and tomato, potentially resulting in "psyllid yellowing." host plant-dependent hlb transmission and variation in psyllid infection frequencies are found.200818676707
multiplex real-time pcr for detection, identification and quantification of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' in potato plants with zebra chip.the new liberibacter species, 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) recently associated with potato/tomato psyllid-transmitted diseases in tomato and capsicum in new zealand, was found to be consistently associated with a newly emerging potato zebra chip (zc) disease in texas and other southwestern states in the usa. a species-specific primer lsof was developed for both quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) and conventional pcr (cpcr) to detect and quantify lso in infected samples. in multipl ...200919409423
association of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" with the psyllid, trioza apicalis (hemiptera: triozidae) in europe.the psyllid trioza apicalis förster (hemiptera: triozidae) is a serious pest of carrots, daucus carota l., in europe. carrots exhibiting symptoms of psyllid damage were observed in commercial fields in southern finland in 2008. symptoms in affected plants included leaf curling, yellow and purple discoloration of leaves, stunted growth of shoots and roots, and proliferation of secondary roots. mechanisms by which t. apicalis induces symptoms in plants are not understood, and no plant pathogens ha ...201020857712
movement of bactericera cockerelli (heteroptera: psyllidae) in relation to potato canopy structure, and effects on potato tuber weights.with the threat of new plant diseases on the increase, plant disease epidemiology requires research on pathogen vector movement. here, releases were performed in planted potato fields of different ages and canopy structures, located in the texas panhandle, to evaluate the range of movement of the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (sulc.). this insect is a known causative agent of psyllid yellows disease, and is a vector of the reported etiological agents of zebra chip disease of potato, 'can ...201021061949
life history and life tables of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: psyllidae) on potato under laboratory and field conditions in the lower rio grande valley of texas.effective management of potato 'zebra chip' (zc) disease caused by cadidatus liberibacter psyllaurous (syn. solanacearum) depends on the management of its insect vector insect, potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: psyllidae). to elucidate the age-specific population dynamics of b. cockerelli, the life-table parameters were determined on potato, solanum tuberosum l., under both laboratory and field conditions in the lower rio grande valley (lrgv) of texas. generally, survival ...201021061973
diversity of endosymbionts in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (triozidae), vector of zebra chip disease of potato.zebra chip disease is an emerging, serious disease of solanaceous crops and the causal agent is a bacterium "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (cls), also known as "candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous", which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc). we performed bacterial tag-encoded flx amplicon pyrosequencing (btefap) of the 16s rdna genes to determine the bacterial microbiota in adult insects from cls-uninfected and cls-infected strains of b. cockerelli and pot ...201121327558
repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum, causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate the repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of b. cockerelli on tomato plants that had been sprayed with kaolin particle film on the upper surface only, on the lower surface only and on both leaf surfaces.201121337676
effects of insecticides on behavior of adult bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) and transmission of candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a serious pest of potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.) that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, candidatus liberibacer psyllaurous. current pest management practices rely on the use of insecticides to control the potato psyllid to lower disease incidences and increase yields. although many studies have focused on the mortality that insecticides can cause on potato psyl ...201121510209
the complete genome sequence of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum', the bacterium associated with potato zebra chip disease.zebra chip (zc) is an emerging plant disease that causes aboveground decline of potato shoots and generally results in unusable tubers. this disease has led to multi-million dollar losses for growers in the central and western united states over the past decade and impacts the livelihood of potato farmers in mexico and new zealand. zc is associated with 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum', a fastidious alpha-proteobacterium that is transmitted by a phloem-feeding psyllid vector, bactericera c ...201121552483
oral delivery of double-stranded rnas and sirnas induces rnai effects in the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli (b. cockerelli), and the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (d. citri), are very important plant pests, but they are also vectors of phloem-limited bacteria that are associated with two devastating plant diseases. b. cockerelli is the vector of candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum), which is associated with zebra chip disease of potatoes, and d. citri is the vector of ca. liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the huan ...201122110747
Effect of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on Fitness of Its Insect Vector, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), on Tomato.ABSTRACT The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli transmits the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', also known as 'Ca. L. psyllaurous', which causes zebra chip disease in solanaceous crops. There have been no studies addressing the effect of the bacterial plant pathogen on the biology of its insect vector. We examined several life-history traits, including 7-day fecundity, hatching percentage, incubation time, nymphal survival percentage, nymphal development time, total ...201221899387
Vector transmission efficiency of liberibacter by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in zebra chip potato disease: effects of psyllid life stage and inoculation access period.Successful transmission of plant pathogens by insects depends on the vector inoculation efficiency and how rapidly the insect can effectively transmit the pathogen to the host plant. The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), has recently been found to transmit "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," a bacterium associated with zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in several parts of the world. Currently, little is known about the epidemiology of ZC a ...201122066176
effects of liberibacter-infective bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) density on zebra chip potato disease incidence, potato yield, and tuber processing plant pathosystems involving insect vectors, disease spread, incidence, and severity often depend on the density of the vector population and its rate of infectivity with the disease pathogen. the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc), has recently been associated with zebra chip (zc), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in the united states, mexico, central america, and new zealand. "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," a previously undescribed species of liber ...201122299337
identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli.aquaporin (aqps) proteins transport water and uncharged low molecular-weight solutes across biological membranes. six to 8 aqp genes have been identified in many insect species, but presently only three aquaporins have been characterized in phloem feeding insects. the objective of this study was to identify candidate aqps in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli. herein, we identified four candidate aquaporin cdnas in b. cockerelli transcriptome. phylogenetic analysis showed that candidate ...201425354208
transcriptome analysis of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" in its psyllid vector, bactericera cockerelli."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso) is an emergent pathogen of carrots in europe and solanaceous plants in north and central america and new zealand. this bacterium is closely related to other pathogenic candidatus liberibacter spp., all vectored by psyllids. in order to understand the molecular interaction of this pathogen and its psyllid vector, bactericera cockerelli, illumina sequencing of psyllid harboring lso was performed to determine if this approach could be used to assess the ...201424992557
comparison of potato and asian citrus psyllid adult and nymph transcriptomes identified vector transcripts with potential involvement in circulative, propagative liberibacter transmission.the potato psyllid (pop) bactericera cockerelli (sulc) and asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso) and ca. l. asiaticus (clas), respectively. clso causes zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, clas causes citrus greening disease. the reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in altern ...201425436509
interactions "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum"-bactericera cockerelli: haplotype effect on vector fitness and gene expression analyses."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso) has emerged as a serious threat world-wide. five lso haplotypes have been identified so far. haplotypes a and b are present in the americas and/or new zealand, where they are vectored to solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae). the fastidious nature of these pathogens has hindered the study of the interactions with their eukaryotic hosts (vector and plant). to understand the strategies used by the ...201627376032
rna interference towards the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli, is induced in plants infected with recombinant tobacco mosaic virus (tmv).the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (b. cockerelli), is an important plant pest and the vector of the phloem-limited bacterium candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum), which is associated with the zebra chip disease of potatoes. previously, we reported induction of rna interference effects in b. cockerelli via in vitro-prepared dsrna/sirnas after intrathoracic injection, and after feeding of artificial diets containing these effector rnas. in order to deliver rnai effect ...201323824081
indirect effects of one plant pathogen on the transmission of a second pathogen and the behavior of its potato psyllid vector.plant pathogens can influence the behavior and performance of insect herbivores. studies of these associations typically focus on tripartite interactions between a plant host, a plant pathogen, and its insect vector. an unrelated herbivore or pathogen might influence such interactions. this study used a model system consisting of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), the psyllid bactericera cockerelli sulc, and tomatoes to investigate multipartite interactions among a pathogen, a nonvector, and a plant ho ...201526314051
zoophthora radicans (entomophthorales), a fungal pathogen of bagrada hilaris and bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: pentatomidae and triozidae): prevalence, pathogenicity, and interplay of environmental influence, morphology, and sequence data on fungal identification.the exotic bagrada bug or painted bug, bagrada hilaris, and the native potato/tomato psyllid, bactericera (=paratrioza) cockerelli, are key pests of horticulture in western north america. in 2014-2015, adult and juvenile b. hilaris and b. cockerelli killed by fungi in the genus zoophthora were detected near saltillo, northeastern mexico. we report the field prevalence and observations of zoophthora on these hosts. the morphology and growth characteristics of field-collected specimens and pure in ...201627486120
evolutionary conservation of candidate osmoregulation genes in plant phloem sap-feeding insects.the high osmotic pressure generated by sugars in plant phloem sap is reduced in phloem-feeding aphids by sugar transformations and facilitated water flux in the gut. the genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (suc1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (gh13), and aquaporin 1 (aqp1), a member of the drosophila integral protein (drip) family of aquaporins. here, we describe molecular anal ...201626896054
rna interference against gut osmoregulatory genes in phloem-feeding planta rnai (i.e. plants engineered to synthesize active rnai molecules) has great potential as a strategy to control insect crop pests. this study investigated the impact of rnai against osmoregulatory genes expressed in the gut of two phloem-feeding species, the green peach aphid myzus persicae and the potato/tomato psyllid bactericera cockerelli. the target genes comprising candidate gut sucrase, aquaporin and sugar transporter genes were identified by mining insect genomic and transcripto ...201526071792
the bacterial communities in plant phloem-sap-feeding insects.the resident microbiota of animals represents an important contribution to the global microbial diversity, but it is poorly known in many animals. this study investigated the bacterial diversity in plant phloem-sap-feeding whiteflies, aphids and psyllids by pyrosequencing bacterial 16s rrna gene amplicons. after correction for sequencing error, just 3-7 bacterial operational taxonomic units were recovered from each insect sample sequenced to sufficient depth for saturation of rarefaction curves. ...201424350573
agricultural case studies of classification accuracy, spectral resolution, and model over-fitting.this paper describes the relationship between spectral resolution and classification accuracy in analyses of hyperspectral imaging data acquired from crop leaves. the main scope is to discuss and reduce the risk of model over-fitting. over-fitting of a classification model occurs when too many and/or irrelevant model terms are included (i.e., a large number of spectral bands), and it may lead to low robustness/repeatability when the classification model is applied to independent validation data. ...201324160886
life history and life tables of bactericera cockerelli (homoptera: psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper.the development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc), fed on eggplant (solanum melongena l., variety special hibush) and bell pepper (capsicum annuum l., variety capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees c, 70 +/- 5% rh, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (l:d) h. immature b. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were highe ...200920021762
[toxicity of spiromesifen to the developmental stages of bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae)].spiromesifen is an insecticide that inhibits the synthesis of lipids and, in mexico, its use against the tomato-potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc), on chili pepper (capsicum annum), tomato (lycopersicon sculentum) and potato (solanum tuberosum) began in 2005; however more information is needed to understand its toxicity on this insect pest. the aim of this research was to determine the toxicity of spiromesifen against each of the biological stages of tomato-potato psyllid, its effect ...201220676519
"candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" associated with the psyllid, bactericera maculipennis (hemiptera: triozidae).the psyllid bactericera maculipennis (crawford) (hemiptera: triozidae) often cohabits field bindweed (convolvulus arvensis, solanales: convolvulaceae) and other plants with the congeneric psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), in the pacific northwestern united states. bactericera cockerelli is a vector of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease of potato (solanales: solanaceae). because b. maculipennis and b. cockerelli both naturally occur on ce ...201728108600
horizontal transmission of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" by bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) on convolvulus and ipomoea (solanales: convolvulaceae)."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (solanales: solanaceae) in north america and new zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. this phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae). while some plants in the convolvulaceae (solanales) are also known hosts for b. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect li ...201526555359
host range testing of diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) for use in classical biological control of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) in range tests for diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (shafee, alam, & agarwal) (hymenoptera: encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), sourced from punjab pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the university of california, riverside, ca. seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated d. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolo ...201526470214
host range testing of tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) sourced from the punjab of pakistan for classical biological control of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae: euphyllurinae: diaphorinini) in california.abstract tests evaluating the host range of tamarixia radiata (waterson) (hymenoptera: eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), sourced from the punjab of pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the university of california, riverside, ca. seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to t radiata under the following three different exposure scenari ...201424665694
methods for rapid and effective pcr-based detection of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' from the insect vector bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the dna extraction/purification process.this study provides a protocol for rapid dna isolation from psyllid vectors (bactericera cockerelli and diaphorina citri) that can be used directly with dna-based methods for the detection of 'candidatus (ca.) liberibacter solanacearum,' the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip disease and eventually for 'ca. liberibacter asiaticus' the causal agent of huanglongbing disease in citrus. the fast dna extraction protocol was designed to work with conventional polymerase chain reaction (cpcr) ...201323865212
a global comparison of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) microbial communities.the potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli sulc) is an economically important insect pest of solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. historically, the potato psyllid's range included central united states, mexico, and california; more recently, populations of this insect have been reported in central america, the pacific northwest, and new zealand. like most phytophagous insects, potato psyllids require symbiotic bacteria to compensate for nutritional deficiencies in their ...201424517908
genome sequence of "candidatus carsonella ruddii" strain bc, a nutritional endosymbiont of bactericera, we report the genome of "candidatus carsonella ruddii" strain bc, a nutritional endosymbiont of the tomato psyllid bactericera cockerelli the 173,802-bp genome contains 198 protein-coding genes, with a g+c content of 14.8%.201728450512
relative abundance of carsonella ruddii (gamma proteobacterium) in females and males of cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) and bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).carsonella ruddii (gamma proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. accurate estimations of carsonella populations are important to studies of carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (förster) (hemiptera: psyllidae) and potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae). we ...201526056318
transcriptome analyses of bactericera cockerelli adults in response to "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" infection.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) is an economically important crop pest that not only causes damage through its feeding but also transmits the bacterium, "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (cls), which causes zebra chip disease in potato. there is some information about the phenotypic effects of phytopathogenic bacteria on their insect vectors; however, there are no published reports of the molecular mechanisms underlying phytopathogenic bacteria-insect vector interac ...201222945464
gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a key pest of potato (solanum tuberosum l., solanales: solanaceae) and a vector of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. in addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the solanaceae. a better understanding of landscape-level ecology of b. cockerelli would substantially improve our a ...201627271944
a binomial sequential sampling plan for bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) in solanum lycopersicum (solanales: solanacea).the tomato-potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) and potato (solanum tuberosum l.). in tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." b. cockerelli also vectors "candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. however, there are fe ...201424772568
correlation between "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" infection levels and fecundity in its psyllid vector.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) transmits the bacterium, "candidatus (ca.) liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), also known as "ca. liberibacter psyllaurous", which causes zebra chip disease in potato and other solanaceous crops. the authors previously showed that fecundity and nymph survival is significantly reduced in lso-infected psyllids compared to uninfected psyllids on tomato. however, it is not known whether the level of the pathogen is correlated with concomitant re ...201424211673
a sequential binomial sampling plan for potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae) on bell pepper (capsicum annum).potato psyllids (bactericera cockerelli sulc) are a pest on solanaceous crop plants, including bell peppers. potato psyllids vector candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous, but bell peppers (capsicum annum l.) do not exhibit symptoms from infection. potato psyllids show variation in spatial patterns and host choice with cultivar and plant species. consequently, a study of spatial distribution and sampling plan specific to bell peppers is necessary for management of this insect pest, as those develop ...201323401240
spatial behavior comparison of bactericera cockerelli sulc. (hemiptera: triozidae) in mexico.during the last five years, bactericera cockerelli sulc. has caused significant economic losses in potato production in mexico, due to the purple top and zebra chip diseases, since it acts as the vector of candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous. despite its importance as a vector of serious potato diseases, the knowledge of its spatial distribution behavior, which could improve the efficiency of control measures, is entirely lacking. the main objective of this work was to compare the spatial distri ...201223950003
museum specimen data reveal emergence of a plant disease may be linked to increases in the insect vector population.the emergence rate of new plant diseases is increasing due to novel introductions, climate change, and changes in vector populations, posing risks to agricultural sustainability. assessing and managing future disease risks depends on understanding the causes of contemporary and historical emergence events. since the mid-1990s, potato growers in the western united states, mexico, and central america have experienced severe yield loss from zebra chip disease and have responded by increasing insect ...201728459124
assessing the likelihood of transmission of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum to carrot by potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important solanaceae and apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. this bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli, and to apiaceae by carrot psyllids, including trioza apicalis and bactericera trigonica. five haplotypes of lso have so far been described, two are associated with solanaceous species and potato psyllids, ...201627525703
the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of bactericera cockerelli and comparison with three other psylloidea species.potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli) is an important pest of potato, tomato and pepper. not only could a toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants, but also over the past few years b. cockerelli was shown to transmit "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum", the putative bacterial pathogen of potato zebra chip (zc) disease, to potato and tomato. zc has caused devastating losses to potato production in the western u.s., mexico, and elsewhere. new knowledge of t ...201627227976
de novo genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" from a single potato psyllid in california.the draft genome sequence of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" strain rstm from a potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli) in california is reported here. the rstm strain has a genome size of 1,286,787 bp, a g+c content of 35.1%, 1,211 predicted open reading frames (orfs), and 43 rna genes.201526679599
settling and ovipositional behavior of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) on solanaceous hosts under field and laboratory conditions.potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), is a seasonal insect pest in the lower rio grande valley of texas, where it transmits the bacterial pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" that causes zebra chip disease of potato. studies were conducted to evaluate host preference of b. cockerelli adults for different plant species, and plant size and density. settling and oviposition behavior of b. cockerelli was studied on its wild and cultivated solanaceous hosts, including potato, toma ...201526470210
a predictive degree day model for the development of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) infesting solanum tuberosum.bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is a pest of potato (solanum tuberosum l.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum.' zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of b. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant b. cockerelli populatio ...201526314066
loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure (lamp) for detection of the potato zebra chip pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum".an efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure (lamp) for the detection of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip (zc) disease, is described in this chapter. similar to the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the lamp employs a bacterial polymerase to amplify specific dna sequences. however, the method differs from conventional pcr in that it uses six primers specific to the target region to generate a loop structure and autocycl ...201525981248
influence of the pathogen candidatus liberibacter solanacearum on tomato host plant volatiles and psyllid vector settlement.candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso) is an unculturable bacterium vectored by the tomato potato psyllid (tpp) bactericera cockerelli and has been associated with zebra chip disease in potato and with other economically relevant symptoms observed in solanaceous crops. by altering their host and vector's biological system, pathogens are able to induce changes that benefit them by increasing their transmission rate. understanding these changes can enable better targeting of mechanisms to con ...201425378121
solanum habrochaites, a potential source of resistance against bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) and "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum".the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli sulc, also known as tomato psyllid, is a serious pest of solanaceous plants. its host selection criteria are poorly understood. in this study, we tested whether the solanum habrochaites (pi127826), a wild solanaceous plant known for its property to repel whiteflies, was repellent to potato psyllids. using a combination of nonchoice assays and choice assays on different psyllid stages, we demonstrated that s. habrochaites is both repelling and toxic to p ...201425026681
latent period and transmission of "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" by the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae)."candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso) is an economically important pathogen of solanaceous crops and the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato (solanum tuberosum l.). this pathogen is transmitted to solanaceous species by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), but many aspects of the acquisition and transmission processes have yet to be elucidated. the present study was conducted to assess the interacting effects of acquisition access period, incubation period, ...201424682175
low-level detection of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum in bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) by 16s rrna pyrosequencing.accurate detection and quantification of candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (cls), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato (solanum tuberosum l.), in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc), has become necessary to better understand the biology of the disease cycle. studies on the transmission efficiency of potato psyllids have shown inconsistencies with field surveys. there have also been reports of laboratory colonies inexplicably losing and regaining cls infectio ...201324331599
"candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" titer over time in bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) after acquisition from infected potato and tomato plants.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is a serious pest of potato and other solanaceous crops. b. cockerelli has been associated with the bacterium "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), the causal agent of zebra chip, a new and economically important disease of potato in the united states, mexico, central america, and new zealand. the biology of liberibacter transmission to potato and other host plants by the potato psyllid is largely unknown. the curre ...201324224236
experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. we tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli) is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. we controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (solanum tub ...201223166641
seasonal population dynamics of the potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae) and its associated pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" in potatoes in the southern great plains of north america.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), and its associated pathogen "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (ca. l. solanacearum), the putative causal agent of zebra chip (zc) disease in potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.), were sampled in commercial potato fields and untreated control plots for 3 yr in multiple locations in texas, kansas, nebraska, and colorado. populations of the potato psyllid varied across years and across potato growing regions. however, the per ...201222928306
molecular and physiological properties associated with zebra complex disease in potatoes and its relation with candidatus liberibacter contents in psyllid vectors.zebra complex (zc) disease on potatoes is associated with candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (cls), an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (šulc). the name zc originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. we determined that compared to healthy p ...201222615987
identification and location of symbionts associated with potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli) lifestages.the potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli, sulc) is an invasive pest of solenaceous plants including potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.)and tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l.). the insect transmits the phytopathogen candidatus liberibacter solanacearum, which has been identified as the causal agent of zebra chip in potatoes. the microbiome of the potato psyllid provides knowledge of the insect's bacterial makeup which enables researchers to develop targeted biological control strategies. in this stu ...201222525064
functional response, prey stage preference, and mutual interference of the tamarixia triozae (hymenoptera: eulophidae) on tomato and bell pepper.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc), has been detrimental to potato, tomato, and other solanaceous crop production in many countries. management of b. cockerelli is dominated by frequent insecticide applications, but other approaches need consideration, including biological control. the sole arrhenotokous ectoparasitoid of nymphal potato psyllids is tamarixia triozae (burks) (hymenoptera: eulophidae). here, laboratory evaluations of host stage preference, parasitoid mutual interfer ...201526470152
identification and impact of natural enemies of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) in southern california.bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (solanum tuberosum l.), tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.), and peppers (capsicum spp.). the purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on b. cockerelli population dynamics. through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, orius tristicolor (white) (hemiptera: anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, geoc ...201223156144
behavior of tamarixia triozae females (hymenoptera: eulophidae) attacking bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) and effects of three pesticides on this parasitoid.the parasitism and host feeding behavior of tamarixia triozae (burks) (hymenoptera: eulophidae) females on bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) fourth instars that have infested tomato (lycopersicon esculentum miller) leaflets are described and quantified. females took approximately 31.14 ± 4.39 min to search for their first suitable host. the recognition and handling times for oviposition were 2.66 ± 0.18 and 4.26 ± 0.39 min, respectively. t. triozae parasitized 4.66 ± 0.61 nymp ...201526308801
odor uniformity among tomato individuals in response to herbivore depends on insect species.plants produce specific volatile organic compound (voc) blends in response to herbivory. herbivore-induced blends may prime the plant for future attack or attract carnivorous insects; these responses have been considered adaptive for plants. if herbivores differentially modify the voc emission among individuals within a group of plants they feed upon, then plant responses to herbivores will not only produce specific blends but also variation in odor among individuals, i.e. individuals smell the ...201324130855
estimating development rate and thermal requirements of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) reared on potato and tomato by using linear and nonlinear models.the temperature-dependent development of tomato psyllid (also called potato psyllid), bactericera cockerelli (sulc), was studied in the laboratory at seven constant temperatures (8, 10, 15, 20, 23, 27, and 31°c), 50-60% rh, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (l:d) h on leaves of whole potato (solanum tuberosum l.) and tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) plants. developmental time in days for immature stages and total development (egg to adult) on both host species were inversely proportional to temperature ...201223068177
risk assessment of selected insecticides on tamarixia triozae (hymenoptera: eulophidae), a parasitoid of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: trizoidae).tamarixia triozae (burks) (hymenoptera: eulophidae) is an important parasitoid of the potato or tomato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: trizoidae), a serious pest of potato (solanum tuberosum l.), tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.), and other solanaceous vegetables in many countries. to produce a marketable crop, insecticides are required when b. cockerelli populations reach economically damaging levels. we evaluated 11 commonly used insecticides for their effects on t. triozae. ...201222606819
phenology of the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae), and "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" in commercial potato fields in idaho.zebra chip disease (zc) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. zc is associated with the bacterium "candidatus liberibacter solanacearum" (lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc; hemiptera: triozidae). first found in idaho during 2011, zc now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. to clarify the extent and severity of the thr ...201729040526
using nextrad sequencing to infer movement of herbivores among host plants.herbivores often move among spatially interspersed host plants, tracking high-quality resources through space and time. this dispersal is of particular interest for vectors of plant pathogens. existing molecular tools to track such movement have yielded important insights, but often provide insufficient genetic resolution to infer spread at finer spatiotemporal scales. here, we explore the use of nextera-tagmented reductively-amplified dna (nextrad) sequencing to infer movement of a highly-mobil ...201728505182
arthropod pests and predators associated with bittersweet nightshade, a noncrop host of the potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae).bittersweet nightshade (solanum dulcamara l.) is a key noncrop host of the potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli šulc), proposed to be a source of the psyllids that colonize potato (solanum tuberosum l.) fields in the northwestern united states. here, we describe the broader community of arthropod potato pests, and also predatory arthropods, found in bittersweet nightshade patches. over 2 yr, we sampled arthropods in patches of this weed spanning the potato-growing region of eastern washington ...201627357162
interhaplotype fertility and effects of host plant on reproductive traits of three haplotypes of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in north and central america and new zealand. this insect vectors the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato (solanum tuberosum l.). four distinct genetic populations, or haplotypes, of b. cockerelli have been identified. three of the haplotypes may co-occur in potato fields in the pacific northwest of united states. solanaceous weeds, including the perennial solanum dulcamara ...201526313183
temporal and spatial analysis of potato psyllid haplotypes in the united states.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is an economically important pest of potato (solanum tuberosum l.) crops across the western and central united states, as it is known to cause psyllid yellows disease and to transmit the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease. recent genotyping of b. cockerelli collected during the 2011 potato growing season identified three psyllid haplotypes within the western and central united states according to their geographical r ...201323575030
knockdown mortality, repellency, and residual effects of insecticides for control of adult bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: psyllidae).the psyllid bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: psyllidae) is the vector of a bacterial pathogen causing zebra chip (zc) disease in potato, solanum tuberosum l. (solanaceae). recently, zc has become important to potato growers and the potato chipping industry in the southwestern united states, mexico, central america, and new zealand. in the current study, we evaluated the knockdown effect of 12 insecticides against adult b. cockerelli, and we examined the effects of treating potato leaves ...200919610416
bactericera cockerelli vitellogenin-6 like, a vitellogenin without a direct reproductive function?vitellogenin-like proteins are members of the large lipid transfer proteins, a family of proteins involved in reproduction, lipid circulation and immune defences. in this study, we identified a new bactericera cockerelli vitellogenin-like (vg-like) transcript, and named it bcvg6-like based on its similarity to acyrthosiphon pisum vg6. in silico analyses predicted different conserved domains in bcvg6-like compared with the conventional ba. cockerelli vitellogenin, bcvg1-like, previously described ...201729143394
does foraging experience affect the responses of the predator dicyphus hesperus knight to prey-induced volatiles?the predatory mirid bug dicyphus hesperus knight (hemiptera: miridae) is a native north america species with high potential as biological control agent of the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli sulcer (hemiptera: triozidae), which is a major solanaceous pest. olfactory responses of d. hesperus to volatiles from plants infested with the potato psyllid and the effect of foraging experience on search efficacy were studied. using a y-tube olfactometer, we found that naïve females had no preferen ...201829368295
improved sweetpotato whitefly and potato psyllid control in tomato by combining the mirid dicyphus hesperus (heteroptera: miridae) with specialist parasitic wasps.bemisia tabaci gennadius (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) and bactericera cockerelli sulcer (hemiptera: psyllidae) are important pests in tomato, and the mirid dicyphus hesperus knight (heteroptera: miridae) has been shown as an effective predator of both pests. although the predator was able to suppress populations of both pests, the remaining levels could still exceed tolerable levels. thus, we here hypothesized whether the combination of d. hesperus with the specialist parasitoids eretmocerus eremicu ...201829365143
examining the potential role of foliar chemistry in imparting potato germplasm tolerance to potato psyllid, green peach aphid, and zebra chip disease.long-term, sustainable management of zebra chip disease of potato, caused by 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) and vectored by potato psyllids (bactericera cockerelli sulc [hemiptera: triozidae]), requires development of cultivars resistant or tolerant to infection or capable of reducing spread or both. we examined the influence that five experimental breeding clones of potato had on potato psyllids and their ability to vector lso. the ability of these potato clones to resist aphids ( ...201729186612
characterization of host plant resistance to zebra chip disease from species-derived potato genotypes and the identification of new sources of zebra chip resistance.'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso), an uncultivable phloem-limited phytopathogenic bacteria, is known to be associated with zebra chip disease (zc), which represents a major threat to potato production in the us and elsewhere. this pathogen is transmitted by the phloem-feeding potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli sulc (hem. triozidae). currently, there are no reports of resistance to zc in cultivated potatoes. this greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate lso transmission success a ...201728832618
incidence of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) under different pesticide regimes in the lower columbia basin.zebra chip is a potato disease transmitted by the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli (šulc) and distributed across several regions of the united states. because of its potentially devastating effects, the disease represents a threat to the potato production and the industry particularly in the pacific northwest, where it was first detected in 2011. efforts to control the disease primarily focus on managing the vector using pesticides. in this study, the effectiveness of two pesticide spray pr ...201728505326
genomic sequence of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype c and its comparison with haplotype a and b genomes.haplotypes a and b of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (clso) are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes c, d and e are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. to date, one complete genome of haplotype b and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype a have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector bactericera cockerelli. here, we present the first genomic sequences obtain ...201728158295
emerging new crop pests: ecological modelling and analysis of the south american potato psyllid russelliana solanicola (hemiptera: psylloidea) and its wild security is threatened by newly emerging pests with increased invasive potential accelerated through globalization. the neotropical jumping plant louse russelliana solanicola tuthill is currently a localized potato pest and probable vector of plant pathogens. it is an unusually polyphagous species and is widely distributed in and along the andes. to date, introductions have been detected in eastern argentina, southern brazil and uruguay. species distribution models (sdms) and trait comparis ...201728052088
stylet biogenesis in bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).the discovery of 'ca. liberibacter solanacearum', causal agent of certain solanaceous and apiaceous crop diseases, inside the functional (intrastadial) and pharate stylet anatomy of the potato psyllid prompted elucidation of the mechanism of stylet replacement as a novel exit portal in the transmission pathway. in hemiptera, presumptive (formative) stylets, secreted during consecutive pharate instars, replace functional stylets lost with the exuviae. in potato psyllids, each functional stylet ha ...201728043917
potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae) response to insecticides under controlled greenhouse conditions.bactericera cockerelli (šulc) is a common pest of solanaceous crops largely known for vectoring "psyllid yellows" in potatoes. in recent years, however, this pest has attracted considerable attention for vectoring zebra chip, a devastating bacterial disease that was first reported in the united states in 2004 and has spread across the southern and northwestern states, causing significant economic losses to potato growers and the industry. management of the disease is mainly achieved by reducing ...201728028167
identification and expression analyses of vitellogenin in bactericera cockerelli (šulc).the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a phloem-feeding insect with preference for solanaceae. this insect species is vector of the pathogenic bacteria 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' the causative agent of zebra chip, an important disease of commercial potatoes in several countries worldwide. the recent classification of psyllids among the most dangerous vectors has promoted their study, but still many biological processes such as reproduction and vi ...201727894936
colonization and intrusive invasion of potato psyllid by 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum'.previous studies have shown that the fastidious bacterial plant pathogen 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (clso) is transmitted circulatively and propagatively by the potato psyllid (pop) bactericera cockerelli. in this study, the temporal and spatial interrelationships between clso pop were investigated by scanning electron microscopy of the digestive system of pop immature and adult instars and salivary glands of adults post clso ingestion. clso biofilms were not detectable on the outer ...201727482628
variations in zebra chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density.zebra chip (zc) disease, caused by 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum', which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, has negatively affected potato production in the united states for over a decade. the present study was conducted to evaluate the affect of the number of bacteriliferous psyllids on 'ca. l. solanacearum' titer, levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolics, and, subsequently, symptom severity in potato tubers. 'red la soda' and 'russet norkotah' potato were planted in the fiel ...201627111802
selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli.the selection of reference genes is a crucial step for quantitative real-time pcr analyses and increasingly the use of more than one reference gene for accurate and reliable normalization is being recommended. in this study, a set of six genes was selected and their stability was assessed in different life stages and female organs of bactericera cockerelli harbouring or not the bacterial pathogen 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) haplotype b. the stability of each gene was determined ...201626936438
localization of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' and evidence for surface appendages in the potato psyllid vector.the potato psyllid bactericera cockerelli is implicated as the vector of the causal agent of zebra chip of potato and vein-greening of tomato diseases. until now, visual identification of bacteria in the genus 'candidatus liberibacter' has relied on direct imaging by light and electron microscopy without labeling, or with whole-organ fluorescence labeling only. in this study, aldehyde fixative followed by a coagulant fixative, was used to process adult psyllids for transmission electron microsco ...201626551449
toxicity and residual activity of insecticides against tamarixia triozae (hymenoptera: eulophidae), a parasitoid of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in central america, mexico, the united states, and new zealand. its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid tamarixia triozae (burks) (hymenoptera: eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. because t. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study wa ...201526453717
use of electrical penetration graph technology to examine transmission of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' to potato by three haplotypes of potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli; hemiptera: triozidae).the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. little is known about how potato psyllid transmits lso to potato. we used electrical penetration graph (epg) technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (central, western, northwestern). all haplotypes ...201526407093
effect of cyantraniliprole on probing behavior of the potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae) as measured by the electrical penetration graph technique.zebra chip (zc), an economically important disease of potato, is caused by 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) transmitted by the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae). currently, using insecticides against potato psyllid is the only means to manage zc. however, the ability of the potato psyllid to rapidly transmit lso represents a substantial challenge in preventing the spread of zc. cyantraniliprole, a novel second-generation anthranilic diamide insectic ...201526340224
effects of host plant on development and body size of three haplotypes of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is an economic pest of solanaceous crops in north and central america, and in new zealand. four genetic haplotypes of the psyllid have been identified in north america. three of these haplotypes (central, western, and northwestern) are common on potato crops within the major potato-growing regions of idaho, oregon, and washington. within this growing region, a weedy perennial nightshade, solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightsha ...201526313965
'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' titers in and infection effects on potato tuber chemistry of promising germplasm exhibiting tolerance to zebra chip disease.long-term sustainable management of zebra chip (zc) disease of potato requires development of tolerant or resistant germplasm. to this end, 283 potato varieties and breeding clones were infected with the zc putative causal agent 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso) by potato psyllid vector inoculations in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. potato germplasm was then examined for development of fresh and fried zc symptoms. over multiple years 29 breeding clones exhibited little to no symptoms in ...201526312966
significance and epidemiological aspects of late-season infections in the management of potato zebra chip.zebra chip (zc) of potato is putatively caused by the fastidious, phloem-limited bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' (lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli). the disease, which significantly impacts both crop yield and quality, was first identified in the united states from south texas in 2000. it reached epidemic levels in north texas and certain production areas in colorado, nebraska, and new mexico from 2004 to 2007 and it caused severe losses i ...201525894320
logrank test and interval overlap test for bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) under different fertilization treatments for 7705 tomato is known that some nutrients can have both negative and positive effects on some populations of insects. to test this, the logrank test and the interval overlap test were evaluated for two crop cycles (february-may and may-august) of the 7705 tomato hybrid, and the effect on the psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc.) (hemiptera: triozidae), was examined under greenhouse conditions. tomato plants were in polythene bags and irrigated with the following solutions: t1-steiner solution, t2-steine ...201425527579
effects of potato-psyllid-vectored 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' infection on potato leaf and stem physiology.the bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' is associated with zebra chip disease (zc), a threat to potato production in north america and new zealand. it is vectored by potato psyllids. previous studies observed that 'ca. l. solanacearum' infection causes potato tubers to undergo zc-symptom-associated shifts in physiology, such as increased levels of amino acids, sugars, and phenolics. however, little is known about how 'ca. l. solanacearum' infections caused by psyllid vector feeding ...201525469656
synthesis and regulation of chlorogenic acid in potato: rerouting phenylpropanoid flux in hqt-silenced lines.chlorogenic acid (cga) is the major phenolic sink in potato tubers and can constitute over 90% of total phenylpropanoids. the regulation of cga biosynthesis in potato and the role of the cga biosynthetic gene hydroxycinnamoyl coa:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (hqt) was characterized. a sucrose induced accumulation of cga correlated with the increased expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) rather than hqt. transient expression of the potato myb transcription factor stan1 (anthocya ...201525421386
identification of a fourth haplotype of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) in the united states.the potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (sulc) (hemiptera: triozidae), is a pest of potato and other solanaceous crops in north and central america and new zealand. previous genotyping studies have demonstrated the presence of three different haplotypes of b. cockerelli in the united states corresponding to three geographical regions: central, western, and northwestern. these studies utilized psyllids collected in the western and central united states between 1998 and 2011. in an effort to fu ...201425368079
the influence of maturity and variety of potato plants on oviposition and probing of bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).the ecological theory on host plant choice by herbivores suggests that mothers should choose plants that will maximize their offspring's success. in annual host plants, physiology (and therefore host suitability) is sometimes influenced by maturity and growth stage, which may influence female choice. potato plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and used in choice and no-choice bioassays to determine the effect of plant maturity and variety on oviposition and number of stylet sheaths (whi ...201424763097
factors influencing host plant choice and larval performance in bactericera cockerelli.among the many topics of interest to ecologists studying associations between phytophagous insects and their host plants are the influence of natal host plant on future oviposition decisions and the mechanisms of generalist versus specialist host selection behavior. in this study, we examined the oviposition preferences, behavior and larval development of the tomato/potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli. by rearing psyllids with two distinct geographically-linked haplotypes on different host pl ...201424710468
characterization of management and environmental factors associated with regional variations in potato zebra chip occurrence.potato zebra chip (zc), caused by the bacterial pathogen 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum', which is vectored by the potato psyllid (bactericera cockerelli), has caused widespread damage to u.s. potato production ever since its first discovery in south texas in 2000. to determine the influence of environmental factors and management practices on zc occurrence, data on management and meteorological variables, field locations, and psyllid counts were collected over a 3-year period (2010 to 20 ...201323883154
genetic variation in bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae) from mexico.bactericera cockerelli (sulc) is a significant pest of several solanacious crops in mexico and the united states since 1970. in 2001 significant outbreaks of outstanding importance were observed for the first time in areas where infestations of this insect were historically rare. molecular studies revealed that this was because of the development of a new biotype of b. cockerelli that had become adapted to south-western united states, further demonstrating that this genetic differentiation was r ...201323786093
transmission efficiency of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' and potato zebra chip disease progress in relation to pathogen titer, vector numbers, and feeding sites.abstract with diseases caused by vector-borne plant pathogens, acquisition and inoculation are two primary stages of the transmission, which can determine vector efficiency in spreading the pathogen. the present study was initiated to quantify acquisition and inoculation successes of 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum', the etiological agent of zebra chip disease of potato, by its psyllid vector, bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae). acquisition success was evaluated in relation to f ...201222784252
spatial dispersion and binomial sequential sampling for the potato psyllid (hemiptera: triozidae) on potato.the potato psyllid is a serious pest of potatoes. sampling plans on potatoes for the potato psyllid have yet to be developed, thus the authors' objectives were (1) to determine the most efficient within-plant sampling unit, (2) to determine the spatial dispersion of potato psyllids in potato fields and (3) to develop a binomial sequential sampling plan for this pest.201222266810
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