seasonal distribution and relationship to temperature and precipitation of the most abundant species of culicoides in five provinces of andalusia, spain.a total of 177,344 culicoides specimens were collected from 3,109 light trap collections made weekly from august 1990 to october 1991 at 62 sites in the provinces of cádiz, córdoba, huelva, seville, and málaga, spain. reported for the 1st time are culicoides agathensis, culicoides bahrainensis, culicoides marcleti, and culicoides odiatus in the iberian peninsula, and culicoides scoticus in andalusia, spain. as a group, culicoides were active throughout the year. the 3 most common species were cu ...199910480132
differentiation of culicoides obsoletus and culicoides scoticus (diptera: ceratopogonidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i.culicoides obsoletus (meigen) and culicoides scoticus downes & kettle (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are sibling species of the obsoletus group. this group comprises species of biting midges that are suspect vectors of bluetongue virus (family reoviridae, genus orbivirus, btv) and african horse sickness virus (family reoviridae, genus orbivirus, ahsv). btv and ahsv have been isolated several times from females of this group, although it has not been possible to determine the particular species harbo ...200516465744
influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the distribution and abundance of culicoides imicola and the obsoletus complex in italy.culicoides imicola kieffer (culicoides, diptera: ceratopogonidae) is the principal vector of bluetongue virus (btv) to ruminant livestock in southern europe. the secondary potential vectors are culicoides obsoletus (meigen) and culicoides scoticus downes and kettle of the obsoletus complex, culicoides pulicaris (linnaeus) of the pulicaris complex and culicoides dewulfi goetghebuer of the subgenus avaritia fox. between 2000 and 2004 >38,000 light-trap collections were made for culicoides across i ...200717997043
genebank accession numbers of sequences of culicoides species vectors of bluetongue virus in germany.the paper offers the genebank accession numbers of culicoides obsoletus, culicoides scoticus and culicoides pulicaris sequences (its 1, its 2, 18s rrna) that had been shown to be vectors of the bluetongue virus serotype 8, which was introduced in 2006 into germany and spread until 2009 all over central europe, including parts of england. the numbers are fn 263292 until fn 263323.200919424722
an investigation on the culicoides species composition at seven sites in southern the past decade, there have been regular outbreaks of bluetongue (bt) in many parts of europe. owing to the presence of bt disease and its vectors in countries adjacent to switzerland, an initial entomological survey was conducted in 2003, which established the presence of several midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae). subsequently, a sentinel herd monitoring system was established with the primary entomological aim being the determination and further study of culicoides p ...200919493190
discrimination of culicoides obsoletus and culicoides scoticus, potential bluetongue vectors, by morphometrical and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i analysis.biting midges of the culicoides obsoletus meigen species complex (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are increasingly suspected as vectors of the recent emergence of bluetongue virus in europe. within this complex, identification of the c. obsoletus and culicoides scoticus females is considered as difficult or sometimes not possible while the identification of males is easy, based on genitalia observation. nolan et al. (2007) concluded that the distinction of c. obsoletus and c. scoticus females is not p ...201020381646
phenology and attraction of potential culicoides vectors of bluetongue virus in basque country (northern spain).bluetongue virus is transmitted by culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae). culicoides associated with livestock were captured using cdc blacklight traps at three btv-infected farms in basque country between november 2007 and december 2008. twenty-seven and nineteen culicoides species were collected in outdoor and indoor habitats respectively. indoor insect community represented 86.1% of the whole captured individual biting midges. culicoides obsoletus/culicoides scoticus (two siblin ...201122137350
can insecticide-treated netting provide protection for equids from culicoides biting midges in the united kingdom?biting midges of the genus culicoides latreille, 1809 (diptera: ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to equines and are responsible for the biological transmission of african horse sickness virus (ahsv). while currently restricted in distribution to sub-saharan africa, ahsv has a history of emergence into southern europe and causes one of the most lethal diseases of horses and other species of equidae. in the event of an outbreak of ahsv, the use of insecticide treated nets (itns ...201526607993
towards the pcr-based identification of palaearctic culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting four species of the subgenus avaritia.biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. to understand the role of culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. within the western palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, c. obsoletus, c. scoticus, c. dewulfi and c. chiopterus, have similar wing patterns, which makes it difficult to separate and identify them correctly.201424884950
a comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of culicoides in northern europe.the response of culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) to artificial light sources has led to the use of light-suction traps in surveillance programmes. recent integration of light emitting diodes (led) in traps improves flexibility in trapping through reduced power requirements and also allows the wavelength of light used for trapping to be customized. this study investigates the responses of culicoides to led light-suction traps emitting different wavelengths of light to make reco ...201525896343
host-seeking activity of bluetongue virus vectors: endo/exophagy and circadian rhythm of culicoides in western europe.feeding success of free-living hematophagous insects depends on their ability to be active when hosts are available and to reach places where hosts are accessible. when the hematophagous insect is a vector of pathogens, determining the components of host-seeking behavior is of primary interest for the assessment of transmission risk. our aim was to describe endo/exophagy and circadian host-seeking activity of palaearctic culicoides species, which are major biting pests and arbovirus vectors, usi ...201223144735
does covering of farm-associated culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the united kingdom?culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (btv) and the recently emerging schmallenberg virus (sbv). culicoides species in the subgenus avaritia (in the uk: culicoides obsoletus meigen, culicoides scoticus downes & kettle, culicoides dewulfi goetghebuer and culicoides chiopterus meigen) have been implicated in btv transmission in northern europe and to a varying degre ...201324472769
full-genome characterisation of orungo, lebombo and changuinola viruses provides evidence for co-evolution of orbiviruses with their arthropod vectors.the complete genomes of orungo virus (oruv), lebombo virus (lebv) and changuinola virus (cglv) were sequenced, confirming that they each encode 11 distinct proteins (vp1-vp7 and ns1-ns4). phylogenetic analyses of cell-attachment protein 'outer-capsid protein 1' (oc1), show that orbiviruses fall into three large groups, identified as: vp2(oc1), in which oc1 is the 2nd largest protein, including the culicoides transmitted orbiviruses; vp3(oc1), which includes the mosquito transmitted orbiviruses; ...201424475112
measurement of the infection and dissemination of bluetongue virus in culicoides biting midges using a semi-quantitative rt-pcr assay and isolation of infectious virus.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of globally significant arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (btv), african horse sickness virus (ahsv) and the recently emerging schmallenberg virus (sbv). from 2006-2009 outbreaks of btv in northern europe inflicted major disruption and economic losses to farmers and several attempts were made to implicate palaearctic culicoides species as vectors. results from these studies were difficult to interpre ...201323940643
arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies, and analysis.effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium "advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis" presented at the 58th annual meeting of the entomological society of america in san diego, ca. interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring f ...026543242
molecular identification of western european species of obsoletus complex (diptera: ceratopogonidae) by an internal transcribed spacer-1 rdna multiplex polymerase chain reaction southern europe, orbiviral diseases such as bluetongue (bt) have been assumed to have been largely transmitted by the classical afro-asian vector culicoides imicola kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae). recent outbreaks have occurred in regions where c. imicola is normally absent, supporting the theory that other species belonging to the obsoletus or pulicaris complexes may play a role in bt virus transmission. investigations of the ecology of the species within the former group are hampered by ...200718047201
culicoides midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) as vectors of orbiviruses in recent years, rapid spread of culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (bt) and schmallenberg viruses have been reported in europe. in this study we examined the culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in eastern slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. the main vector complexes were the obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209) and the pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796). to estimate the relative abu ...201425273963
emergence of culicoides obsoletus group species from farm-associated habitats in germany.biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) may transmit several arboviruses to ruminant livestock. the species of the obsoletus group are considered to be among the most important vectors of bluetongue virus (btv) in northern europe. as agricultural environments offer suitable habitats for the development of their immature stages, the emergence of adult culicoides from potential breeding sites was investigated at 20 cattle farms throughout germany in 2012 and 2013. in analy ...201626744290
role of different culicoides vectors (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in bluetongue virus transmission and overwintering in sardinia (italy).bluetongue (bt) epidemics have affected the mediterranean island of sardinia since 2000. while culicoides imicola represents the main bluetongue virus (btv) vector, other european culicoides biting midges, possibly implicated in virus transmission, have been detected here. understanding their distribution, seasonal abundance, and infection rates is necessary to predict disease incidence and spread across coastal and inland areas, and to define their role in virus overwintering.201627502924
simultaneous quantification of the relative abundance of species complex members: application to culicoides obsoletus and culicoides scoticus (diptera: ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue virus.the two sympatric sibling species culicoides obsoletus (meigen) and culicoides scoticus downes and kettle (diptera: ceratopogonidae), are known to be competent vectors for bluetongue virus in the palaearctic region. however, morphological identification of constituent species is only readily applicable to adult males and these two species distinguishing traits have overlapping character states. as their vector competence may differ in space and time, the correct identification and quantification ...201121715095
morphological and molecular identification of species of the obsoletus group (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in scandinavia.after the introduction of bluetongue in northern europe in 2006, populations of culicoides have been monitored in many european countries. large quantities of culicoides specimens shall be determined to species, and it is thus important to find reliable morphological characters that are visualized in a stereomicroscope. culicoides obsoletus, culicoides scoticus, culicoides chiopterus, and culicoides dewulfi all belonging to subgenus avaritia are common in collections in northern europe. c. obsol ...201121461726
molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae: culicoides latreille) in denmark.culicoides vectors are critical to the survival and transmission of bluetongue virus as infection only occurs in areas or regions where competent vectors are present. the success of culicoides biting midges as vectors is mainly related to their vast population sizes and to their means of dispersal. their choice of host for blood feeding is sparsely described. the aim of the present study was to establish methods for the identification of bloodmeal hosts and determine the identity and diversity o ...201020978788
contribution to the knowledge of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) host preferences in france.knowledge on host-feeding pattern of blood-sucking insects helps to understand the epidemiology of a vector-born disease. we determined blood meal origin from blood-fed culicoides thanks to molecular techniques. a set of primers was used to selectively amplify segment of vertebrates' prepronociceptin gene from abdomen of engorged culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae). vertebrate dna was successfully amplified in 91% of blood-fed culicoides assayed. direct sequencing and comparison of resultant s ...201020967462
development and preliminary evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction for the identification of culicoides obsoletus sensu strictu, c. scoticus and c. montanus in the obsoletus complex in italy.a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a green fluorescence dye, followed by a comparison of derivative melting curves in the post-amplification phase, was developed to distinguish species of culicoides within the obsoletus complex. the selected target sequence was internal transcribed spacer 2 (its 2) of the ribosomal dna (rdna). using the newly developed method, 140 midges were morphologically classified in the obsoletus complex and were processed. the results were compared to those ...201020560129
monitoring of biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae: culicoides latreille) on farms in sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern europe, populations of culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in sweden. the location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55 degrees n to about 68 degrees n. a total of 61,669 male and female culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. thirty-three culicoides species were re ...201020174825
changes of the abundance of culicoides obsoletus s.s. and culicoides scoticus in southwest germany identified by a pcr-based differentiation.the outbreak of bluetongue disease in central europe necessitates new approaches in the identification of vectors to follow-up changes of populations of species and not of complexes. since females of species of the complex of culicoides obsoletus are difficult to be identified according to morphological criteria, we applied a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based strategy targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i to differentiate between the species culicoides obsoletus s.s. and c ...200919319570
schmallenberg virus in culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) populations in france during 2011-2012 outbreak.following the emergence of the schmallenberg virus (sbv) in 2011 in germany and its rapid spread in europe, culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) collected through the french surveillance network were analysed in order to record the presence of virus genome into species diversity collected, to assess the minimum infectious rates (mir) and the virus circulation dynamics in culicoides populations. two vector activity periods were selected (2011, august to october, 53 sites and 2012, june to octobe ...201728815930
bluetongue virus isolations from midges belonging to the obsoletus complex (culicoides, diptera: ceratopogonidae) in italy.between july and september 2002 there were outbreaks of bluetongue on three sheep holdings in the communities of san gregorio magno (salerno, campania), laviano (salerno, campania) and carpino (foggia, puglia), and the involvement of bluetongue virus (btv) was confirmed serologically and virologically. the mortality rate was at least 11 per cent and involved btv serotype 2 (btv-2) and serotype 9 (btv-9). these holdings were also surveyed for the culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) vectors; app ...200516055660
first report of 13 species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in mainland portugal and azores by morphological and molecular characterization.the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) contains important vectors of animal and human diseases, including bluetongue, african horse sickness and filariosis. a major outbreak of bluetongue occurred in mainland portugal in 2004, forty eight years after the last recorded case. a national entomological surveillance plan was initiated in mainland portugal, azores and the madeira archipelagos in 2005 in order to better understand the disease and facilitate policy decisions. during the survey, ...201222536340
revealing potential bridge vectors for btv and sbv: a study on culicoides blood feeding preferences in natural ecosystems in spain.several species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens, such as the bluetongue (btv) and schmallenberg (sbv) viruses, which cause important diseases in domestic and wild ruminants. as wild ruminants can contribute to overwintering and epizootics of both diseases, knowledge of the host-feeding behaviour of culicoides in natural ecosystems is important to better understand their epidemiology. blood-engorged culicoides females trapped in natural areas inhabited by differe ...201728857265
why did bluetongue spread the way it did? environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic wave in france.understanding where and how fast an infectious disease will spread during an epidemic is critical for its control. however, the task is a challenging one as numerous factors may interact and drive the spread of a disease, specifically when vector-borne diseases are involved. we advocate the use of simultaneous autoregressive models to identify environmental features that significantly impact the velocity of disease spread. we illustrate this approach by exploring several environmental factors in ...201222916249
schmallenberg virus in culicoides spp. biting midges, the netherlands, determine which species of culicoides biting midges carry schmallenberg virus (sbv), we assayed midges collected in the netherlands during autumn 2011. sbv rna was found in c. scoticus, c. obsoletus sensu stricto, and c. chiopterus. the high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid spread of sbv throughout europe.023260040
environmental drivers of culicoides phenology: how important is species-specific variation when determining disease policy?since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern europe. the most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (btv), which cause bluetongue (bt) disease. to control spread of btv, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. the timing of btv transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult ...201425386940
morphometric discrimination of two sympatric sibling species in the palaearctic region, culicoides obsoletus meigen and c. scoticus downes & kettle (diptera: ceratopogonidae), vectors of bluetongue and schmallenberg viruses.some palaearctic biting midge species (subgenus avaritia) have been implicated as vectors of bluetongue virus in northern europe. separation of two species (c. obsoletus and c. scoticus) is considered difficult morphologically and, often, these female specimens are grouped in entomological studies. however, species-specific identification is desirable to understand their life history characteristics, assess their roles in disease transmission or measure their abundance during arboviral outbreaks ...201627146157
Quantifying the spatial dependence of Culicoides midge samples collected by Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps: an experimental approach to infer the range of attraction of light traps.The emergence of bluetongue disease in Europe has led several countries to rapidly establish large-scale entomological surveys of its vectors, which are midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). These surveys have largely been based on the use of Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps. However, the range of attraction of the traps and the spatial dependence of the samples they provide are unknown, which somewhat complicates subsequent analyses. This paper ...201122098421
assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and uv-light/suction trap for collecting culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae), vectors of orbiviruses.abstract:201121707980
experimental infection studies of uk culicoides species midges with bluetongue virus serotypes 8 and 9.this paper describes a rapid, standardised method for testing the susceptibility to bluetongue virus (btv) of northern palaearctic culicoides species midges that can be used to assess the competence of both field-caught and laboratory-infected midges. the method has been used to show that culicoides scoticus can replicate btv serotype 8 and btv serotype 9 strains to more than 3 log(10) tcid50/midge, the first evidence of the potential of this species to transmit btv.200819011244
endophily in culicoides associated with btv-infected cattle in the province of limburg, south-eastern netherlands, 2006.culicoides were captured at a btv-infected dairy near gulpen in the province of limburg (south-east netherlands) between 14 september and 4 october 2006. onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were used to sample culicoides both inside and outside a partially open shed housing 11 cattle. a total of 28 light trap collections were made at the shed and yielded: 9371 culicoides representing 11 species; >90% comprised five potential vectors of btv and in order of abundance were culicoides obsoletus and ...200818672304
the culicoides 'snapshot': a novel approach used to assess vector densities widely and rapidly during the 2006 outbreak of bluetongue (bt) in the netherlands.a novel method was developed and implemented during the recent outbreak of bluetongue (bt) in sheep and cattle in the netherlands to obtain rapidly a 'snapshot' of culicoides vector densities at the national level. the country was divided into 110 raster cells, each measuring 20 km x 20 km; within 106 of these cells, a farm was selected with a minimum of 10 cattle and sampled for culicoides for one night only using the onderstepoort-type blacklight trap. prior to deployment of the light traps in ...200818657871
the phenology and population dynamics of culicoides spp. in different ecosystems in the netherlands.the netherlands has enjoyed a relatively free state of vector-borne diseases of economic importance for more than one century. emerging infectious diseases may change this situation, threatening the health of humans, domestic livestock and wildlife. in order to be prepared for the potential outbreak of vector-borne diseases, a study was undertaken to investigate the distribution and seasonal dynamics of candidate vectors of infectious diseases with emphasis on bluetongue vectors (culicoides spp. ...200818639947
a survey of culicoides developmental sites on a farm in northern spain, with a brief review of immature habitats of european species.culicoides species (diptera: ceratopogonidae) belonging to the obsoletus and pulicaris groups are considered to be the main vectors of bluetongue virus (btv) in non mediterranean europe. selected terrestrial microhabitats (n=17) on a farm in northern spain were sampled repeatedly over a year-long period and characterized for use by culicoides species for immature development. concurrent use of cdc light traps showed the presence of 37 species and 66,575 specimens of adult culicoides. a total of ...201322999100
host preferences of palaearctic culicoides biting midges: implications for transmission of orbiviruses.feeding success depends on host availability, host defensive reactions and host preferences. host choice is a critical determinant of the intensity at which pathogens are transmitted. the aim of the current study was to describe host preferences of palaearctic culicoides species (diptera: ceratopogonidae) latreille using traps baited with the five different host species of poultry, horse, cattle, sheep and goat. collections were carried out nightly in july and august 2009 in western france with ...201322985009
chemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the culicoides obsoletus/culicoides scoticus species (diptera: ceratopogonidae).culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (btv). bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. since its recent emergence in northern europe, this disease has caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industry. the biotopes, and more particularly the chemical characteristics which are suitable for larval development of the main vector species, are still relatively unknown. this study shows that the larvae of bitin ...201322963713
culicoides biting midge density in relation to the position and substrate temperature in a cattle dung heap.dung heaps offer warm breeding sites, which might be suitable for a continuing development or even emergence at low air temperatures in winter. therefore, this study collected substrate samples from the outer surface and core of a cattle dung heap at the beginning of the winter period. we aimed to analyze the density of immature culicoides in relation to substrate position and temperature. we took samples from the outer layer and core of the dung heap at different heights. floatation was used to ...201425339512
wing geometry as a tool for discrimination of obsoletus group (diptera: ceratopogonidae: culicoides) in europe, culicoides chiopterus, culicoides dewulfi, culicoides obsoletus and culicoides scoticus, which belongs to the subgenus avaritia and obsoletus group are the most proficient bluetongue and schmallenberg vectors. within this group, correct identification based on morphological traits is difficult but essential to assess disease transmission risk. the development of new tools has revolutionized taxonomy (i.e. geometric morphometrics and molecular biology). wing morphology is of primary im ...201424514019
investigation of diel activity of culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in the united kingdom by using a vehicle-mounted trap.truck trap collections of culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were made during 2 yr of sampling from 2008 to 2009 at a farm site in southern england. samples were collected from 810 sample runs carried out over 52 d and contained 7,095 culicoides of which more than half (50.3%) were identified as culicoides obsoletus meigen by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. other commonly encountered species included culicoides scoticus downes & kettle (14.7% of total culicoid ...201222679886
eco-climatic indicators for three culicoides species of the obsoletus complex in italy.bluetongue, schmallenberg and african horse sickness viruses are transmitted by vectors belonging to the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae). among this genus, species of the obsoletus complex play a crucial role in europe. in italy the complex includes three species: culicoides obsoletus sensu strictu, culicoides scoticus and culicoides montanus. these three sibling species were identified in 80 collection sites across italy through a multiplex pcr test. sixty‑four sites were classified ...201627723029
genetic structure and population dynamics of the biting midges culicoides obsoletus and culicoides scoticus: implications for the transmission and maintenance of bluetongue.culicoides species belonging to the obsoletus complex (diptera: ceratopogonidae) have been indicated as primary bluetongue (bt) vectors in many european countries and their possible involvement in the maintenance and overwintering of bt viruses has been suggested, even in regions where culicoides imicola keiffer is the main vector. the obsoletus complex includes two predominant taxa, culicoides obsoletus (meigen) and culicoides scoticus downes & kettle. however, the role played by each species i ...201020572933
an unrecognized species of the culicoides obsoletus complex feeding on livestock in the studies on culicoides attacking livestock in the netherlands, we chanced upon a species of the obsoletus complex that we do not recognize, but whose dark wing pattern is distinctive. nine cytochrome c oxidase (co1) sequences of our so-called 'dark obsoletus' support its status as a separate species, the sequences differing significantly from those representing culicoides obsoletus (meigen) (90-91% homology) and culicoides scoticus downes & kettle (87-88% homology). in the last decade, several ...201525583356
indoor and outdoor winter activity of culicoides biting midges, vectors of bluetongue virus, in italy.indoor and outdoor winter activity of culicoides spp. (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central italy was investigated in order to evaluate whether indoor activity might account for the overwintering of bluetongue virus, as has been hypothesized by some authors. weekly culicoides collections were performed at three farms over three consecutive winter seasons. at each farm, two black-light traps were operated simultaneously, indoors and outdoors. culicoides were identified using both morphological an ...201728833269
molecular phylogeny of 42 species of culicoides (diptera, ceratopogonidae) from three continents.the genus culicoides includes vectors of important animal diseases such as bluetongue and schmallenberg virus (btv and sbv). this genus includes 1300 species classified in 32 subgenera and 38 unclassified species. however, the phylogenetic relationships between different subgenera of culicoides have never been studied. phylogenetic analyses of 42 species belonging to 12 subgenera and 8 ungrouped species of genus culicoides from ecuador, france, gabon, madagascar and tunisia were carried out usin ...201728643630
impact of mechanical disturbance on the emergence of culicoides from cowpats.the outbreaks of bluetongue virus and schmallenberg virus between 2006 and 2012 highlighted the need for control methods for north-western palaearctic biting midge species. there is especially a demand for alternative control methods without application of insecticides. therefore, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of mechanical disturbance as a control method for culicoides biting midges in cowpats. we used a trash rake to destroy the compact structure of cowpats and spread ...201424452917
phylogeny of the subgenus culicoides and related species in italy, inferred from internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal dna sequences.biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) include vectors for the economically important animal diseases, bluetongue (bt) and african horse sickness (ahs). in the mediterranean basin, these diseases are transmitted by four species of culicoides: the first three belong in the subgenus avaritia fox and are culicoides imicola kieffer, culicoides obsoletus (meigen) and culicoides scoticus downes and kettle; the fourth is culicoides pulicaris (linnaeus) in the subgenus culicoid ...200616796616
flight and swarming behaviour of culicoides species (diptera: ceratopogonidae) on a livestock farm in northern spain.the efficacy of sweep nets and a cdc white light-suction trap for the sampling of culicoides species (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were compared on a livestock farm in northern spain during the summer of 2013. a total of 6,082 specimens representing 26 species were collected with sweep nets in 4 areas at di erent heights (ground level, 1.5 m, and 3 m), and 8,463 specimens representing 28 species with a single white light trap. eight species - culicoides brunnicans, culicoides punctatus, culicoides ...201728675253
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