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african swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with african swine fever (asf) virus. little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. this study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector o. moubata. these ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. the vi ...19989659687
parasites of south african wildlife. xix. the prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the limpopo province, south africa.little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. the aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. ten impalas (aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), two bla ...201123327219
different fusion configurations of evolutionarily conserved segments in karyotypes of potamochoerus porcus and phacochoerus africanus.the karyotype of the red river hog potamochoerus porcus (2n = 34) differs from that of the domestic pig by the presence of 2 fusion chromosomes homologous to pig chromosomes 13/16 and 15/17. moreover, chromosomes corresponding to pig chromosomes 13/16 and 1 are both acrocentric. hybridization with region-specific painting probes confirmed tandem fusion of pig chromosomes 13 and 16, and a pericentric inversion of the pig chromosome 1p equivalent in p. porcus. the chromosome complement of the wart ...201020606389
pmws associated with diarrhoea and illthrift in a captive red river hog (potamochoerus porcus). 201121508067
influence of habitat and seasonal variation on wild mammal diversity and distribution with special reference to the trypanosoma brucei gambiense host-reservoir in bipindi (cameroon).to evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human african trypanosomiasis (hat), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in bipindi (southwestern cameroon). to achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. a total of 31 mammal species were recorde ...200919732737
faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa).the objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in african and south east asian pig species kept in european zoos. species studied were the warthog (phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa). faecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n = 9), red river hogs (n = 7) and babirusas (n = 5). enzyme-immunoassays for faecal progesterone, androgen, and oes ...200615876499
periodontal disease in southern african bushpigs (potamochoerus porcus) and warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus).periodontal lesions were found in 14 of 100 bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) skulls and nine of 103 warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) skulls from southern africa. the prevalence of periodontal disease showed a significant increase with age in the bushpig but not in the warthog skulls. all the lesions affected the cheek teeth, particularly the molars. the lower prevalence of lesions in older warthogs may be associated with their specialised molars and abrasive diet.19892915404
ixodid ticks and lice infesting red duikers and bushpigs in north-eastern natal.eighteen red duikers, cephalophus natalensis, from the charters creek nature reserve and 2 from fanies island nature reserve were processed for arthropod parasite recovery. they harboured 8 species of ixodid ticks and 2 lice species. all were infested with haemaphysalis parmata and the nymphs of rhipicephalus muehlensi. two bushpigs, potamochoerus porcus, from the ndumu nature reserve, 5 from the eastern shores nature reserve and 1 from cape vidal were examined for ectoparasites. they were infes ...19911780129
the uncoupling protein 1 gene (ucp1) is disrupted in the pig lineage: a genetic explanation for poor thermoregulation in piglets.piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) was disrupted in the pig lineage. ucp1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosp ...200616933999
multiple groups of novel retroviral genomes in pigs and related species.in view of the concern over potential infection hazards in the use of porcine tissues and organs for xenotransplantation to humans, we investigated the diversity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (perv) genomes in the dna of domestic pigs and related species. in addition to the three known envelope subgroups of infectious gamma retroviruses (perv-a, -b, and -c), classed together here as perv group gamma 1, four novel groups of gamma retrovirus (gamma 2 to gamma 5) and four novel groups of beta re ...200111222700
comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the suina.the structure of the foramen ovale from six species of suina was studied using the scanning electron microscope. in each species, the foramen ovale, when viewed from the terminal part of the caudal vena cava had the appearance of a short tunnel. in the domestic pig (sus scrofa), the wart hog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) and the bush pig (potamochoerus porcus) a fold of tissue projected from the caudal edge of the foramen ovale into the lumen of the left atrium. it constituted a large proportion of ...19883377202
growth of cowdria ruminantium in tissue culture endothelial cell lines from wild african mammals.endothelial cell cultures were established from several wild african mammalian species. long-term cultures were established from three ruminants, stable antelope (hippotragus niger), buffalo (syncerus caffer), and eland (tragelaphus oryx), and from an omnivore, the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus). cowdria ruminanntium was isolated from plasma of clinically affected animals in these four cell lines and in bovine endothelial cells used routinely for c. ruminantium propagation. nineteen different st ...19989577776
comparative pathology and pathogenesis of african swine fever infection in swine.african swine fever (asf) is a viral disease that affects animals of the suidae family, and soft ticks from the genus ornithodoros can also be infected by the asf virus (asfv). the disease was first described in africa at the beginning of the twentieth century as an acute disease characterized by high mortality and fatal hemorrhages. asf has caused outbreaks in numerous countries and it continues to be devastating nowadays for the porcine sector in those countries affected, and a massive threat ...202032509811
adaptive evolution of toll-like receptors (tlrs) in the family suidae.members of the family suidae have diverged over extended evolutionary periods in diverse environments, suggesting that adaptation in response to endemic infectious agents may have occurred. toll-like receptors (tlrs) comprise a multigene family that acts as the first line of defense against infectious microbes at the host-environment interface. we hypothesized that across the suidae, positive selection mediated by infectious agents has contributed to the evolution of tlr diversity. thus, we anal ...201525894218
reaction to allospecific death and to an unanimated gorilla infant in wild western gorillas: insights into death recognition and prolonged maternal carrying.it is still unclear to what extent animals possess knowledge of death. primates display a large variety and often contradictory behaviors toward conspecific corpses, particularly those of infants (e.g., prolonged carrying and care). this study reports on reactions in a wild, habituated western gorilla group (gorilla gorilla, 11-13 individuals) in the central african republic to an unanimated conspecific infant, and to an allospecific corpse. individuals' reactions were compared to their usual be ...202031444648
domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig-type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae.intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota because their d ...201626315488
detection of african swine fever virus genomic dna in a nigerian red river hog (potamochoerus porcus). 200717220525
impacts of roads and hunting on central african rainforest mammals.road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to african tropical wildlife. in the rainforests of southern gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). at each of 12 study sites that were evenly ...200616922241
evolutionary patterns of toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes in the suidae.the toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling pathway constitutes an essential component of the innate immune system. highly conserved proteins, indicative of their critical roles in host survival, characterize this pathway. selective constraints could vary depending on the gene's position within the pathway as tlr signaling is a sequential process and that genes downstream of the tlrs may be more selectively constrained to ensure efficient immune responses given the important role of downstream genes ...201626860534
nutritional ecology and life history tactics in the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus): development of an interactive model.a study of the ecology of the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) showed that there were regional differences in relative investments made in reproduction and maintenance. southern cape populations had relatively low reproductive rates, but levels of energy storage and survival rates were high. the reverse applied to eastern cape populations. the diets of the two populations differed, with a higher ratio of available production nutrients (npk) to maintenance nutrients (c) in the eastern cape. a life ...199228312277
retrospective characterization of reproductive tract lesions in relation to age, parity, and contraception in captive suidae and tayassuidae.reproductive management in zoos requires contraception or physical separation of sexes to ensure captive population viability, but information is sparse on the effects of parity, age, and contraceptive use on lifetime reproductive health in captive suidae and tayassuidae species. this retrospective study evaluated reproductive tissues and histories from babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa), red river hog (potamochoerus porcus), visayan warty pig (sus cebifrons), common warthog (phacochoerus africanus) ...201930690318
exposure of managed red river hogs (potamochoerus porcus) to urine from males stimulates estrous cycling and modulates fecal sex steroid metabolites in males and females.for unknown reasons, reproductive success varies among zoos in managed red river hogs. in response to urine exposure from novel conspecifics, we hypothesized that males with low libido would exhibit increased concentrations of testosterone metabolites and that acyclic and/or non-breeding females would be induced to cycle or cycle more regularly. estrous cycle length and progesterone metabolites in same-sex housed females were compared prior to and following exposure to novel red river hog male u ...202031454496
comparative digestion studies in wild suids at rotterdam zoo.among the artiodactyla, the suids are a group whose digestive physiology has hardly been investigated. the apparent digestibilities (ad) of macronutrients were measured in captive specimens of warthog (phacochoerus africanus), red river hog (potamochoerus porcus), and visayan warty pigs (sus cebifrons), and compared with those reported for babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa) from the same facility on a similar diet. the animals were fed mixed diets of pelleted feed, grains, fruits, and vegetables; di ...200819360626
a new species of rhipicephalus (acari: ixodidae), a parasite of red river hogs and domestic pigs in the democratic republic of congo.a new tick species belonging to the genus rhipicephalus koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae), namely, rhipicephalus congolensis n. sp., is described. males and females of this species are similar to those of rhipicephalus complanatus neumann, 1911 and rhipicephalus planus neumann, 1907, but it can be distinguished from them by a pattern of dense medium-sized punctations on the conscutum and scutum. males of r. congolensis may be distinguished by the following characters: posterior half of the marginal g ...201323802441
sooty mangabeys scavenge on nuts cracked by chimpanzees and red river hogs-an investigation of inter-specific interactions around tropical nut trees.carrion scavenging is a well-studied phenomenon, but virtually nothing is known about scavenging on plant material, especially on remnants of cracked nuts. just like meat, the insides of hard-shelled nuts are high in energetic value, and both foods are difficult to acquire. in the taï forest, chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) and red river hogs (potamochoerus porcus) crack nuts by using tools or strong jaws, respectively. in this study, previously collected non-invasive camera trap data were used to ...201830024029
role of wildlife in emergence of ebola virus in kaigbono (likati), democratic republic of the congo, 2017.after the 2017 ebola virus (ebov) outbreak in likati, a district in northern democratic republic of the congo, we sampled small mammals from the location where the primary case-patient presumably acquired the infection. none tested positive for ebov rna or antibodies against ebov, highlighting the ongoing challenge in detecting animal reservoirs for ebov.202032818404
public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of gabon, central africa.wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central africa. also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in central africa. this cross-sectional ...201222740547
distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in gabon, central africa.we present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in gabon (central africa). our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. we conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. we used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (l ...201323410077
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