factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in egyptian oases.blood meals were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for 424 anopheles sergentii and for 63 an. multicolor collected in siwa, farafra and bahariya oases in the western desert of egypt. both species were highly zoophilic. human blood-feeding by an. sergentii was less common in bahariya (2.3%) and farafra (1.3%) than in siwa (15.3%). a likely explanation is that large domestic animals are held at night inside houses in bahariya and in farafra whereas in siwa, animals are u ...19902230773
anopheles sergenti (theobald) a potential malaria vector in egypt.two immunoassays for malaria sporozoite detection and identification, the immunoradiometric assay (irma) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using the species-specific monoclonal antibodies are routinely performed in our laboratory. we analyzed (573) anopheline mosquitoes of a. sergenti (463), a. pharoensis (81) and a. multicolor (29) collected from siwa-oases and faiyum governorate (two known active malaria foci in egypt), for detection of p. falciparum and p. vivax sporozoites. p ...19892648934
laboratory rearing techniques and adult life table parameters for anopheles sergentii from egypt.techniques are presented for maintaining colonies of anopheles sergentii, an important malaria vector in egypt. larval development time and survival rates were determined for 3 rearing solutions and 4 temperatures. under optimal conditions larval survival rates averaged 85%. mean life expectancy at emergence for mated an. sergentii was 23.3 days under insectary conditions of 27 +/- 2 degrees c, 70-80% r.h. the net reproductive rate, mean generation time and instantaneous rate of increase were re ...19873504913
colonization of the oasis malaria vector, anopheles sergentii, in egypt. 19863507463
host-feeding patterns of anopheles sergentii and an. multicolor (diptera: culicidae) in siwa and el gara oases, egypt. 19863772959
study of the dispersion and flight range of anopheles sergenti theo. in siwa oasis using radioactive isotopes as markers. 19664381759
anophelism in the algerian sahara and some implications of the construction of a trans-saharan highway.the influence on malaria incidence in algeria of anophelism in the oases and construction of a trans-saharan highway is discussed. the few remaining cases of malaria in algeria are of plasmodium vivax, a parasite absent from tropical west africa where p. falciparum, now eradicated from the mediterranean basin, predominates. epidemics arising from imported falciparum malaria are considered to be unlikely in algeria north of the desert, but some oases are at risk. more precise estimates of the pro ...19836887315
new record of the malaria vector anopheles sergentii in the southern nile valley of egypt.twelve adult female anopheles sergentii were collected from 2 villages in the nile river valley in aswan governorate, egypt, in august of 1993. no immature forms were found during limited sampling. this is the first record of this malaria vector in aswan governorate and represents the southernmost distribution in northern africa.19957616183
germination, growth, and sporulation of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in excreted food vacuoles of the protozoan tetrahymena pyriformis.spores of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their toxic crystals are bioencapsulated in the protozoan tetrahymena pyriformis, in which the toxin remains stable. each t. pyriformis cell concentrates the spores and crystals in its food vacuoles, thus delivering them to mosquito larvae, which rapidly die. vacuoles containing undigested material are later excreted from the cells. the fate of spores and toxin inside the food vacuoles was determined at various times after excretion by phas ...19989572947
bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins.during the past decade the pesticidal bacterium bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. these efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism's pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. other studies have focused on the ecological role of the b. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and othe ...19989729609
plasmid transfer between bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains in laboratory culture, river water, and dipteran larvae.plasmid transfer between strains of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was studied under a range of environmentally relevant laboratory conditions in vitro, in river water, and in mosquito larvae. mobilization of pbc16 was detected in vitro at a range of temperatures, ph values, and available water conditions, and the maximum transfer ratio was 10(-3) transconjugant per recipient under optimal conditions. transfer of conjugative plasmid pxo16::tn5401 was also detected under this range of ...200111133463
preliminary observations on cross-mating of the malaria vector, anopheles sergentii from two egyptian oases.intra- and inter-strain crosses were made between randomly collected adults anopheles sergentii originated from tersa village (el-faiyum governorate) and siwa oasis (matruh governorate). the success of such crosses and their effects on fecundity and fertility of the parental females and on survival and development velocities of the f1 immatures were examined. no overall heterosis effects on such attributes were detected suggesting absence of genetic differences between the vector populations in ...200011198374
the implications of anopheles sergenti for malaria eradication programmes east of the mediterranean. 195613404457
study of the feeding habits of male anopheles sergenti theo. at siwa oasis using radiophosphorus. 196414122433
[presence of anopheles sergenti sb. sp. macmahoni and a. rhodesiensis var. rupicolus in the french sahara]. 195914444902
[presence of anopheles sergenti (theobald, 1903) on the mediterranean coast in the region of oran]. 196014444903
plant tissues: the frugal diet of mosquitoes in adverse conditions.the plant tissue feeding of anopheles sergentii theobald, an. claviger meigen, culex pipiens forskål and aedes caspius pallas (diptera: culicidae) was investigated. the relative frequency of plant feeding was compared to the general intake of sugar in different seasons and in different habitats in israel. the study shows that mosquitoes feed on sugar-poor plant tissue in the lack of better options. optimal conditions were in the sugar-rich en fesha oasis, where plant tissue was found in only 0.3 ...200516336306
daily temperature profiles in and around western kenyan larval habitats of anopheles gambiae as related to egg mortality.anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself in western kenya. thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and lethal than those experienced by larvae or pupae confined within puddles.200617038186
comparison of the life table characteristics of anopheles sergentii (diptera: culicidae) from two malarious areas in table characteristics were examined for the malaria vector, an. serenti from two faiyum villages: tersa (t) and el nazlah (n) from siwa oasis (sw) under constant laboratory conditions at 25 degrees c and 70% rh. females of t, n and sw completed 4, 5, and 2 gonotrophic cycles (gc) respectively. the first gc required a significantly longer period (p<0.05) than the subsequent ones. development times for sw immatures were longer (p<0.05) than for the other colonies. life expectancies at emergen ...199517214161
discriminative feeding behaviour of anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western kenya.anopheles gambiae giles s.s. (diptera: culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of an. gambiae s.s. in western kenya. groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or ...200717373953
effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of anopheles gambiae.a previous study showed for anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western kenya. the present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity.200717711580
the limits and intensity of plasmodium falciparum transmission: implications for malaria control and elimination worldwide.the efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control using appropriate combinations of interventions requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk. an evidence-based description of the global range of plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity has not been assembled in almost 40 y. this paper aims to define the global geographic distribution of p. falciparum malaria in 2007 and to provide a preliminary description of its transmission intensity ...200818303939
decline of anopheles sergentii and aedes caspius populations following presentation of attractive toxic (spinosad) sugar bait stations in an oasis.the effect of attractive sugar bait stations, including sucrose, juice of nectarine, slow-release substances, preservatives, red food-dye marker, and the oral insecticide spinosad, on anopheles sergentii and aedes caspius populations was studied in a small oasis in a southern desert of israel. feeding on similar baits without an insecticide was monitored as a control in a similar neighboring oasis. the insecticide caused a drastic decrease in the number of mosquitoes. compared to the control sit ...200818437830
the growth of anopheles sergenti theobald (diptera, culicidae) with special reference to the growth of the anal papillae in varying salinities. 194818915541
effect of sugar on male anopheles gambiae mating performance, as modified by temperature, space, and body size.abstract:200919386114
plasmodium falciparum malaria, southern algeria, outbreak of plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in tinzaouatine in southern algeria in 2007. the likely vector, anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in algeria. genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. the outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in algeria.201020113565
the international limits and population at risk of plasmodium vivax transmission in 2009.a research priority for plasmodium vivax malaria is to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of risk and its relationship with the burden of p. vivax disease in human populations. the aim of the research outlined in this article is to provide a contemporary evidence-based map of the global spatial extent of p. vivax malaria, together with estimates of the human population at risk (par) of any level of transmission in 2009.201020689816
molecular epidemiology of plasmodium species prevalent in yemen based on 18 s rrna.abstract:201021092097
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in africa, europe and the middle east: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.abstract:201021129198
haematophageous vector monitoring in djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of culex pipiens ssp. torridus (iglisch), and anopheles sergentii (theobald).the horn of africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. in order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using cdc light traps without an additional co2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in djibouti city, from august 2008 until december 2009. an overall of 620 haematophageous diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes ...201021246936
natural plant sugar sources of anopheles mosquitoes strongly impact malaria transmission improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. to determine how the sugar availability impacts anopheles sergentii populations, mark-release-recapture stu ...201121283732
comparative studies on the stenogamous and eurygamous behavior of eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. mating behavior of stenogamous anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (=an. lesteri), anopheles pursati and anopheles sinensis), were investigated and compared in this study. the self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (drs) values, 3.6 and 7. ...201627023618
anopheles plumbeus (diptera: culicidae) in europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in europe since the beginning of the 20th century. in recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. this lead to investigate whether current populations of an. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit plasmodium falciparum, the pa ...201223181931
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
the effects of urbanization on global plasmodium vivax malaria transmission.many recent studies have examined the impact of urbanization on plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity and found a general trend of reduced transmission in urban areas. however, none has examined the effect of urbanization on plasmodium vivax malaria, which is the most widely distributed malaria species and can also cause severe clinical syndromes in humans. in this study, a set of 10,003 community-based p. vivax parasite rate (pvpr) surveys are used to explore the relationships between pvpr i ...201223217010
the ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in aligudarz county (luristan province, western iran).to determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus anopheles (dipetra: culicidae) in aligudarz county, western iran.025183088
the malaria transition on the arabian peninsula: progress toward a malaria-free region between 1960-2010.the transmission of malaria across the arabian peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. it is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free arabian peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. from as early as the 194 ...023548086
progress toward malaria elimination in jazan province, kingdom of saudi arabia: 2000-2014.the draft global technical strategy for malaria aims to eliminate malaria from at least 10 countries by 2020. yemen and saudi arabia remain the last two countries on the arabian peninsula yet to achieve elimination. over the last 50 years, systematic efforts to control malaria in the kingdom of saudi arabia has successfully reduced malaria cases to a point where malaria is now constrained largely to jazan province, the most south-western area along the red sea. the progress toward elimination in ...201526552387
abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central ethiopia.malaria is a public health problem in ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. this study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in butajira, a highland area in south-central ethiopia.201222695178
comparative assessment of diverse strategies for malaria vector population control based on measured rates at which mosquitoes utilize targeted resource subsets.eliminating malaria requires vector control interventions that dramatically reduce adult mosquito population densities and survival rates. indoor applications of insecticidal nets and sprays are effective against an important minority of mosquito species that rely heavily upon human blood and habitations for survival. however, complementary approaches are needed to tackle a broader diversity of less human-specialized vectors by killing them at other resource targets.201425168421
analysis of the causes of spawning of large-scale, severe malarial epidemics and their rapid total extinction in western provence, historically a highly endemic region of france (1745-1850).the two main puzzles of this study are the onset and then sudden stopping of severe epidemics in western provence (a highly malaria-endemic region of mediterranean france) without any deliberate counter-measures and in the absence of significant population flux.201424581282
quantifying the mosquito's sweet tooth: modelling the effectiveness of attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb) for malaria vector control.current vector control strategies focus largely on indoor measures, such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (llins) and indoor residual spraying (irs); however mosquitoes frequently feed on sugar sources outdoors, inviting the possibility of novel control strategies. attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations, have been shown to significantly reduce mosquito densities in these settings.201323968494
a preliminary study on the insect fauna of al-baha province, saudi arabia, with descriptions of two new species.a preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of al-baha province, south-western part of saudi arabia. a total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. two of these species are described as new, namely: monomorium sarawatensis sharaf & aldawood, sp. n. [formicidae, hymenoptera] and anthrax alruqibi el-hawagry sp. n. [bombyliidae, diptera]. another eight species are recorded for the ...201323794807
attractive toxic sugar bait (atsb) methods decimate populations of anopheles malaria vectors in arid environments regardless of the local availability of favoured sugar-source blossoms.attractive toxic sugar bait (atsb) methods are a new and promising "attract and kill" strategy for mosquito control. sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes attracted to atsb solutions, either sprayed on plants or in bait stations, ingest an incorporated low-risk toxin such as boric acid and are killed. this field study in the arid malaria-free oasis environment of israel compares how the availability of a primary natural sugar source for anopheles sergentii mosquitoes: flowering acacia raddian ...201222297155
the changing malaria landscape in aseer region, kingdom of saudi arabia: 2004, a revised action plan was developed, supported by the world health organization, to eliminate malaria from saudi arabia by preventing re-introduction of malaria into regions since declared malaria free, eliminating foci of transmission in the mecca and medina areas and a concerted effort of foci surveillance and control, to eliminate malaria from the regions of jazan and aseer. this paper provides the context, activities, progress, and possible contributions toward malaria elimination i ...201627821186
entomological aspects and the role of human behaviour in malaria transmission in a highland region of the republic of yemen.the republic of yemen has the highest incidence of malaria in the arabian peninsula, yet little is known of its vectors or transmission dynamics.201626932794
malaria in hadhramout, a southeast province of yemen: prevalence, risk factors, knowledge, attitude and practices (kaps).yemen is a mediterranean country where 65% of its population is at risk of malaria, with 43% at high risk. yemen is still in the control phase without sustainable reduction in the proportion of malaria cases. a cross-sectional household survey was carried out in different districts in the southeast of the country to determine malaria prevalence and identify factors that impede progress of the elimination phase.201425074325
linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using anopheles arabiensis in sudan and upper egypt.anopheles arabiensis is a particularly opportunistic feeder and efficient vector of plasmodium falciparum in africa and may invade areas outside its normal range, including areas separated by expanses of barren desert. the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how spatial models can project future irrigated cropland and potential, new suitable habitat for vectors such as an. arabiensis.201222866895
analysing the oviposition behaviour of malaria mosquitoes: design considerations for improving two-choice egg count experiments.choice egg-count bioassays are a popular tool for analysing oviposition substrate preferences of gravid mosquitoes. this study aimed at improving the design of two-choice experiments for measuring oviposition substrates preferences of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae senso lato, a mosquito that lays single eggs.201526088669
climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in egypt: a review.climate change is an emerging global issue. it is expected to have significant impacts both in egypt and around the world. thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. also, weather and climate play a significant role in people's health. direct impacts of ...201325685530
high heterogeneity of malaria transmission and a large sub-patent and diverse reservoir of infection in wusab as safil district, republic of yemen.yemen remains the country with the highest malaria transmission within the arabian peninsula and a source of imported cases to neighbouring countries.201627059182
modelling optimum use of attractive toxic sugar bait stations for effective malaria vector control in africa.the development of insecticide resistance and the increased outdoor-biting behaviour of malaria vectors reduce the efficiency of indoor vector control methods. attractive toxic sugar baits (atsbs), a method targeting the sugar-feeding behaviours of vectors both indoors and outdoors, is a promising supplement to indoor tools. the number and configuration of these atsb stations needed for malaria control in a community needs to be determined.201526643110
formulation of attractive toxic sugar bait (atsb) with safe epa-exempt substance significantly diminishes the anopheles sergentii population in a desert oasis.attractive toxic sugar bait (atsb) is a highly effective method which targets mosquitoes based on their sugar foraging behavior, by presenting baits of attractive compounds in combination with sugar and oral toxin to local mosquito populations. environmental concerns and insecticide selection-pressure have prompted investigations of novel, ecologically-harmless substances which can be used as insecticides. this study examined the efficacy of microencapsulated garlic-oil as the oral toxin compone ...201526119042
decrease of larval and subsequent adult anopheles sergentii populations following feeding of adult mosquitoes from bacillus sphaericus-containing attractive sugar baits.bacillus sphaericus is a mosquito-larvae pathogen which proliferates in the host cadavers, spreading and preserving the infection within the larval habitats for prolonged periods. in this pilot field study, we presented b. sphaericus-containing attractive sugar baits (asb) to wild anopheles sergentii adults, with the assumption that bait-fed, b. sphaericus-carrying mosquitoes are able to efficiently transmit the pathogen to the larval habitats, causing larval mortality and leading to a decrease ...201525899788
ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in saudi arabia.the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral diseases. however, few studies addressed their geographic distribution and larval habitat characteristics. we carried out a 14-months mosquito survey in three ksa regions: makkah and al-baha (western) and jezan (south-western). larvae were collected by dipping from various water habitats and adults by cdc light and bg sentinel traps. climatic conditions and physicochemical characteristics o ...201324189671
secondray structure and sequence of its2-rdna of the egyptian malaria vector anopheles pharoensis (theobald).out of the twelve anophelines present in egypt, only five species known to be malaria vectors. anopheles (an.) pharoensis proved to be the important vector all over egypt, especially in the delta. anopheles sergenti proved to be the primary vector in the oases of the western desert, an. multicolor in faiyoum, an. stephensi in the red sea coast, and an. superpictus in sinai. genomic dna was isolated from single adult mosquito of an. pharoensis (sahel sudanese form), pcr was performed to amplify i ...201424961025
modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax.abstract: background: temperature is a key determinant of environmental suitability for transmission of human malaria, modulating endemicity in some regions and preventing transmission in others. the spatial modelling of malaria endemicity has become increasingly sophisticated and is now central to the global scale planning, implementation, and monitoring of disease control and regional efforts towards elimination, but existing efforts to model the constraints of temperature on the malaria lands ...201121615906
geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting infectious disease control.abstract: geographic profiling is a statistical tool originally developed in criminology to prioritise large lists of suspects in cases of serial crime. here, we use two data sets - one historical and one modern - to show how it can be used to locate the sources of infectious disease. results: first, we re-analyse data from a classic epidemiological study, the 1854 london cholera outbreak. using 321 disease sites as input, we evaluate the locations of 13 neighbourhood water pumps. the broad stre ...201121592339
species identification of plant tissues from the gut of an. sergentii by dna analysis.there are three commonly used assays to identify plant material in insect guts: the cold anthrone test for fructose, the cellulose staining test for visualizing plant tissue and gas chromatography for seeking unique sugar content profiles. though sugar and cellulose tests can distinguish between the general sources of sugar meal (nectar versus tissue), they cannot identify the species of plant sources. even gas chromatography profiles can be problematic; there are reported instances of intra-spe ...201020382098
the ecological characteristics of anopheles mosquitoes associated with low malaria transmission in siwa oasis, egypt.the ecology of anopheles sergentii and an. multicolor was investigated over eight months to examine the entomological factors maintaining the low plasmodium vivax transmission in siwa oasis. the two species were encountered as larvae while the dominant species, anopheles sergentii was also collected as adults. breeding sites were characterized for the two species in six localities. larvae of both species were common during june and november. in bahi el din as an indicator village with a higher e ...199617217007
sugar questing mosquitoes in arid areas gather on scarce blossoms that can be used for control.floral nectar sugars provide energy for mosquito activities. we presumed that scarce flowering trees in arid areas are attractive, central sugar sources and tested the assumption in the southern desert of israel. in traps baited with flowers of acacia raddiana, tamarix nilotica or ochradenus baccatus the catch of anopheles sergentii was approximately 35-75 times greater than with baits of flowerless branches. at a small isolated oasis, a spray of sugar and food-dye solution on the few flowering ...200616860326
ineffectiveness of ddt residual spraying in stopping malaria transmission in the jordan valley.the malaria-control campaign in the jordan valley-undertaken by the united nations relief and works agency for palestine refugees in the near east in 1949-has been based solely on ddt residual spraying in the northeastern areas, but in certain southern districts some larvicidal and drainage work has been done.observations made in the north-east showed that active malaria transmission had occurred in 4 of the 12 villages surveyed in 1951, and in 8 of the 9 villages surveyed in 1952. that the inse ...195413209319
epidemiological profile of malaria in a university hospital in the eastern region of saudi study the epidemiological, clinical and hematological profile of laboratory-diagnosed malaria cases at king fahd hospital of the university, al-khobar, saudi arabia, during the period from january 1990 to december 1999, and to provide suitable recommendations accordingly.200111299407
anopheles sergentii (diptera: culicidae): seasonal variation in the development rates of immatures from el faiyum and siwa oasis, egypt.three colonies of an. sergentii from el faiyum (tersa and el nazlah) and siwa oasis were maintained for one year under the circulating room conditions to examine the rates of immature development and survival. for each colony, the egg incubation periods and immature developmental periods (p 50 and e 50) were significantly longer at low temperatures (mean = 13.4 degrees c) during winter. egg hatch rates and survivorships of the different immature stages did not significantly differ among seasons ...19957602168
immunological detection of plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigens in anopheles sergentii from egypt. 19882979941
anopheline fauna of koraput district, orissa state, with particular reference to transmission of malaria.the anopheline fauna was surveyed in koraput district of orissa, which is highly malarious. a total of 62,086 anophelines belonging to 22 species and two varieties were collected, including eight species of anophelines which are recognized malarial vectors in india. anopheles sergenti, a. pulcherrimus, a. jeyporiensis var candidiensis and a. annularis var adiei was recorded for the first time in this area. a total of 24154 mosquitoes were dissected and 18 mosquitoes belonging to four species, a. ...19892628298
interpretation of low-level plasmodium infection rates determined by elisa for anophelines (diptera: culicidae) from egyptian oases.plasmodium infection rates determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were compared for anopheles sergentii (theobald) and an. multicolor cambouliu in siwa oasis, egypt, an area with low-level plasmodium vivax transmission, and in bahariya and farafra, two other egyptian oases which appear to be free of malaria. initial testing indicated that 4.4% (23 of 518) and 0.8% (4 of 518) of the an. sergentii were positive for p. vivax and p. falciparum, respectively, and that 1.4% (1 of 71) ...19902201771
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