on the environment of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in ducks. 19695814090
studies on the haemocytic reaction of gammarus spp., and its relationship to polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala). 19676067970
lactic and succinic acids as excretory products of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in vitro. 19676069212
syncytial organization of acanthors of polymorphus minutus (palaeacanthocephala), neoechinorhynchus rutili (eoacanthocephala), and moniliformis moniliformis (archiacanthocephala) (acanthocephala).the fine structures of immature and of developed shelled acanthors of three species belonging to the three subgroups of the acanthocephala were investigated. acanthors are surrounded by four eggshells (embryonic envelopes) and are composed of three syncytia: a frontal syncytium, a central syncytium, and an epidermal syncytium. neither a sense organ nor a nervous system has been found. the central syncytium shows a mass of condensed nuclei and 12 decondensed nuclei and gives rise to 10 anterior/p ...19979134553
species associations among larval helminths in an amphipod intermediate host.larval helminths that share the same intermediate host may or may not also share the same definitive hosts. if one or more of these helminth species can manipulate the phenotype of the intermediate host, there can be great advantages or severe costs for other helminths resulting from co-occurring with a manipulator, depending on whether they have the same definitive host or not. among 2372 specimens of the amphipod echinogammarus stammeri collected from the river brenta, northern italy, there wa ...200011027778
studies on the absorption and metabolism of d-(u-14c) glucose by polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in vitro. 19685679533
reintroduction of profilicollis meyer, 1931, as a genus in acenthocephala: significance of the intermediate host.polymorphid acanthocephalans with long necks, spheroid proboscides, and eggs without polar swellings of the fertilization membrane constitute a morphologically distinct group of species. in the past, this taxon was considered a separate genus, profilicollis. more recently, workers have been unwilling to accept these features as generic-level characters, and presently the group is considered a subgenus of polymorphus. an analysis prompted by our studies of various polymorphid cystacanths in crabs ...199910461954
patterns of intermediate host use and levels of association between two conflicting manipulative parasites.for many parasites with complex life cycles, manipulation of intermediate host phenotypes is often regarded as an adaptation to increase the probability of successful transmission. this phenomenon creates opportunities for either synergistic or conflicting interests between different parasite species sharing the same intermediate host. when more than one manipulative parasite infect the same intermediate host, but differ in their definitive host, selection should favour the establishment of a ne ...200211796118
parasitic infection and developmental stability: fluctuating asymmetry in gammarus pulex infected with two acanthocephalan species.several studies have reported a negative association between developmental stability and parasitic infection. however, the host-parasite associations examined so far consist only of a limited number of parasite taxa, and developmental stability was appraised on definitive hosts. the present study examines the association between infection by 2 acanthocephalan parasites. pomphorhynchus laevis and polymorphus minutus, and the developmental stability of their common intermediate host gammarus pulex ...200212053979
effects of two acanthocephalan parasites on the fecundity and pairing status of female gammarus pulex (crustacea: amphipoda).acanthocephalan parasites are known to alter the reproductive biology and physiology of their hosts in various ways. in this study we investigated the influence of two acanthocephalan parasites, pomphorhynchus laevis and polymorphus minutus, on the fecundity and pairing success of female gammarus pulex. the results show that p. laevis and p. minutus affect female intermediate host reproduction in different ways. females infected with p. minutus were totally castrated, whereas those infected with ...200212095239
lipid, bile acid, water and dry matter content of the intestinal tract of domestic ducks with reference to the habitat of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala). 19705462540
costs of intraspecific and interspecific host sharing in acanthocephalan cystacanths.larval helminths often share individual intermediate hosts with other larval worms of the same or different species. in the case of immature acanthocephalans capable of altering the phenotype of their intermediate hosts, the benefits or costs of host sharing can be evaluated in terms of increased or decreased probability of transmission to a suitable definitive host. competitive interactions among the immature stages of acanthocephalans within the intermediate host could create additional costs ...200111315182
conflict between co-occurring manipulative parasites? an experimental study of the joint influence of two acanthocephalan parasites on the behaviour of gammarus pulex.when two parasite species are manipulators and have different definitive hosts, there is a potential for conflict between them. selection may then exist for either avoiding hosts infected with conflicting parasites, or for hijacking, i.e. competitive processes to gain control of the intermediate host. the evidence for both phenomena depends largely on the study of the relative competitive abilities of parasites within their common intermediate host. we studied the effects of simultaneous infecti ...200010874725
comparative investigations of the morphology and chemical composition of the eggshells of acanthocephala. ii. palaeacanthocephala.eggshells of the palaeacanthocephalans acanthocephalus anguillae, pomphorhynchus laevis and polymorphus minutus were investigated for their fine structure as well as their chemical composition. the acanthor larvae are surrounded by four eggshells (e1-e4) separated by interstices (g1-g4). immature eggs do not exhibit the complete set of eggshells. the chemical composition of the outermost, thin eggshell (e1) remains unknown. e2 is supplied by outer filaments of different strength; it contains ker ...19921379711
a histological description of the uterine bell of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala). 19685754274
the course of infection and egg production of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in domestic ducks. 19685643563
gastrointestinal helminths of the mexican duck, anas platyrhynchos diazi ridgway, from north central mexico and southwestern united states.twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 mexican ducks from mexico and the united states, were all new host records. the species included: echinoparyphium recurvatum, echinostoma revolutum, hypoderaeum conoideum, notocotylus attenuatus, prosthogonimus cuneatus, zygocotyle lunata, anomotaenia ciliata, cloacotaenia megalops, diorchis bulbodes, diorchis sp., drepanidotaenia lanceolata, echinocotyle rosseteri, fimbriaria fasciolaris, fimbriarioides sp., hym ...19863951061
an experimental study on the effects of polymorphiasis in common eider ducklings.eight common eider (somateria mollissima) ducklings were experimentally infected from 1 june through 13 june, 1995 with acanthocephalans (polymorphus minutus) by allowing the birds to feed on gammarus spp. (gammarus oceanicus, g. salinus, g. zaddachi, and g. lacustris) containing acanthocephalan cystacanths. uninfected gammarus spp. were fed to a control group of seven ducklings. no mortality of ducklings occurred during the experiment. however, the infected ducklings gained weight more slowly t ...199910479080
lead poisoning and parasitism in a flock of mute swans (cygnus olor) in scotland.increased mortality in a flock of non-breeding mute swans (cygnus olor) on a scottish loch was investigated. postmortem examinations were carried out on eight adult and six immature swans. the commonest cause of death, found in eight birds, was lead poisoning associated with the ingestion of large lead fishing weights. heavy parasitic burdens were found in five immature birds, involving combinations of the gizzard worm amidostomum species, the thornyheaded worms polymorphus minutus and profilico ...19989460217
distribution of polymorphus minutus among its intermediate hosts. 19807451016
the development of polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) (acanthocephala) in the intermediate host. 195713498657
the development of the body wall of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in its intermediate host gammarus pulex. 19695770075
measurements of the osmotic pressure in the habitat of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in the intestine of domestic ducks. 19695776588
the activation of cystacanths of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in vitro. 19744826713
measurements of glucose and amino acid concentrations, temperature and ph in the habitat of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in the intestine of domestic ducks. 19665971995
the resistance of gammarus spp. to infection by polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) (acanthocephala). 195813595563
the importance of the acanthocephalan polymorphus minutus as a parasite of domestic ducks in the united kingdom. 196313956017
the egg envelopes of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala). 19734124681
[electron microscopic and morphometric investigations of the integument of acanthocephala (aschelminthes) (author's transl)].the integument of the acanthocephalans echinorhynchus gadi, acanthocephalus lucii, polymorphus minutus and macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus have been investigated by stereoscan and transmission electron microscopy. the absorptive surface is considerably increased by invaginations of the outer plasma membrane (pore canals and vesicles). the rate of this enlargement has been calculated using morphometric methods. the values range from 20 to 62. the values are compared to values obtained from other ...1978735302
the fine structure of the body wall of polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) (acanthocephala). 196514342128
observations on the establishment of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala) in the intestines of domestic ducks. 19725053040
observations on polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) (acanthocephala) from a wildfowl reserve in kent. 196514342127
parasites of waterfowl, from southwest texas: iii. the green-winged teal, anas crecca.seventy of 72 green-winged teal, anas crecca, from southwest texas were infected with parasites. seventeen species of endoparasites were recorded: notocotylus attenuatus, zygocotyle lunata, typhlocoelum sisowi, echinostoma revolutum, hypoderaeum conoideum, dendritobilharzia pulverulenta, cloacotaenia megalops, sobolevicanthus gracilis, sobolevicanthus krabbeella, gastrotaenia cygni, amidostomum acutum, amidostomum anseris, tetrameres crami, echinuria uncinata, corynosoma constrictum, polymorphus ...19816788963
differential phenoloxidase activity between native and invasive gammarids infected by local acanthocephalans: differential immunosuppression?manipulative endoparasites can alter the behaviour and the physiology of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase the probability of successful transmission to the final host. this requires that the parasite is able to circumvent its host's immune defence. successful immune evasion may depend on host-parasite coevolutionary history and the appearance of new hosts invading the local host population may promote local parasite maladaptation. to test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of ...200314700193
crustacean-acanthocephalan interaction and host cell-mediated immunity: parasite encapsulation and interactions of pomphorhynchus laevis (müller, 1776) in naturally infected amphipod, echinogammarus stammeri (karaman), from the brenta river (northern italy) are described. a fully developed acanthocephalan larva occupies a large portion of an amphipod's haemocoelic space; thus, the parasite frequently induces displacement of host digestive tract and other internal organs. however, no apparent damage to the host's internal structures was observed. within the haemocoel of e. stamme ...200818578167
host manipulation of a freshwater crustacean (gammarus roeseli) by an acanthocephalan parasite (polymorphus minutus) in a biological invasion context.several gammarid species serve as intermediate hosts for the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus. this parasite influences gammarid behaviour in order to favour transmission to its ultimate host, generally a bird. we investigated this host manipulation in gammarus roeseli, a gammarid species introduced in france 150 years ago which now coexists with several exotic species from different origins. in the field, vertical distribution of g. roeseli revealed a higher proportion of infected i ...200616934814
studies on polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) (acanthocephala) as a parasite of the domestic duck. 195813521702
the envelope surrounding polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) (acanthocephala) during its development in the intermediate host, gammarus pulex. 196414227633
carotenoids of two freshwater amphipod species (gammarus pulex and g. roeseli) and their common acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus.carotenoid compositions of two freshwater gammarus species (crustacea: amphipoda) and of their common acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus were characterized. the effect of carotenoid uptake by the parasite was addressed by comparing the carotenoid content of uninfected and infected female hosts. using high-pressure liquid chromatography (hplc), co-chromatography of reference pigments and electron ionization mass spectrometry of collected hplc fractions (ei-ms), several xanthophylls and ...200415364296
parasite-induced changes in the diet of a freshwater amphipod: field and laboratory evidence.trophically transmitted parasites are likely to strongly influence food web-structure. the extent to which they change the trophic ecology of their host remains nevertheless poorly investigated and field evidence is lacking. this is particularly true for acanthocephalan parasites whose invertebrate hosts can prey on other invertebrates and contribute to leaf-litter breakdown. we used a multiple approach combining feeding experiments, neutral lipids and stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ...201121232173
[studies on polymorphus minutus (goeze, 1782) and polymorphus magnus (skrjabin, 1913)]. 195613392844
an acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod gammarus roeseli (crustacea: gammaridae).studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. in this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. unexpectedly, p. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. the mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mor ...200717487466
do distantly related parasites rely on the same proximate factors to alter the behaviour of their hosts?phylogenetically unrelated parasites often increase the chances of their transmission by inducing similar phenotypic changes in their hosts. however, it is not known whether these convergent strategies rely on the same biochemical precursors. in this paper, we explored such aspects by studying two gammarid species (gammarus insensibilis and gammarus pulex; crustacea: amphipoda: gammaridae) serving as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of two distantly related parasites: the trematode, micropha ...200617015311
altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity.manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. however, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered pho ...200617015346
parasitic infection manipulates sodium regulation in the freshwater amphipod gammarus pulex (l.).the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus induces both physiological and behavioural effects in its intermediate host, gammarus pulex. the net effect of parasite infection is to increase the likelihood of transmission to the definitive host. osmoregulation is an energetically expensive mechanism that allows g. pulex to survive in dilute media. any factor influencing osmoregulation is thus likely to affect the allocation of resources to other areas. this study investigated whether p. minut ...201121440657
non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by p. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. as a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability ...201425000519
does the carotenoid-based colouration of polymorphus minutus facilitate its trophic transmission to definitive hosts?freshwater gammarids infected with the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus show behavioural alterations but also differ from uninfected individuals in their appearance because of the carotenoid-based colouration of the parasite visible through the cuticle. however, it's not clear whether this phenotypic alteration is an adaptation favouring parasite transmission to the definitive host. to test this hypothesis, we investigated the selective preference of mallard towards two prey types: u ...201323866854
manipulative parasites may not alter intermediate host distribution but still enhance their transmission: field evidence for increased vulnerability to definitive hosts and non-host predator avoidance.behavioural alterations induced by parasites in their intermediate hosts can spatially structure host populations, possibly resulting in enhanced trophic transmission to definitive hosts. however, such alterations may also increase intermediate host vulnerability to non-host predators. parasite-induced behavioural alterations may thus vary between parasite species and depend on each parasite definitive host species. we studied the influence of infection with 2 acanthocephalan parasites (echinorh ...201323068018
pollution-induced heat shock protein expression in the amphipod gammarus roeseli is affected by larvae of polymorphus minutus (acanthocephala).the relationship between the exposure of organisms to chemicals and subsequent alterations in various biochemical processes (commonly referred to as biomarkers) is of growing importance in environmental and ecotoxicological research. however, parasites which also affect the physiological homeostasis of their hosts, and thus may alter biomarker reactions, are usually ignored in environmental research. to address this deficit, we have used the host-parasite system gammarus roeseli naturally infect ...200717578599
influence of the cestode ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (hsp70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms - commonly referred to as biomarkers - to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. however, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. after two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite ligula intestinalis. the same was found for gammarus fo ...201323770459
field evidence of host size-dependent parasitism in two manipulative parasites.the distribution of parasites within host natural populations has often been found to be host age-dependent. host mortality induced by parasites is the commonest hypothesis proposed for explaining this pattern. despite its potential importance in ecology, the parasitism intensity in relation with the host age has rarely been studied in the field. the 2 manipulative acanthocephalans, polymorphus minutus and pomphorhynchus laevis, use the amphipod gammarus pulex as an intermediate host, and their ...200717918352
effect of acanthocephala infection on the reproductive potential of crustacean intermediate hosts.the effect of a naturally acquired infection by three acanthocephalan parasites dentitruncus truttae, echinorhynchus truttae, and polymorphus minutus on the reproductive potential of their intermediate host, echinogammarus tibaldii (amphipoda) from lake piediluco (centre of italy) was assessed. during may 2007, 1135 amphipods were collected from two different samplings and examined for larval helminths. forty-five amphipods were infected and of those, 16 were infected with d. truttae (intensity= ...200818096185
infection with acanthocephalans increases the vulnerability of gammarus pulex (crustacea, amphipoda) to non-host invertebrate predators.phenotypic alterations induced by parasites in their intermediate hosts often result in enhanced trophic transmission to appropriate final hosts. however, such alterations may also increase the vulnerability of intermediate hosts to predation by non-host species. we studied the influence of both infection with 3 different acanthocephalan parasites (pomphorhynchus laevis, p. tereticollis, and polymorphus minutus) and the availability of refuges on the susceptibility of the amphipod gammarus pulex ...200818371238
carotenoid-based colour of acanthocephalan cystacanths plays no role in host manipulation.manipulation by parasites is a catchy concept that has been applied to a large range of phenotypic alterations brought about by parasites in their hosts. it has, for instance, been suggested that the carotenoid-based colour of acanthocephalan cystacanths is adaptive through increasing the conspicuousness of infected intermediate hosts and, hence, their vulnerability to appropriate final hosts such as fish predators. we revisited the evidence in favour of adaptive coloration of acanthocephalan pa ...200918796399
conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host.competition between parasites within a host can influence the evolution of parasite virulence and host resistance, but few studies examine the effects of unrelated parasites with conflicting transmission strategies infecting the same host. vertically transmitted (vt) parasites, transmitted from mother to offspring, are in conflict with virulent, horizontally transmitted (ht) parasites, because healthy hosts are necessary to maximize vt parasite fitness. resolution of the conflict between these p ...200516271976
immune depression induced by acanthocephalan parasites in their intermediate crustacean host: consequences for the risk of super-infection and links with host behavioural manipulation.parasite survival in hosts mainly depends on the capacity to circumvent the host immune response. acanthocephalan infections in gammarids are linked with decreased activity of the prophenoloxidase (propo) system, suggesting an active immunosuppression process. nevertheless, experimental evidence for this hypothesis is lacking: whether these parasites affect several immune pathways is unknown and the consequences of such immune change have not been investigated. in particular, the consequences fo ...200918708062
interspecific differences in carotenoid content and sensitivity to uvb radiation in three acanthocephalan parasites exploiting a common intermediate host.few endoparasite species are pigmented. acanthocephalans are an exception however, with several species being characterised by yellow to orange colouration both at the immature (cystacanth) and adult stages. however, the functional and adaptive significance of carotenoid-based colourations in acanthocephalans remains unclear. one possibility is that the carotenoid content of acanthocephalan cystacanths acts as a protective device against ultra-violet radiation (uvr) passing through the transluce ...201120833172
polymorphus minutus affects antitoxic responses of gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium.the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus is a manipulator of its intermediate host gammarus roeseli, which favours its transmission to the final host, a water bird. in contaminated environments, g. roeseli have to cope with two stresses, i.e. p. minutus infection and pollutants. as p. minutus survival relies on its host's survival, we investigated the influence of p. minutus on the antitoxic defence capacities and the energy reserves of g. roeseli females after cadmium exposure. in paral ...201222911795
effect of multiple parasitic infections on the tolerance to pollutant contamination.the horizontally-transmitted acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus and the vertically-transmitted microsporidian parasite dictyocoela roeselum have both been shown to influence on the antitoxic responses of mono-infected gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. the present study investigates the effect of this co-infection on the antitoxic defence responses of naturally infected females exposed to cadmium stress. our results revealed that, depending on the cadmium dose, bi-infection induced o ...201222844535
acanthocephalan parasites: help or burden in gammarid amphipods exposed to cadmium?we investigated the influence of the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus on the mortality of its intermediate host, gammarus roeseli, exposed to cadmium, by the measure of lc(50-96h) values as well as the bioaccumulation of cadmium both in the host and in its parasite. lc(50) results revealed that infected g. roeseli males died less under cadmium stress than uninfected ones; while the converse has been observed in females. cadmium resistance of infected males could be explained by a wea ...201222461071
does the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus modify the energy reserves and antitoxic defences of its intermediate host gammarus roeseli?in disturbed environments, infected organisms have to face both parasitic and chemical stresses. although this situation is common, few studies have been devoted to the effects of infection on hosts' energy reserves and antitoxic defence capacities, while parasite survival depends on host survival. in this study, we tested the consequences of an infection by polymorphus minutus on the energy reserves (protein, lipid and glycogen) and antioxidant defence capacities (reduced glutathione, γ-glutamy ...201222405348
field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod.manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. however, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. in particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. here, we used an amphipoda (gammarus roeseli)-acanthocephala (polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how i ...200919139837
stage-dependent behavioural changes but early castration induced by the acanthocephalan parasite polymorphus minutus in its gammarus pulex intermediate host.multidimensionality in parasite-induced phenotypic alterations (pipa) has been observed in a large number of host-parasite associations, particularly in parasites with complex life cycles. however, it is still unclear whether such a syndrome is due to the successive activation of independent pipas, or results from the synchronous disruption of a single mechanism. the aim of the present study was to investigate the onset and progression of two pipas (a behavioural alteration: reversion of geotaxi ...201728831959
temperature-related intraspecific variability in the behavioral manipulation of acanthocephalan parasites on their gammarid hosts.understanding the effect of temperature on ecologically important species has become a major challenge in the context of global warming. however, the consequences of climate change cannot be accurately predicted without taking into consideration biotic interactions. parasitic infection, in particular, constitutes a widespread biotic interaction, and parasites impact their hosts in multiple ways, eventually leading to consequences for communities and ecosystems. we explored the effect of temperat ...201728654335
an acanthocephalan parasite boosts the escape performance of its intermediate host facing non-host predators.among the potential effects of parasitism on host condition, the 'increased host abilities' hypothesis is a counterintuitive pattern which might be predicted in complex-life-cycle parasites. in the case of trophic transmission, a parasite increasing its intermediate host's performance facing non-host predators improves its probability of transmission to an adequate, definitive host. in the present study, we investigated the cost of infection with the acanthocephalan polymorphus minutus on the lo ...200818477417
parasites, pathogens and commensals in the "low-impact" non-native amphipod host gammarus roeselii.whilst vastly understudied, pathogens of non-native species (nns) are increasingly recognised as important threats to native wildlife. this study builds upon recent recommendations for improved screening for pathogens in nns by focusing on populations of gammarus roeselii in chojna, north-western poland. at this location, and in other parts of continental europe, g. roeselii is considered a well-established and relatively 'low-impact' invader, with little understanding about its underlying patho ...201728427445
are cryptic host species also cryptic to parasites? host specificity and geographical distribution of acanthocephalan parasites infecting freshwater gammarus.many parasites infect multiple host species. in coevolving host-parasite interactions, theory predicts that parasites should be adapted to locally common hosts, which could lead to regional shifts in host preferences. we studied the interaction between freshwater gammarus (crustacea, amphipoda) and their acanthocephalan parasites using a large-scale field survey and experiments, combined with molecular identification of cryptic host and parasite species. gammarus pulex is a common host for multi ...201121470578
effects of the acanthocephalan polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed gammarus fossarum.amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. for example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. these effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmen ...201526539331
Displaying items 1 - 68 of 68