responses of harbor seal and pig heart to progressive and acute hypoxia.myocardial oxidative and glycolytic reserves were evaluated in four harbor seals, phoca vitulina richardsi, and six domestic pigs, sus scrofa (hematocrits: 58 +/- 5 and 34 +/- 1%., respectively). progressive hypoxia was induced by lowering arterial hemoglobin-oxygen saturation in 10% decrements, each maintained for 10-min periods, until the onset of heart failure. myocardial oxygen consumption rate (vo2), lactate release/uptake rate (l), and triple product, an index of myocardial energetic deman ...19902221153
the carotid body of the harbour seal (phoca vitulina richardsi).the bilateral distribution of carotid body type 1 and 11 cells was investigated in five harbour seals (phoca vitulina richardsi), by serially sectioning the carotid bifurcation regions. the cells occurred bilaterally in the animals and were also present in one specimen from a sixth animal available for study. the type 1 and 11 cells were located in the space between the internal and external carotid arteries and had a varied relationship to the occipital and condyloid arteries. they lay within a ...19863532866
structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of phoca vitulina (the harbour seal).the structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus dna fingerprinting. bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies phoca vitulina richardsi (alaska, east pacific) is clearly separated from the other two subspecies, phoca vitulina concolor (sable island, west atlantic) and phoca vitulina vitulina (north sea, east atlantic). the subspecies also differ significantly in the estimated amount of heter ...19979172395
evidence of brucella infection in parafilaroides lungworms in a pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi). 19979249169
herpesvirus infection in stranded pacific harbor seals of coastal california.histopathological examination revealed multifocal acute to chronic adrenal necrosis in 74 of 162 (45%) pacific harbor seal pups (phoca vitulina richardsi) dying during rehabilitation following live stranding along the coast of central and northern california (usa). necrotic adrenal cells contained amphophilic, smudgy intranuclear inclusion bodies that were stained positive for dna. fifty of these seals also had lesions typical of sepsis, bacterial omphalophlebitis, pneumonia or gastroenteritis. ...19979249689
leptospirosis in rehabilitated pacific harbor seals from california.renal disease was observed in two rehabilitated pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) from a facility in california (usa). the seals had leukocytosis and high serum phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. a retrospective study of leptospiral antibody serum titers indicated both seals had elevated titers to leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa. a third seal, which died about the time when the index cases occurred, also had elevated titers to l. interrogan ...19989577797
antigenic and nucleotide characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii).this report describes the antigenic and nucleotide characterization of a herpes-like virus that has been isolated from the adrenal tissues of neonatal pacific harbor seals. infection with this virus has been previously implicated as a major cause of death of animals undergoing rehabilitation. comparison and phylogenetic analysis of sequenced fragments of the dna polymerase, glycoprotein b and glycoprotein d genes, and immunofluorescence assay using herpesvirus-specific monoclonal antibodies, dem ...19989856089
meningoencephalitis due to a sarcocystis neurona-like protozoan in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi).seven pacific harbor seals with meningoencephalitis associated with sarcocystis neurona-like protozoa are described. six of the 7 seals were free-ranging and were found stranded over an 80-km stretch of central california coastline; the other was captive. all had marked to severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, most severe in the cerebellar cortex. immunohistochemistry for s. neurona antigens was positive on brain tissue in all cases, revealing numerous merozoites as well as developing and m ...19989920311
characterization of otostrongylus circumlitus from pacific harbor and northern elephant seals.otostrongylus circumlitus (railliet, 1899) from pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) were examined using morphological and molecular methods to determine whether northern elephant seals along the central california coast are infected by the same species of otostrongylus as are pacific harbor seals in the same area. fixed nematodes were examined and measured using light microscopy. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amp ...200111227905
humoral immune responses to phocine herpesvirus-1 in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) during an outbreak of clinical disease.infection with phocine herpesvirus type-1 (phv-1) has been associated with morbidity and high mortality in neonatal harbor seals (phoca vitulina). a phv-1 specific indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to sequentially measure the serological status of 106 harbor seal neonates admitted to a pacific coast rehabilitation center (total number of sera tested was 371). early in the season (february-april), the majority of pups had low serum levels of phv-1 specific antibody. ...200111278118
isolation and characterization of two parasitic protozoa from a pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) with meningoencephalomyelitis.two species of protozoans were isolated from a harbor seal with fatal meninogoencephalitis. serologic reactivity was detected to both sarcocystis neurona and toxoplasma gondii. parasites associated with brain inflammation and necrosis reacted only with immunohistochemical stains utilizing polyclonal antisera raised against sarcocystis neurona. however, 2 distinct parasites were observed in cell cultures derived from the seal's brain tissue. these parasites were separated by mouse passage and lim ...200111534647
seroconversion and abortion in cattle experimentally infected with brucella sp. isolated from a pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi).previously unrecognized brucella species have been isolated from a number of marine mammals, including harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in the puget sound area of the state of washington. because of the presence of dairy herds in proximity to the harbor seal populations, a study was conducted to determine the effects of the harbor seal brucella isolate in experimentally inoculated cattle. six pregnant cattle were exposed by intravenous injection (n = 3) or intraconjunctival inoculation (n ...200111580057
pbdes in the san francisco bay area: measurements in harbor seal blubber and human breast adipose explore the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in california, samples from 11 archived harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) from the san francisco bay and breast adipose tissue samples from 23 women were analyzed. the levels of pbdes in human tissue samples were in the low ng/g fat range, with pbdes 47, 153, 154, 99, and 100 as the major congeners. average sigma pbdes (86 ng/g fat) in these california women are the highest human levels reported to date. an inverse relationshi ...200211999793
characterization and clinical manifestations of arcanobacterium phocae infections in marine mammals stranded along the central california coast.between 1994 and 2000, 141 arcanobacterium phocae isolates were recovered from marine mammals that stranded along the central california coast (usa). arcanobacterium phocae was cultured from tissue sites with abnormal discharge or evidence of inflammation in 66 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 50 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii), 19 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), five southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), and one common dolphin (delphinus d ...200312685077
placentitis due to coxiella burnetii in a pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi). 199912968740
meningoencephalitis associated with an unidentified apicomplexan protozoan in a pacific harbor seal.a pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsii) was found on the central california coast with neurologic signs and labored breathing, which were unresponsive to treatment. necropsy revealed a nonsuppurative necrotizing meningoencephalitis, a multilocular thymic cyst, and nonsuppurative cystitis and renal pyelitis. microscopic examination revealed protozoans in the brain, thymic cyst, and bladder mucosa. ultrastructurally, the protozoal tachyzoites were different from those of neospora caninum ...200314533706
immunoglobulin responses of northern elephant and pacific harbor seals naturally infected with otostrongylus circumlitus.immunoglobulin (ig) binding patterns of pacific harbor seals (phs, phoca vitulina richardsi) and northern elephant seals (nes, mirounga angustirostris) to tissues of adult otostrongylus circumlitus were examined by immunoblotting to investigate the role of age in the unusual response of juvenile nes to infection with o. circumlitus. serum was taken from nes between march 1997 and march 2001 and from phs between may 1996 and august 1999. the serum of seals infected with o. circumlitus contained a ...200415465714
leptospirosis in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded along the california coast.leptospirosis was identified in six northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that were stranded in 1995 along the coast of california (usa). histologic lesions in all seals included tubulointerstitial nephritis with tubular degeneration and necrosis. infection was confirmed through identification of spirochetes using an immunohistochemical stain for leptospira sp. antigens. one affected seal had an elevated titer to leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. four of the six seals developed ...200516107678
congenital hemicerebral anomaly in a stranded pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi).a stranded 5-month-old female pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) was presented displaying tachypnea and diminished lung sounds. no neurological abnormalities were noted. the animal was treated for verminous pneumonia, but died 2 wk later. gross necropsy examination revealed a severe obstructive verminous pneumonia associated with large numbers of otostrongylus circumlitus. in addition, the majority of the right cerebral hemisphere was absent, with hypoplasia of the left cerebellar he ...200516244081
serologic survey for brucella spp., phocid herpesvirus-1, phocid herpesvirus-2, and phocine distemper virus in harbor seals from alaska, 1976-1999.harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) were captured in the coastal regions of southeast alaska, gulf of alaska, prince william sound (pws), and kodiak island during 1976-1999. blood was collected from 286 seals. sera were tested for evidence of exposure to brucella spp., phocid herpesvirus-1 (phohv-1), phocid herpesvirus-2 (phhv-2), and phocine distemper virus (pdv). antibody prevalence rates were 46% (46/100) for brucella spp., 93% (225/243) for phohv-1, 0% (0/286) for phhv-2, and 1% (2/160) ...200616870851
acute lead toxicosis in a harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) consequent to ingestion of a lead fishing adult female harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) stranded in northern california on 25 june 2004, exhibited progressive weakness, disorientation, and seizures, and despite therapy, died within 4 days. on pathologic examination, a lead fishing sinker was in the stomach, and changes in the brain, heart, kidney, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen were supportive of acute lead toxicosis. the diagnosis was made on the basis of concentrations of lead in the sinker (90-98% lead), antemortem whole blo ...200617092897
novel and canine genotypes of giardia duodenalis in harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi).feces of harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) and hybrid glaucous-winged/western gulls (larus glaucescens / occidentalis) from washington state's inland marine waters were examined for giardia and cryptosporidium spp. to determine if genotypes carried by these wildlife species were the same genotypes that commonly infect humans and domestic animals. using immunomagnetic separation followed by direct fluorescent antibody detection, giardia spp. cysts were detected in 42% of seal fecal samples ...200818576720
the identification of a new giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of g. duodenalis population biology in marine systems.giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. the presence of g. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off and droppings from terrestrial animals. recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the faeces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. to explore the population biology of g. duoden ...201020361967
pathology and epidemiology of phocid herpesvirus-1 in wild and rehabilitating harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in the northeastern pacific.phocid herpesvirus-1 (phhv-1, subfamily alphaherpesvirinae) was isolated from harbor seals (phoca vitulina vitulina) in the netherlands in 1985, and was subsequently identified in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) from california, usa in the 1990s. phhv-1-associated pathology was first recognized in harbor seal carcasses submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in abbotsford, british columbia, canada in 2000, and 63 cases were identified by 2008. a review of these cases indi ...201020688721
metagenomic identification of a novel anellovirus in pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsii) lung samples and its detection in samples from multiple investigate viral pathogens potentially involved in a mortality event of 21 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) in california in 2000, viral metagenomics was performed directly on lung samples from five individuals. metagenomics revealed a novel seal anellovirus (sealav), which clusters phylogenetically with anelloviruses from california sea lions and domestic cats. using specific pcr, sealav was identified in lung tissue from two of five animals involved in the 2000 mortality ev ...201121402596
brucella pinnipedialis infections in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) from washington state, 1994 a novel brucella sp., later named b. pinnipedialis, was identified in stranded harbor seals (phoca vitulina). this brucella sp. is a potential zoonotic pathogen and is capable of causing disease in domestic animals. serologic, microbiologic, and pathologic data collected from live captured and stranded harbor seals were used to better describe the epizootiology of b. pinnipedialis in harbor seals from washington state, usa, in 1994 through 2006. we found no sex predilection in harbor sea ...201324502708
infectious disease and toxicological monitoring of stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in cook inlet as surrogates for monitoring endangered belugas (delphinapterus leucas).pacific harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in cook inlet, alaska. although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. in recent years, harbor seal populations in alaska have declined for unknown reasons. as part of its strand ...201627691941
coxiella burnetii infection of marine mammals in the pacific northwest, 1997-2010.q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium coxiella burnetii. humans are commonly exposed via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria derived from the waste products of domesticated sheep and goats, and particularly from products generated during parturition. however, many other species can be infected with c. burnetii, and the host range and full zoonotic potential of c. burnetii is unknown. two cases of c. burnetii infection in marine mammal placenta have been reported, but it is not kno ...201222247392
coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the central california, usa coast: 1998-2012.a wide range of systemic mycoses have been reported from captive and wild marine mammals from north america. examples include regionally endemic pathogens such as coccidioides and blastomyces spp., and novel pathogens like cryptococcus gattii, which appear may have been introduced to north america by humans. stranding and necropsy data were analyzed from three marine mammal stranding and response facilities on the central california coast to assess the prevalence, host demographics, and lesion d ...201525647598
dynamics of vibrio with virulence genes detected in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) off california: implications for marine mammal health.given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including vibrio that may affect their health. to understand vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent vibrio in free-ranging and stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) off california. vibri ...201323392641
findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern california coast, 1984-1990.personnel at the marine mammal center (the center) treated 1,446 stranded marine mammals recovered from the central and northern california (usa) coast from 1984 through 1990, including california sea lions (zalophus californianus), northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi), northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), and guadalupe fur seals (arctocephalus townsendi). the primary disease findings in st ...19938355344
linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.we propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. we applied our reproduction and somatic survival linked (rssl) method to the population counts of three species of north pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, phoca vitulina richardii (gray, 1864); northern fur seals, ...201324324541
individual-based energetic model suggests bottom up mechanisms for the impact of coastal hypoxia on pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) foraging behavior.wind-driven coastal hypoxia represents an environmental stressor that has the potential to drive redistribution of gilled marine organisms, and thereby indirectly affect the foraging characteristics of air-breathing upper trophic-level predators. we used a conceptual individual-based model to simulate effects of coastal hypoxia on the spatial foraging behavior and efficiency of a marine mammal, the pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) on the oregon coast. habitat compression of fish wa ...201728082128
interactions of marine mammals and birds with offshore membrane enclosures for growing algae (omega).omega is an integrated aquatic system to produce biofuels, treat and recycle wastewater, capture co2, and expand aquaculture production. this system includes floating photobioreactors (pbrs) that will cover hundreds of hectares in marine bays. to assess the interactions of marine mammals and birds with pbrs, 9 × 1.3 m flat panel and 9.5 × 0.2 m tubular pbrs were deployed in a harbor and monitored day and night from october 10, 2011 to janurary 22, 2012 using infrared video. to observe interactio ...201424955238
plasma angiotensin ii, arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in free ranging and captive seals and sea lions.we used radioimmunoassay methods to quantify arginine vasopressin (avp), atrial natriuretic peptide (anp), and angiotensin ii (ang ii) in plasma samples from harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii), weddell seals (leptonychotes weddellii), northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), ringed seals (phoca hispida), california sea lions (zalophus californianus), and steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus). plasma concentrations of avp, anp, and ang ii in these pinniped species were within the ...19989568367
pelodera strongyloides infection in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) from biopsies were collected from free-ranging harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) from central california (n = 53). microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections revealed the presence of tightly coiled nematode larvae within the ostia of numerous hair follicles of four seals. parasites were characterized by paired lateral alae, platymyarian musculature, and an indistinct, uninucleate digestive tract. mild chronic superficial dermatitis and perifolliculitis were ev ...201324063118
perfluoroalkyl compounds (pfcs) in wildlife from an urban estuary.previous research has documented the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl compounds (pfcs) in apex predators in remote locations but few studies have evaluated urban estuaries. to assess the importance of pfcs in san francisco bay, two apex predators in the san francisco bay, double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) and pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii), were sampled. prey fish (atherinops affinis and menidia audens) were also evaluated to better understand potential sources ...201222134832
evaluation of viruses and their association with ocular lesions in pinnipeds in assess whether corneal lesions in stranded pinnipeds were associated with viral infections, and to identify the potential pathogen(s) associated with the lesions.201525400019
skin histology and its role in heat dissipation in three pinniped species.pinnipeds have a thick blubber layer and may have difficulty maintaining their body temperature during hot weather when on land. the skin is the main thermoregulatory conduit which emits excessive body heat.201222889205
restoration of parafilaroides (dougherty, 1946) (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) with description of two new species from pinnipeds of eastern central pacific.the lungs of a northern elephant seal, mirounga angustirostris (gill, 1866), and pacific harbor seal, phoca vitulina richardii (gray, 1864), from the eastern central pacific, central california coast, were examined for parasites. this represents the first thorough description and identification of parafilaroides species from northern elephant seals and pacific harbor seals on the west coast of north america. from this study, 2 new species of filaroides (parafilaroides) are described, illustrated ...200616884003
first findings of cryptosporidium and giardia in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).we report the detection and identification of cryptosporidium and giardia from 1 of 3 species of pinnipeds. fecal samples were collected from pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi), northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris), and california sea lion (zalophus californianus) in the northern california coastal area. by means of fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies, cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 3 samples from california sea lions, 1 of which also contained giardia c ...200010864244
california sea lion (zalophus californianus) and harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) bites and contact abrasions in open-water swimmers: a series of 11 review cases of bites and contact abrasions in open-water swimmers from california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii).201526507612
classification of underwater vocalizations of wild spotted seals (phoca largha) in liaodong bay, china.underwater vocalizations were recorded and classified from wild spotted seals (phoca largha) in liaodong bay, china. the spotted seals exhibited an extensive underwater vocal repertoire but with limited complexity. four major call types, representing 77.8% of all calls recorded, were identified using multivariate analyses of ten acoustic parameters; knock, growl, drum, and sweep. the calls were relatively brief (12-270 ms, mean of -10 db duration) pulsating sounds of low-frequency (peak frequenc ...201728372138
coronary blood flow and myocardial segment dimensions during simulated dives in seals.three harbor seals phoca vitulina richardsi and five spotted seals phoca vitulina largha were used in studies of acute episodes of local myocardial ischemia in open-chest, anesthetized animals and of coronary blood flow and regional function as indicated by left ventricular segment dimensions during experimentally simulated dives of conscious, instrumented animals. we observed that seal myocardium, in which there are few coronary anastomoses, responded to brief local occlusion with prompt local ...19854073282
intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in three rehabilitated harbor seal pups.pinnipeds, including many phocid species of concern, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using conventional, externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into three stranded pacific harbor seal pups (phoca vitulina richardii) that completed rehabilitation, to evaluate the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of life long telemetry devices in phocids. the l ...201728545460
quantification and analysis of icebergs in a tidewater glacier fjord using an object-based approach.tidewater glaciers are glaciers that terminate in, and calve icebergs into, the ocean. in addition to the influence that tidewater glaciers have on physical and chemical oceanography, floating icebergs serve as habitat for marine animals such as harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii). the availability and spatial distribution of glacier ice in the fjords is likely a key environmental variable that influences the abundance and distribution of selected marine mammals; however, the amount of ice a ...201627828967
phenomenal advanced age of pupping in a captive pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi).to better define the life history in the captive environment, we describe the reproductive history and advanced age of pupping of a female pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) at the henry vilas zoo (hvz) in madison, wisconsin. this female gave birth to a viable pup on may 16, 2012, at the age of 42 years and is the oldest documented birth reported for this species. this female also demonstrated high temporal fidelity to her previously described birth timing. the pup's sire was also 42 ...201526452165
aphakic phacoemulsification and automated anterior vitrectomy, and postreturn monitoring of a rehabilitated harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) pup.a female harbor seal pup rescued along the coast of san diego on 13 june 2012 was diagnosed with bilateral mature cataracts, apparently congenital, in association with vitreal herniation in the anterior chamber of each eye. the cataracts were surgically removed on 1 august 2012 with single-port aphakic phacoemulsification and automated anterior vitrectomy. postoperative monitoring during the next several weeks indicated that vision had been functionally repaired and that she could visually orien ...201526352980
dental and temporomandibular joint pathology of the eastern pacific harbour seal (phoca vitulina richardii).skulls from 214 eastern pacific harbour seals (phoca vitulina richardii) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. the museum specimens were acquired from strandings along the west coast of the usa between 1909 and 2014. ninety-eight skulls (45.8%) were from male animals, 108 (50.5%) from female animals and eight (3.7%) from animals of unknown sex. their age varied from neonate to adult, with 101 adult animals (47.2%), 93 juvenile animals (43.5%) and 20 neonatal animals (9. ...201525824118
blood and hair mercury concentrations in the pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) pup: associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes.monomethylmercury (mehg(+)) is an environmental pollutant, which at sufficiently high exposures, has induced neurotoxicosis in several animal species, including humans. adverse neurological effects due to gestational exposure are of particular concern as mehg(+) readily crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers. the degree to which environmental concentrations in marine prey affect free-living piscivorous wildlife, however, remains largely undetermined. we examined associations of gestation ...201525814195
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in six harbor seals (phoca vitulina spp.).six cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were identified in six captive adult pacific (phoca vitulina richardsii; n = 2) and atlantic (phoca vitulina concolor; n = 4) harbor seals. these seals presented with intermittent dysphagia, regurgitation, inappetence, and abnormal posturing. common clinical pathology findings in these seals included azotemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, and leukocytosis. gastrointestinal endoscopy commonly revealed an ulcerated mass near the gastroesophag ...201425314830
immune status and function in harbor seal pups during the course of rehabilitation.routine hematological and serum chemistry parameters are important tools for the evaluation of health and the treatment of marine mammals admitted to rehabilitation centers. the evaluation of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and immunoglobulin g (igg), as markers of immune system function, and haptoglobin (hp), as a stress marker, were evaluated alongside routine hematology and chemistry as potentially informative diagnostic tools for marine mammal health assessments. blood samples from harbor seal ...201323866720
post-breeding season migrations of a top predator, the harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii), from a marine protected area in alaska.marine protected areas (mpas) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservation. glacier bay national park, alaska, i ...201323457468
organic halogenated contaminants in mother-fetus pairs of harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) from alaska, 2000-2002.this study measured organochlorine pesticides (ocps) including hexachlorocyclohexanes (hchs), hexachlorobenzene (hcb), heptachlor and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (ddts), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in tissues of six mother-fetus pairs of harbor seals that were hunted for subsistence in alaska waters of the northern pacific ocean. these data suggest that significant amounts of these contaminants were transfe ...201222579763
congenital neuroglial heterotopia in a neonatal harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi ) with evidence of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.a male neonatal pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) stranded off the coast of california, usa, was presented for rehabilitation with numerous partially haired, soft tissue masses around the mouth and in the oropharynx. because of the extent of the lesions, the seal was humanely euthanized. histologically, the masses consisted of subepithelial connective tissue and subcutis expanded by a proliferation of streams and bundles of spindle to stellate cells. morphology of these cells sugges ...201121270017
detection of a respiratory coronavirus from tissues archived during a pneumonia epizootic in free-ranging pacific harbor seals phoca vitulina june 2000, 21 adult harbor seals phoca vitulina richardsii were found dead along a localized section of the central california coast. necropsy of 5 fresh carcasses revealed pulmonary congestion, consolidation, and hemorrhage. histopathological changes in lungs from 2 of these seals included a necrotizing lymphocytic and histocytic lobar pneumonia with intra-lesional bacteria. a coronavirus (cov) was detected in archived tissues from 1 of the 5 seals via a degenerate pcr for nidoviral rna-depe ...201020662367
total mercury body burden in pacific harbor seal, phoca vitulina richardii, pups from central determine body and tissue compartment-specific burdens (mg) of total mercury (thg), tissues were weighed and analyzed for thg concentration (microg/g fw) in pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) pups from central california in 2006. thg concentrations were related as follows: hair > liver = kidney = pelt > muscle > other = heart > brain > blubber > bone. thg burden, however, was related as: pelt = muscle > liver = other > kidney = blubber > brain = heart > bone. thg concentration and ...200818061626
cytochrome p450 1a expression and organochlorine contaminants in harbour seals (phoca vitulina): evaluating a biopsy approach.we previously reported in vivo induction of cytochrome p450 1a (cyp1a) by beta-naphthoflavone in skin and liver biopsies of captive harbour seals (phoca vitulina richardsi). the present study evaluated cyp1a expression (immunoblot analysis and ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase activity-erod) in harbour seals using two study designs: i) skin and liver biopsies from 20 harbour seal pups captured from coastal british columbia (bc, canada) and temporarily housed in captivity; and ii) skin biopsies from 4 ...200717289438
trace element concentrations in the pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) in central and northern determine concentrations of trace elements (thg, mehg, se, and pb) in tissues of the pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii), live (n=186) and dead seals (n=53) were sampled throughout central and northern california from march 2003 to january 2005. there were significant differences in thg concentrations in blood and hair based on age (p<0.001). adult male harbor seals had greater thg concentrations in their hair than adult female harbor seals (p<0.003). thg concentrations in liver in ...200717126888
vocal development in captive harbor seal pups, phoca vitulina richardii: age, sex, and individual differences.the goal of this research was to determine when harbor seal pup vocalizations become sufficiently distinctive to allow individual recognition. a total of 4593 calls were analyzed from 15 captive pups. nineteen were harsh, broadband, staccato calls used in an aggressive context. the rest were tonal "mother attraction calls," having an inverted "v"- or "u"-shaped spectrogram with harmonics and a fundamental frequency around 200-600 hz. calls were individually distinctive even in pups less than 2 w ...200617004489
respiratory chemosensitivity during wake and sleep in harbour seal pups (phoca vitulina richardsii).in this study, we examined the cardiorespiratory patterns of harbour seal pups under normoxic/normocarbic (air), hypoxic/normocarbic (15%, 12%, and 9% o2 in air), and normoxic/hypercarbic (2%, 4%, and 6% co2 in air) conditions while awake and sleeping on land. animals were chronically instrumented to record electroencephalogram (eeg), electromyogram (emg), and electrocardiogram (ekg) signals, which, along with respiration (whole-body plethysmography) and oxygen consumption (vo2), were recorded f ...201615547802
hematology and serum chemistry comparisons between free-ranging and rehabilitated harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) pups.the objectives of this study were to compare the hematology and serum chemistry values between free-ranging and stranded harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi) pups and to ascertain how blood values of stranded pups changed during the rehabilitation process. coincident with these comparisons, reference values were obtained for free-ranging pups. stranded harbor seal pups (n = 28) recovered from areas between pebble beach and moss landing, california (usa) were admitted to the marine mammal cente ...200314567222
toxic elements and organochlorines in harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi), kodiak, alaska, usa. 19921504518
lymphosarcoma in a harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii).lymphosarcoma is described in a wild juvenile harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii). gross lesions included hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. neoplastic lymphoid cells were observed histologically in lung, kidney, liver, spleen, adrenals, bone marrow and visceral and peripheral lymph nodes.19806893610
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